Threat News Ledger

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The following is the most recent public Cyber Threat news posted on Website

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Security Affairs

Read, think, share … Security is everyone's responsibility

Last feed update: Saturday March 9th, 2019 01:06:48 AM

FBI informed software giant Citrix of a security breach

Friday March 8th, 2019 10:52:39 PM Pierluigi Paganini
The American multinational software company Citrix disclosed a security breach, according to the firm an international cyber criminals gang gained access to its internal network. The American multinational software company Citrix is the last victim of a security breach, according to the company an international cyber criminal gang gained access to its internal network, Hackers […] The post FBI informed software giant Citrix of a security breach appeared first on Security Affairs.

Evading AV with JavaScript Obfuscation

Friday March 8th, 2019 12:41:33 PM Pierluigi Paganini
A few days ago, Cybaze-Yoroi ZLAB researchers spotted a suspicious JavaScript file that implemented several techniques to evade detection of all AV solutions. Introduction A few days ago, Cybaze-Yoroi ZLAB researchers spotted a suspicious JavaScript file needing further attention: it leveraged several techniques in order to evade all AV detection and no one of the […] The post Evading AV with JavaScript Obfuscation appeared first on Security Affairs.

Google discloses Windows zero-day actively exploited in targeted attacks

Friday March 8th, 2019 11:11:42 AM Pierluigi Paganini
Google this week revealed a Windows zero-day that is being actively exploited in targeted attacks alongside a recently fixed Chrome flaw. Google this week disclosed a Windows zero-day vulnerability that is being actively exploited in targeted attacks alongside a recently addressed flaw in Chrome flaw (CVE-2019-5786). The Windows zero-day vulnerability is a local privilege escalation […] The post Google discloses Windows zero-day actively exploited in targeted attacks appeared first on Security Affairs.

Zerodium $500,000 for VMware ESXi, Microsoft Hyper-V Exploits

Friday March 8th, 2019 09:09:02 AM Pierluigi Paganini
Zero-day broker firm Zerodium is offering up to $500,000 for VMware ESXi (vSphere) and Microsoft Hyper-V vulnerabilities. Exploit acquisition firm Zerodium is offering up to $500,000 for VMware ESXi and Microsoft Hyper-V vulnerabilities. The company is looking for exploits that allow guest-to-host escapes in default configurations to gain full access to the host. The overall […] The post Zerodium $500,000 for VMware ESXi, Microsoft Hyper-V Exploits appeared first on Security Affairs.

Research confirms rampant sale of SSL/TLS certificates on darkweb

Friday March 8th, 2019 07:35:15 AM Pierluigi Paganini
A study conducted by academics discovered that SSL and TLS certificates and associated services can be easily acquired from dark web marketplaces. A study sponsored by Venafi and conducted by researchers from Georgia State University in the U.S. and the University of Surrey in the U.K. discovered that SSL and TLS certificates and associated services […] The post Research confirms rampant sale of SSL/TLS certificates on darkweb appeared first on Security Affairs.

Cisco security updates fix dozens of flaws in Nexus Switches

Thursday March 7th, 2019 08:39:58 PM Pierluigi Paganini
Cisco released security updates to address over two dozen serious vulnerabilities affecting the Cisco Nexus switches. Cisco released security updates to address over two dozen serious vulnerabilities affecting the Cisco Nexus switches, including denial-of-service (DoS) issues, arbitrary code execution and privilege escalation flaws. Cisco published security advisories for most of the vulnerabilities, many of them impact the […] The post Cisco security updates fix dozens of flaws in Nexus Switches appeared first on Security Affairs.

StealthWorker Malware Uses Windows, Linux Bots to Hack Websites

Thursday March 7th, 2019 03:26:39 PM Pierluigi Paganini
Security experts at FortiGuard uncovered a new malware campaign aimed at delivering the StealthWorker brute-force malware. The malicious code targets both Windows and Linux systems, compromised systems are used to carry out brute force attacks along with other infected systems. The malicious code was first discovered by Malwarebytes at the end of February and tracked […] The post StealthWorker Malware Uses Windows, Linux Bots to Hack Websites appeared first on Security Affairs.

Microsoft warns of economic damages caused by Iran-linked hackers

Thursday March 7th, 2019 11:55:54 AM Pierluigi Paganini
Researchers at Microsoft warn of damages caused by cyber operations conducted by Iran-linked cyberespionage groups. Security experts at Microsoft are warning of economic damages caused by the activity of Iran-linked hacking groups that are working to penetrate systems, businesses, and governments worldwide. According to Microsoft, the attackers already caused hundreds of millions of dollars in […] The post Microsoft warns of economic damages caused by Iran-linked hackers appeared first on Security Affairs.

Too much UPnP-enabled connected devices still vulnerable to cyber attacks

Thursday March 7th, 2019 09:56:14 AM Pierluigi Paganini
UPnP-enabled devices running outdated software are exposed to a wide range of attacks exploiting known flaws in UPnP libraries. A broad range of UPnP-enabled devices running outdated software are exposed to attacks exploiting known flaws in UPnP libraries, Tony Yang, Home Network Researcher, has found 1,648,769 devices using the Shodan search engine, 35% were using […] The post Too much UPnP-enabled connected devices still vulnerable to cyber attacks appeared first on Security Affairs.

Whitefly espionage group was linked to SingHealth Singapore Healthcare Breach

Thursday March 7th, 2019 07:39:31 AM Pierluigi Paganini
Security experts at Symantec linked the massive Singapore Healthcare breach suffered by SingHealth to the ‘Whitefly’ cyberespionage group. In 2018, the largest healthcare group in Singapore, SingHealth, has suffered a massive data breach that exposed personal information of 1.5 million patients who visited the clinics of the company between May 2015 and July 2018. Stolen […] The post Whitefly espionage group was linked to SingHealth Singapore Healthcare Breach appeared first on Security Affairs.


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WeLiveSecurity

WeLiveSecurity

Last feed update: Sunday April 21st, 2024 04:46:36 PM

Protecting yourself after a medical data breach – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday April 19th, 2024 01:14:39 PM
What are the risks and consequences of having your health data exposed and what are the steps to take if it happens to you?

The many faces of impersonation fraud: Spot an imposter before it’s too late

Thursday April 18th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
What are some of the most common giveaway signs that the person behind the screen or on the other end of the line isn’t who they claim to be?

The ABCs of how online ads can impact children’s well-being

Tuesday April 16th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
From promoting questionable content to posing security risks, inappropriate ads present multiple dangers for children. Here’s how to help them stay safe.

eXotic Visit includes XploitSPY malware – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday April 12th, 2024 02:05:06 PM
Almost 400 people in India and Pakistan have fallen victim to an ongoing Android espionage campaign called eXotic Visit

Bitcoin scams, hacks and heists – and how to avoid them

Monday April 15th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Here’s how cybercriminals target cryptocurrencies and how you can keep your bitcoin or other crypto safe

Beyond fun and games: Exploring privacy risks in children’s apps

Thursday April 11th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Should children’s apps come with ‘warning labels’? Here's how to make sure your children's digital playgrounds are safe places to play and learn.

The devil is in the fine print – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday April 5th, 2024 11:58:04 AM
Temu's cash giveaway where people were asked to hand over vast amounts of their personal data to the platform puts the spotlight on the data-slurping practices of online services today

RDP remains a security concern – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 29th, 2024 10:24:50 AM
Much has been written about the risks that poorly-secured RDP connections entail, but many organizations continue to leave themselves at risk and get hit by data breaches as a result

How often should you change your passwords?

Wednesday April 3rd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
And is that actually the right question to ask? Here’s what else you should consider when it comes to keeping your accounts safe.

Malware hiding in pictures? More likely than you think

Tuesday April 2nd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
There is more to some images than meets the eye – their seemingly innocent façade can mask a sinister threat.

AceCryptor attacks surge in Europe – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 22nd, 2024 12:21:34 PM
The second half of 2023 saw massive growth in AceCryptor-packed malware spreading in the wild, including courtesy of multiple spam campaigns where AceCryptor packed the Rescoms RAT

Borrower beware: Common loan scams and how to avoid them

Tuesday March 26th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Personal loan scams prey on your financial vulnerability and might even trap you in a vicious circle of debt. Here’s how to avoid being scammed when considering a loan.

Cybercriminals play dirty: A look back at 10 cyber hits on the sporting world

Thursday March 28th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
This rundown of 10 cyberattacks against the sports industry shows why every team needs to keep its eyes on the ball when it comes to cybersecurity

Cybersecurity starts at home: Help your children stay safe online with open conversations

Monday March 25th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Struggle to know how to help children and teens stay safe in cyberspace? A good ol’ fashioned chat is enough to put them on the right track.

A prescription for privacy protection: Exercise caution when using a mobile health app

Tuesday March 19th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Given the unhealthy data-collection habits of some mHealth apps, you’re well advised to tread carefully when choosing with whom you share some of your most sensitive data

Healthcare still a prime target for cybercrime gangs – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 15th, 2024 11:20:38 AM
Healthcare organizations remain firmly in attackers' crosshairs, representing 20 percent of all victims of ransomware attacks among critical infrastructure entities in the US in 2023

Threat intelligence explained | Unlocked 403: A cybersecurity podcast

Thursday March 14th, 2024 01:30:00 PM
We break down the fundamentals of threat intelligence and its role in anticipating and countering emerging threats

Rescoms rides waves of AceCryptor spam

Wednesday March 20th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Insight into ESET telemetry statistics about AceCryptor in H2 2023 with a focus on Rescoms campaigns in European countries

How to share sensitive files securely online

Wednesday March 13th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Here are a few tips for secure file transfers and what else to consider when sharing sensitive documents so that your data remains safe

APT attacks taking aim at Tibetans – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 8th, 2024 12:35:22 PM
Evasive Panda has been spotted targeting Tibetans in several countries and territories with payloads that included a previously undocumented backdoor ESET has named Nightdoor

Election cybersecurity: Protecting the ballot box and building trust in election integrity

Tuesday March 12th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
What cyberthreats could wreak havoc on elections this year and how worried should we as voters be about the integrity of our voting systems?

Top 10 scams targeting seniors – and how to keep your money safe

Wednesday March 6th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
The internet can be a wonderful place. But it’s also awash with fraudsters preying on people who are susceptible to fraud.

Irresistible: Hooks, habits and why you can’t put down your phone

Tuesday March 5th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Struggle to part ways with your tech? You’re not alone. Here’s why your devices are your vices.

Deceptive AI content and 2024 elections – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 1st, 2024 11:18:36 AM
As the specter of AI-generated disinformation looms large, tech giants vow to crack down on fabricated content that could sway voters and disrupt elections taking place around the world this year

Evasive Panda leverages Monlam Festival to target Tibetans

Thursday March 7th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
ESET researchers uncover strategic web compromise and supply-chain attacks targeting Tibetans

eXotic Visit campaign: Tracing the footprints of Virtual Invaders

Wednesday April 10th, 2024 10:31:20 AM
ESET researchers uncovered the eXotic Visit espionage campaign that targets users mainly in India and Pakistan with seemingly innocuous apps

Vulnerabilities in business VPNs under the spotlight

Wednesday February 28th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
As adversaries increasingly set their sights on vulnerable enterprise VPN software to infiltrate corporate networks, concerns mount about VPNs themselves being a source of cyber risk

PSYOP campaigns targeting Ukraine – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday February 23rd, 2024 12:32:29 PM
Coming in two waves, the campaign sought to demoralize Ukrainians and Ukrainian speakers abroad with disinformation messages about war-related subjects

10 things to avoid posting on social media – and why

Monday February 26th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Do you often take to social media to broadcast details from your life? Here’s why this habit may put your privacy and security at risk.

Cyber-insurance and vulnerability scanning – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday February 16th, 2024 02:05:01 PM
Here's how the results of vulnerability scans factor into decisions on cyber-insurance and how human intelligence comes into play in the assessment of such digital signals

What is AI, really? | Unlocked 403: A cybersecurity podcast

Thursday February 15th, 2024 03:32:31 PM
Artificial intelligence is on everybody’s lips these days, but there are also many misconceptions about what AI actually is and isn’t. We unpack AI's basics, applications and broader implications.

Operation Texonto: Information operation targeting Ukrainian speakers in the context of the war

Wednesday February 21st, 2024 05:00:00 AM
A mix of PSYOPs, espionage and … fake Canadian pharmacies!

Everything you need to know about IP grabbers

Thursday February 22nd, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Unsuspecting users beware, IP grabbers do not ask for your permission.

Watching out for the fakes: How to spot online disinformation

Tuesday February 20th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Why and how are we subjected to so much disinformation nowadays, and is there a way to spot the fakes?

Ransomware payments hit a record high in 2023 – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday February 9th, 2024 01:46:14 PM
Called a "watershed year for ransomware", 2023 marked a reversal from the decline in ransomware payments observed in the previous year

Deepfakes in the global election year of 2024: A weapon of mass deception?

Tuesday February 13th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
As fabricated images, videos and audio clips of real people go mainstream, the prospect of a firehose of AI-powered disinformation is a cause for mounting concern

7 reasons why cybercriminals want your personal data

Monday April 8th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Here's what drives cybercriminals to relentlessly target the personal information of other people – and why you need to guard your data like your life depends on it

Blue Team toolkit: 6 open-source tools to assess and enhance corporate defenses

Thursday February 29th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Here’s how the blue team wards off red teamers and a few open-source tools it may leverage to identify chinks in the corporate armor

Grandoreiro banking malware disrupted – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday February 2nd, 2024 01:47:24 PM
The banking trojan, which targeted mostly Brazil, Mexico and Spain, blocked the victim’s screen, logged keystrokes, simulated mouse and keyboard activity and displayed fake pop-up windows

The buck stops here: Why the stakes are high for CISOs

Thursday February 8th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Heavy workloads and the specter of personal liability for incidents take a toll on security leaders, so much so that many of them look for the exits. What does this mean for corporate cyber-defenses?

Could your Valentine be a scammer? How to avoid getting caught in a bad romance

Monday February 5th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
With Valentine’s Day almost upon us, here’s some timely advice on how to prevent scammers from stealing more than your heart

ESET Research Podcast: ChatGPT, the MOVEit hack, and Pandora

Wednesday January 31st, 2024 10:30:00 AM
An AI chatbot inadvertently kindles a cybercrime boom, ransomware bandits plunder organizations without deploying ransomware, and a new botnet enslaves Android TV boxes

ESET takes part in global operation to disrupt the Grandoreiro banking trojan

Tuesday January 30th, 2024 11:30:00 AM
ESET provided technical analysis, statistical information, known C&C servers and was able to get a glimpse of the victimology

Blackwood hijacks software updates to deploy NSPX30 – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday January 26th, 2024 01:39:32 PM
The previously unknown threat actor used the implant to target Chinese and Japanese companies, as well as individuals in China, Japan, and the UK

Cyber: The Swiss army knife of tradecraft

Monday January 29th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
In today’s digitally interconnected world, advanced cyber capabilities have become an exceptionally potent and versatile tool of tradecraft for nation-states and criminals alike

VajraSpy: A Patchwork of espionage apps

Thursday February 1st, 2024 10:30:00 AM
ESET researchers discovered several Android apps carrying VajraSpy, a RAT used by the Patchwork APT group

Assessing and mitigating supply chain cybersecurity risks

Thursday January 25th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Blindly trusting your partners and suppliers on their security posture is not sustainable – it’s time to take control through effective supplier risk management

Why many CISOs consider quitting – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday January 19th, 2024 03:11:49 PM
The job of a CISO is becoming increasingly stressful as cybersecurity chiefs face overwhelming workloads and growing concerns over personal liability for security failings

Break the fake: The race is on to stop AI voice cloning scams

Tuesday January 23rd, 2024 10:30:00 AM
As AI-powered voice cloning turbocharges imposter scams, we sit down with ESET’s Jake Moore to discuss how to hang up on ‘hi-fi’ scam calls – and what the future holds for deepfake detection

NSPX30: A sophisticated AitM-enabled implant evolving since 2005

Wednesday January 24th, 2024 03:00:00 PM
ESET researchers have discovered NSPX30, a sophisticated implant used by a new China-aligned APT group we have named Blackwood

Virtual kidnapping: How to see through this terrifying scam

Thursday January 18th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Phone fraud takes a frightening twist as fraudsters can tap into AI to cause serious emotional and financial damage to the victims

Is Temu safe? What to know before you ‘shop like a billionaire’

Wednesday January 17th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Here are some scams you may encounter on the shopping juggernaut, plus a few simple steps you can take to help safeguard your data while bagging that irresistible deal

The 7 deadly cloud security sins – and how SMBs can do things better

Tuesday January 16th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
By eliminating these mistakes and blind spots, your organization can take massive strides towards optimizing its use of cloud without exposing itself to cyber-risk

Lessons from SEC's X account hack – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday January 12th, 2024 02:17:04 PM
The cryptocurrency rollercoaster never fails to provide a thrilling ride – this week it was a drama surrounding the hack of SEC's X account right ahead of the much-anticipated decision about Bitcoin ETFs

Attack of the copycats: How fake messaging apps and app mods could bite you

Wednesday January 10th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
WhatsApp, Telegram and Signal clones and mods remain a popular vehicle for malware distribution. Don’t get taken for a ride.

Love is in the AI: Finding love online takes on a whole new meaning

Tuesday January 9th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Is AI companionship the future of not-so-human connection – and even the cure for loneliness?

Cybersecurity trends and challenges to watch out for in 2024 – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday January 5th, 2024 01:20:57 PM
What are some of the key cybersecurity trends that people and organizations should have on their radars this year?

Lost and found: How to locate your missing devices and more

Thursday January 4th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Losing your keys, your wallet – or anything else, really – can be a pain, but there is a wide world of trackers that can help you locate your missing things – with awesome accuracy

Cracking the 2023 SANS Holiday Hack Challenge

Saturday January 6th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
From ChatNPT to Game Boys and space apps, this year’s challenge took us to the Geese Islands for another rollicking romp of fun

The art of digital sleuthing: How digital forensics unlocks the truth

Wednesday February 14th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Learn how the cyber variety of CSI works, from sizing up the crime scene and hunting for clues to piecing together the story that the data has to tell

A peek behind the curtain: How are sock puppet accounts used in OSINT?

Thursday January 11th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
How wearing a ‘sock puppet’ can aid the collection of open source intelligence while insulating the ‘puppeteer’ from risks

Key findings from ESET Threat Report H2 2023 – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday December 22nd, 2023 10:50:20 AM
How cybercriminals take advantage of the popularity of ChatGPT and other tools of its ilk to direct people to sketchy sites, plus other interesting findings from ESET's latest Threat Report

A year in review: 10 of the biggest security incidents of 2023

Thursday December 28th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
As we draw the curtain on another eventful year in cybersecurity, let’s review some of the high-profile cyber-incidents that befell various organizations this year

Got a new device? 7 things to do before disposing of your old tech

Wednesday December 27th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Before getting rid of your no-longer-needed device, make sure it doesn’t contain any of your personal documents or information

Safeguard the joy: 10 tips for securing your shiny new device

Thursday December 21st, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Unwrapping a new gadget this holiday season will put a big smile on your face but things may quickly turn sour if the device and data on it aren’t secured properly

New iOS feature to thwart eavesdropping – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday December 15th, 2023 02:27:39 PM
Your iPhone has just received a new feature called iMessage Contact Key Verification that is designed to help protect your messages from prying eyes

ESET Threat Report H2 2023

Tuesday December 19th, 2023 10:27:56 AM
A view of the H2 2023 threat landscape as seen by ESET telemetry and from the perspective of ESET threat detection and research experts

These aren’t the Androids you should be looking for

Wednesday December 20th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
You may get more than you bargained for when you buy a budget-friendly smartphone and forgo safeguards baked into Google Play

ESET Research Podcast: Neanderthals, Mammoths and Telekopye

Monday December 18th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
ESET researchers discuss the dynamics within and between various groups of scammers who use a Telegram bot called Telekopye to scam people on online marketplaces

Black Hat Europe 2023: Should we regulate AI?

Monday December 11th, 2023 01:00:00 PM
ChatGPT would probably say "Definitely not!", but will we learn any lessons from the rush to regulate IoT in the past?

Delivering trust with DNS security

Wednesday December 13th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Can DNS protection technology transform consumers’ worries about cybercrime with a trust-based approach?

Surge in deceptive loan apps – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday December 8th, 2023 12:00:00 PM
ESET Research reveals details about a growth in the number of deceptive loan apps on Android, their origins and modus operandi.

Black Hat Europe 2023: The past could return to haunt you

Friday December 8th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Legacy protocols in the healthcare industry present dangers that can make hospitals extremely vulnerable to cyberattacks.

Silent but deadly: The rise of zero-click attacks

Monday December 11th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
A security compromise so stealthy that it doesn’t even require your interaction? Yes, zero-click attacks require no action from you – but this doesn’t mean you’re left vulnerable.

OilRig’s persistent attacks using cloud service-powered downloaders

Thursday December 14th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
ESET researchers document a series of new OilRig downloaders, all relying on legitimate cloud service providers for C&C communications

A pernicious potpourri of Python packages in PyPI

Tuesday December 12th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
The past year has seen over 10,000 downloads of malicious packages hosted on the official Python package repository

To tap or not to tap: Are NFC payments safer?

Thursday December 7th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Contactless payments are quickly becoming ubiquitous – but are they more secure than traditional payment methods?

Navigating privacy: Should we put the brakes on car tracking?

Wednesday December 6th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Your car probably knows a lot more about you than it lets on – but is the trade-off of privacy for convenience truly justifiable?

Teaching appropriate use of AI tech – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday December 1st, 2023 12:31:27 PM
Several cases of children creating indecent images of other children using AI software add to the worries about harmful uses of AI technology

Beware of predatory fin(tech): Loan sharks use Android apps to reach new depths

Tuesday December 5th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
ESET researchers describe the growth of deceptive loan apps for Android and techniques they use to circumvent Google Play

Very precisely lost – GPS jamming

Wednesday November 29th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
The technology is both widely available and well developed, hence it's also poised to proliferate – especially in the hands of those wishing ill

Executives behaving badly: 5 ways to manage the executive cyberthreat

Thursday November 30th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Failing to practice what you preach, especially when you are a juicy target for bad actors, creates a situation fraught with considerable risk

Telekopye's tricks of the trade – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday November 24th, 2023 03:33:08 PM
ESET's research team reveals details about the onboarding process of the Telekopye scam operation and the various methods that the fraudsters use to defraud people online

Left to their own devices: Security for employees using personal devices for work

Tuesday February 6th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
As personal devices within corporate networks make for a potentially combustible mix, a cavalier approach to BYOD security won’t cut it

Retail at risk: Top threats facing retailers this holiday season

Tuesday November 28th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
While it may be too late to introduce wholesale changes to your security policies, it doesn’t hurt to take a fresh look at where the biggest threats are and which best practices can help neutralize them

‘Tis the season to be wary: 12 steps to ruin a cybercriminal's day

Monday November 27th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
The holiday shopping season may be the time to splurge, but it’s a also favorite time of year for cybercriminals to target shoppers with phony deals, phishing scams and other threats

Telekopye: Chamber of Neanderthals’ secrets

Thursday November 23rd, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Insight into groups operating Telekopye bots that scam people in online marketplaces

Your voice is my password

Wednesday November 22nd, 2023 10:30:00 AM
AI-driven voice cloning can make things far too easy for scammers – I know because I’ve tested it so that you don’t have to learn about the risks the hard way.

Fuel for thought: Can a driverless car get arrested?

Tuesday November 21st, 2023 10:30:00 AM
What happens when problems caused by autonomous vehicles are not the result of errors, but the result of purposeful attacks?

Safeguarding ports from the rising tide of cyberthreats – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday November 17th, 2023 11:08:30 AM
An attack against a port operator that ultimately hobbled some 40 percent of Australia’s import and export capacity highlights the kinds of supply chain shocks that a successful cyberattack can cause

Say what you will? Your favorite speech-to-text app may be a privacy risk

Wednesday January 3rd, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Typing with your voice? It should go without saying that you need to take some precautions and avoid spilling your secrets.

Spyware disguised as a news app – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday November 10th, 2023 03:42:48 PM
The Urdu version of the Hunza News website offers readers the option to download an Android app – little do they know that the app is actually spyware

Level up! These games will make learning about cybersecurity fun

Tuesday November 14th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Discover six games that will provide valuable knowledge while turning learning about digital security into an enjoyable and rewarding adventure

Capture the flag: 5 websites to sharpen your hacking skills

Monday November 13th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Through engaging hacking challenges and competitions, CTFs offer an excellent opportunity to test and enhance your security and problem-solving skills

Cyber threat intelligence: Getting on the front foot against adversaries

Friday November 10th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
By collecting, analyzing and contextualizing information about possible cyberthreats, including the most advanced ones, threat intelligence offers a critical method to identify, assess and mitigate cyber risk

Unlucky Kamran: Android malware spying on Urdu-speaking residents of Gilgit-Baltistan

Thursday November 9th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
ESET researchers discovered Kamran, previously unknown malware, which spies on Urdu-speaking readers of Hunza News

The mysterious demise of the Mozi botnet – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday November 3rd, 2023 01:26:29 PM
Various questions linger following the botnet's sudden and deliberate demise, including: who actually initiated it?

Navigating the security and privacy challenges of large language models

Monday November 6th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
Organizations that intend to tap into the potential of LLMs must also be able to manage the risks that could otherwise erode the technology’s business value

Is your LinkedIn profile revealing too much?

Thursday November 16th, 2023 10:30:00 AM
How much contact and personal information do you give away in your LinkedIn profile and who can see it? Here’s why less may be more.

Who killed Mozi? Finally putting the IoT zombie botnet in its grave

Wednesday November 1st, 2023 10:30:00 AM
How ESET Research found a kill switch that had been used to take down one of the most prolific botnets out there


Sucuri Blog

Protect Your Interwebs!

Last feed update: Sunday April 21st, 2024 04:46:36 PM

FBI Public Service Annoucement: Defacements Exploiting WordPress Vulnerabilities

Wednesday April 8th, 2015 12:24:11 AM Daniel Cid
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) just released a public service announcement (PSA) to the public about a large number of websites being exploited and compromised through WordPress plugin vulnerabilities: Continuous Web site defacements are being perpetrated by individuals sympathetic to the Islamic State in the Levant (ISIL) a.k.a. Islamic State of Iraq andRead More

Security Advisory: Persistent XSS in WP-Super-Cache

Tuesday April 7th, 2015 03:12:29 PM Marc-Alexandre Montpas
Security Risk: Dangerous Exploitation level: Very Easy/Remote DREAD Score: 8/10 Vulnerability: Persistent XSS Patched Version:  1.4.4 During a routine audit for our Website Firewall (WAF), we discovered a dangerous Persistent XSS vulnerability affecting the very popular WP-Super-Cache plugin (more than a million active installs according to wordpress.org). The security issue, as well as another bug-fixRead More

Website Malware – The SWF iFrame Injector Evolves

Thursday April 2nd, 2015 03:56:00 PM Peter Gramantik
Last year, we released a post about a malware injector found in an Adobe Flash (.SWF) file. In that post, we showed how a .SWF file is used to inject an invisible, malicious iFrame. It appears that the author of that Flash malware continued with this method of infection. Now we are seeing more varietiesRead More

Intro to E-Commerce and PCI Compliance – Part I

Tuesday March 31st, 2015 09:14:15 PM Daniel Cid
Have you ever heard of the term PCI? Specifically, PCI compliance? If you have an e-commerce website, you probably have already heard about it. But do you really understand what it means for you and your online business? In this series, we will try to explain the PCI standard and how it affects you andRead More

WordPress Malware Causes Psuedo-Darkleech Infection

Thursday March 26th, 2015 09:00:37 AM Denis Sinegubko
Darkleech is a nasty malware infection that infects web servers at the root level. It use malicious Apache modules to add hidden iFrames to certain responses. It’s difficult to detect because the malware is only active when both server and site admins are not logged in, and the iFrame is only injected once a dayRead More

Why Website Reinfections Happen

Tuesday March 24th, 2015 04:38:52 AM Valentin
I joined Sucuri a little over a month ago. My job is actually as a Social Media Specialist, but we have this process where regardless of your job you have to learn what website infections look like and more importantly, how to clean them. It’s this idea that regardless of you are you must alwaysRead More

The Impacts of a Hacked Website

Thursday March 19th, 2015 01:15:37 PM Tony Perez
Today, with the proliferation of open-source technologies like WordPress, Joomla! and other Content Management Systems (CMS) people around the world are able to quickly establish a virtual presence with little to no cost. In the process however, a lot is being lost in terms of what it means to own a website. We are failingRead More

Understanding WordPress Plugin Vulnerabilities

Tuesday March 17th, 2015 05:19:42 PM Daniel Cid
The last 7 days have been very busy with a number of vulnerabilities being disclosed on multiple WordPress plugins. Some of them are minor issues, some are more relevant, while others are what we’d categorize as noise. How are you supposed to make sense of all this? To help provide some clarity on the influxRead More

Inverted WordPress Trojan

Wednesday March 11th, 2015 06:40:16 PM Denis Sinegubko
Trojan (or trojan horse) is software that does (or pretends to be doing) something useful but also contains a secret malicious payload that inconspicuously does something bad. In WordPress, typical trojans are plugins and themes (usually pirated) which may have backdoors, or send out spam, create doorways, inject hidden links or malware. The trojan modelRead More

Security Advisory: MainWP-Child WordPress Plugin

Monday March 9th, 2015 11:56:20 PM Mickael Nadeau
Security Risk: Critical Exploitation level: Very Easy/Remote DREAD Score: 9/10 Vulnerability: Password bypass / Privilege Escalation Patched Version:  2.0.9.2 During a routine audit of our Website Firewall (WAF), we found a critical vulnerability affecting the popular MainWP Child WordPress plugin. According to worpdress.org, it is installed on more than 90,000 WordPress sites as as remote administrationRead More


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Google Online Security Blog

The latest news and insights from Google on security and safety on the Internet.

Last feed update: Sunday April 21st, 2024 04:46:38 PM

Prevent Generative AI Data Leaks with Chrome Enterprise DLP

Thursday April 18th, 2024 05:40:42 PM
Posted Kaleigh Rosenblat, Chrome Enterprise Senior Staff Software Engineer, Security Lead Generative AI has emerged as a powerful and popular tool to automate content creation and simple tasks. From customized content creation to source code generation, it can increase both our productivity and creative potential. Businesses want to leverage the power of LLMs, like Gemini, but many may have security concerns and want more control around how employees make sure of these new tools. For example, companies may want to ensure that various forms of sensitive data, such as Personally Identifiable Information (PII), financial records and internal intellectual property, is not to be shared publicly on Generative AI platforms. Security leaders face the challenge of finding the right balance — enabling employees to leverage AI to boost efficiency, while also safeguarding corporate data. In this blog post, we'll explore reporting and enforcement policies that enterprise security teams can implement within Chrome Enterprise Premium for data loss prevention (DLP).1. View login events* to understand usage of Generative AI services within the organization. With Chrome Enterprise's Reporting Connector, security and IT teams can see when a user successfully signs into a specific domain, including Generative AI websites. Security Operations teams can further leverage this telemetry to detect anomalies and threats by streaming the data into Chronicle or other third-party SIEMs at no additional cost.2. Enable URL Filtering to warn users about sensitive data policies and let them decide whether or not they want to navigate to the URL, or to block users from navigating to certain groups of sites altogether.For example, with Chrome Enterprise URL Filtering, IT admins can create rules that warn developers not to submit source code to specific Generative AI apps or tools, or block them.3. Warn, block or monitor sensitive data actions within Generative AI websites with dynamic content-based rules for actions like paste, file uploads/downloads, and print. Chrome Enterprise DLP rules give IT admins granular control over browser activities, such as entering financial information in Gen AI websites. Admins can customize DLP rules to restrict the type and amount of data entered into these websites from managed browsers.For most organizations, safely leveraging Generative AI requires a certain amount of control. As enterprises work through their policies and processes involving GenAI, Chrome Enterprise Premium empowers them to strike the balance that works best. Hear directly from security leaders at Snap on their use of DLP for Gen AI in this recording here.Learn more about how Chrome Enterprise can secure businesses just like yours here.*Available at no additional cost in Chrome Enterprise Core

How we built the new Find My Device network with user security and privacy in mind

Monday April 8th, 2024 06:12:48 PM
Posted by Dave Kleidermacher, VP Engineering, Android Security and Privacy Keeping people safe and their data secure and private is a top priority for Android. That is why we took our time when designing the new Find My Device, which uses a crowdsourced device-locating network to help you find your lost or misplaced devices and belongings quickly – even when they’re offline. We gave careful consideration to the potential user security and privacy challenges that come with device finding services. During development, it was important for us to ensure the new Find My Device was secure by default and private by design. To build a private, crowdsourced device-locating network, we first conducted user research and gathered feedback from privacy and advocacy groups. Next, we developed multi-layered protections across three main areas: data safeguards, safety-first protections, and user controls. This approach provides defense-in-depth for Find My Device users. How location crowdsourcing works on the Find My Device network The Find My Device network locates devices by harnessing the Bluetooth proximity of surrounding Android devices. Imagine you drop your keys at a cafe. The keys themselves have no location capabilities, but they may have a Bluetooth tag attached. Nearby Android devices participating in the Find My Device network report the location of the Bluetooth tag. When the owner realizes they have lost their keys and logs into the Find My Device mobile app, they will be able to see the aggregated location contributed by nearby Android devices and locate their keys. Find My Device network protections Let’s dive into key details of the multi-layered protections for the Find My Device network: Data Safeguards: We’ve implemented protections that help ensure the privacy of everyone participating in the network and the crowdsourced location data that powers it. Location data is end-to-end encrypted. When Android devices participating in the network report the location of a Bluetooth tag, the location is end-to-end encrypted using a key that is only accessible to the Bluetooth tag owner and anyone the owner has shared the tag with in the Find My Device app. Only the Bluetooth tag owner (and those they’ve chosen to share access with) can decrypt and view the tag’s location. With end-to-end encrypted location data, Google cannot decrypt, see, or otherwise use the location data. Private, crowdsourced location reports. These end-to-end encrypted locations are contributed to the Find My Device network in a manner that does not allow Google to identify the owners of the nearby Android devices that provided the location data. And when the Find My Device network shows the location and timestamp to the Bluetooth tag’s owner to help them find their belongings, no other information about the nearby Android devices that contributed the data is included. Minimizing network data. End-to-end encrypted location data is minimally buffered and frequently overwritten. In addition, if the network can help find a Bluetooth tag using the owner’s nearby devices (e.g., if their own phone detects the tag), the network will discard crowdsourced reports for the tag. Safety-first Protections: The Find My Device network protects against risks such as use of an unknown Bluetooth tag to stalk or identify another user, including: Aggregation by default. This is a first-of-its-kind safety protection that makes unwanted tracking to a private location, like your home, more difficult. By default, the Find My Device network requires multiple nearby Android devices to detect a tag before reporting its location to the tag's owner. Our research found that the Find My Device network is most valuable in public settings like cafes and airports, where there are likely many devices nearby. By implementing aggregation before showing a tag’s location to its owner, the network can take advantage of its biggest strength – over a billion Android devices that can participate. This helps tag owners find their lost devices in these busier locations while prioritizing safety from unwanted tracking near private locations. In less busy areas, last known location and Nest finding are reliable ways to locate items. At home protection. If a user has chosen to save their home address in their Google Account, their Android device will also ensure that it does not contribute crowdsourced location reports to the Find My Device network when it is near the user’s home. This provides additional protection on top of aggregation by default against unwanted tracking near private locations. Rate limiting and throttling. The Find My Device network limits the number of times that a nearby Android device can contribute a location report for a particular Bluetooth tag. The network also throttles how frequently the owner of a Bluetooth tag can request an updated location for the tag. We've found that lost items are typically left behind in stationary spots. For example, you lose your keys at the cafe, and they stay at the table where you had your morning coffee. Meanwhile, a malicious user is often trying to engage in real-time tracking of a person. By applying rate limiting and throttling to reduce how often the location of a device is updated, the network continues to be helpful for finding items, like your lost checked baggage on a trip, while helping mitigate the risk of real-time tracking. Unknown tracker alerts. The Find My Device network is also compliant with the integration version of the joint industry standard for unwanted tracking. Being compliant with the integration version of the standard means that both Android and iOS users will receive unknown tracker alerts if the on-device algorithm detects that someone may be using a Find My Device network-compatible tag to track them without their knowledge, proactively alerting the user through a notification on their phone. User Controls: Android users always have full control over which of their devices participate in the Find My Device network and how those devices participate. Users can either stick with the default and contribute to aggregated location reporting, opt into contributing non-aggregated locations, or turn the network off altogether. Find My Device also provides the ability to secure or erase data from a lost device. In addition to careful security architectural design, the new Find My Device network has undergone internal Android red team testing. The Find My Device network has also been added to the Android security vulnerability rewards program to take advantage of Android’s global ecosystem of security researchers. We’re also engaging with select researchers through our private grant program to encourage more targeted research. Prioritizing user safety on Find My Device Together, these multi-layered user protections help mitigate potential risks to user privacy and safety while allowing users to effectively locate and recover lost devices. As bad actors continue to look for new ways to exploit users, our work to help keep users safe on Android is never over. We have an unwavering commitment to continue to improve user protections on Find My Device and prioritize user safety. For more information about Find My Device on Android, please visit our help center. You can read the Find My Device Network Accessory specification here.

Google Public DNS’s approach to fight against cache poisoning attacks

Thursday March 28th, 2024 06:29:57 PM
Tianhao Chi and Puneet Sood, Google Public DNSThe Domain Name System (DNS) is a fundamental protocol used on the Internet to translate human-readable domain names (e.g., www.example.com) into numeric IP addresses (e.g., 192.0.2.1) so that devices and servers can find and communicate with each other. When a user enters a domain name in their browser, the DNS resolver (e.g. Google Public DNS) locates the authoritative DNS nameservers for the requested name, and queries one or more of them to obtain the IP address(es) to return to the browser.When DNS was launched in the early 1980s as a trusted, content-neutral infrastructure, security was not yet a pressing concern, however, as the Internet grew DNS became vulnerable to various attacks. In this post, we will look at DNS cache poisoning attacks and how Google Public DNS addresses the risks associated with them.DNS Cache Poisoning AttacksDNS lookups in most applications are forwarded to a caching resolver (which could be local or an open resolver like. Google Public DNS). The path from a client to the resolver is usually on a local network or can be protected using encrypted transports like DoH, DoT. The resolver queries authoritative DNS servers to obtain answers for user queries. This communication primarily occurs over UDP, an insecure connectionless protocol, in which messages can be easily spoofed including the source IP address. The content of DNS queries may be sufficiently predictable that even an off-path attacker can, with enough effort, forge responses that appear to be from the queried authoritative server. This response will be cached if it matches the necessary fields and arrives before the authentic response. This type of attack is called a cache poisoning attack, which can cause great harm once successful. According to RFC 5452, the probability of success is very high without protection. Forged DNS responses can lead to denial of service, or may even compromise application security. For an excellent introduction to cache poisoning attacks, please see “An Illustrated Guide to the Kaminsky DNS Vulnerability”.Cache poisoning mitigations in Google Public DNSImproving DNS security has been a goal of Google Public DNS since our launch in 2009. We take a multi-pronged approach to protect users against DNS cache-poisoning attacks. There is no silver bullet or countermeasure that entirely solves the problem, but in combination they make successful attacks substantially more difficult.RFC 5452 And DNS CookiesWe have implemented the basic countermeasures outlined in RFC 5452 namely randomizing query source ports and query IDs. But these measures alone are not sufficient (see page 8 of our OARC 38 presentation).We have therefore also implemented support for RFC 7873 (DNS Cookies) which can make spoofing impractical if it’s supported by the authoritative server. Measurements indicate that the DNS Cookies do not provide sufficient coverage, even though around 40% of nameservers by IP support DNS Cookies, these account for less than 10% of overall query volume. In addition, many non-compliant nameservers return incorrect or ambiguous responses for queries with DNS Cookies, which creates further deployment obstacles. For now, we’ve enabled DNS Cookies through manual configuration, primarily for selected TLD zones.Case Randomization (0x20)The query name case randomization mechanism, originally proposed in a March 2008 draft “Use of Bit 0x20 in DNS Labels to Improve Transaction Identity”, however, is highly effective, because all but a small minority of nameservers are compatible with query name case randomization. We have been performing case randomization of query names since 2009 to a small set of chosen nameservers that handle only a minority of our query volume. In 2022 we started work on enabling case randomization by default, which when used, the query name in the question section is randomized and the DNS server’s response is expected to match the case-randomized query name exactly in the request. For example, if “ExaMplE.CoM” is the name sent in the request, the name in the question section of the response must also be “ExaMplE.CoM” rather than, e.g., “example.com.” Responses that fail to preserve the case of the query name may be dropped as potential cache poisoning attacks (and retried over TCP).We are happy to announce that we’ve already enabled and deployed this feature globally by default. It covers over 90% of our UDP traffic to nameservers, significantly reducing the risk of cache poisoning attacks.Meanwhile, we maintain an exception list and implement fallback mechanisms to prevent potential issues with non-conformant nameservers. However we strongly recommend that nameserver implementations preserve the query case in the response.DNS-over-TLSIn addition to case randomization, we’ve deployed DNS-over-TLS to authoritative nameservers (ADoT), following procedures described in RFC 9539 (Unilateral Opportunistic Deployment of Encrypted Recursive-to-Authoritative DNS). Real world measurements show that ADoT has a higher success rate and comparable latency to UDP. And ADoT is in use for around 6% of egress traffic. At the cost of some CPU and memory, we get both security and privacy for nameserver queries without DNS compliance issues.SummaryGoogle Public DNS takes security of our users seriously. Through multiple countermeasures to cache poisoning attacks, we aim to provide a more secure and reliable DNS resolution service, enhancing the overall Internet experience for users worldwide. With the measures described above we are able to provide protection against passive attacks for over 90% of authoritative queries. To enhance DNS security, we recommend that DNS server operators support one or more of the  security mechanisms described here. We are also working with the DNS community to improve DNS security. Please see our presentations at DNS-OARC 38 and 40 for more technical details.

Address Sanitizer for Bare-metal Firmware

Thursday March 28th, 2024 10:16:18 PM
Posted by Eugene Rodionov and Ivan Lozano, Android Team With steady improvements to Android userspace and kernel security, we have noticed an increasing interest from security researchers directed towards lower level firmware. This area has traditionally received less scrutiny, but is critical to device security. We have previously discussed how we have been prioritizing firmware security, and how to apply mitigations in a firmware environment to mitigate unknown vulnerabilities. In this post we will show how the Kernel Address Sanitizer (KASan) can be used to proactively discover vulnerabilities earlier in the development lifecycle. Despite the narrow application implied by its name, KASan is applicable to a wide-range of firmware targets. Using KASan enabled builds during testing and/or fuzzing can help catch memory corruption vulnerabilities and stability issues before they land on user devices. We've already used KASan in some firmware targets to proactively find and fix 40+ memory safety bugs and vulnerabilities, including some of critical severity. Along with this blog post we are releasing a small project which demonstrates an implementation of KASan for bare-metal targets leveraging the QEMU system emulator. Readers can refer to this implementation for technical details while following the blog post. Address Sanitizer (ASan) overview Address sanitizer is a compiler-based instrumentation tool used to identify invalid memory access operations during runtime. It is capable of detecting the following classes of temporal and spatial memory safety bugs: out-of-bounds memory access use-after-free double/invalid free use-after-return ASan relies on the compiler to instrument code with dynamic checks for virtual addresses used in load/store operations. A separate runtime library defines the instrumentation hooks for the heap memory and error reporting. For most user-space targets (such as aarch64-linux-android) ASan can be enabled as simply as using the -fsanitize=address compiler option for Clang due to existing support of this target both in the toolchain and in the libclang_rt runtime. However, the situation is rather different for bare-metal code which is frequently built with the none system targets, such as arm-none-eabi. Unlike traditional user-space programs, bare-metal code running inside an embedded system often doesn’t have a common runtime implementation. As such, LLVM can’t provide a default runtime for these environments. To provide custom implementations for the necessary runtime routines, the Clang toolchain exposes an interface for address sanitization through the -fsanitize=kernel-address compiler option. The KASan runtime routines implemented in the Linux kernel serve as a great example of how to define a KASan runtime for targets which aren’t supported by default with -fsanitize=address. We'll demonstrate how to use the version of address sanitizer originally built for the kernel on other bare-metal targets. KASan 101 Let’s take a look at the KASan major building blocks from a high-level perspective (a thorough explanation of how ASan works under-the-hood is provided in this whitepaper). The main idea behind KASan is that every memory access operation, such as load/store instructions and memory copy functions (for example, memmove and memcpy), are instrumented with code which performs verification of the destination/source memory regions. KASan only allows the memory access operations which use valid memory regions. When KASan detects memory access to a memory region which is invalid (that is, the memory has been already freed or access is out-of-bounds) then it reports this violation to the system. The state of memory regions covered by KASan is maintained in a dedicated area called shadow memory. Every byte in the shadow memory corresponds to a single fixed-size memory region covered by KASan (typically 8-bytes) and encodes its state: whether the corresponding memory region has been allocated or freed and how many bytes in the memory region are accessible. Therefore, to enable KASan for a bare-metal target we would need to implement the instrumentation routines which verify validity of memory regions in memory access operations and report KASan violations to the system. In addition we would also need to implement shadow memory management to track the state of memory regions which we want to be covered with KASan. Enabling KASan for bare-metal firmware KASan shadow memory The very first step in enabling KASan for firmware is to reserve a sufficient amount of DRAM for shadow memory. This is a memory region where each byte is used by KASan to track the state of an 8-byte region. This means accommodating the shadow memory requires a dedicated memory region equal to 1/8th the size of the address space covered by KASan. KASan maps every 8-byte aligned address from the DRAM region into the shadow memory using the following formula: shadow_address = (target_address >> 3 ) + shadow_memory_base where target_address is the address of a 8-byte memory region which we want to cover with KASan and shadow_memory_base is the base address of the shadow memory area. Implement a KASan runtime Once we have the shadow memory tracking the state of every single 8-byte memory region of DRAM we need to implement the necessary runtime routines which KASan instrumentation depends on. For reference, a comprehensive list of runtime routines needed for KASan can be found in the linux/mm/kasan/kasan.h Linux kernel header. However, it might not be necessary to implement all of them and in the following text we focus on the ones which were needed to enable KASan for our target firmware as an example. Memory access check The routines __asan_loadXX_noabort, __asan_storeXX_noabort perform verification of memory access at runtime. The symbol XX denotes size of memory access and goes as a power of 2 starting from 1 up to 16. The toolchain instruments every memory load and store operations with these functions so that they are invoked before the memory access operation happens. These routines take as input a pointer to the target memory region to check it against the shadow memory. If the region state provided by shadow memory doesn’t reveal a violation, then these functions return to the caller. But if any violations (for example, the memory region is accessed after it has been deallocated or there is an out-of-bounds access) are revealed, then these functions report the KASan violation by: Generating a call-stack. Capturing context around the memory regions. Logging the error. Aborting/crashing the system (optional) Shadow memory management The routine __asan_set_shadow_YY is used to poison shadow memory for a given address. This routine is used by the toolchain instrumentation to update the state of memory regions. For example, the KASan runtime would use this function to mark memory for local variables on the stack as accessible/poisoned in the epilogue/prologue of the function respectively. This routine takes as input a target memory address and sets the corresponding byte in shadow memory to the value of YY. Here is an example of some YY values for shadow memory to encode state of 8-byte memory regions: 0x00 -- the entire 8-byte region is accessible 0x01-0x07 -- only the first bytes in the memory region are accessible 0xf1 -- not accessible: stack left red zone 0xf2 -- not accessible: stack mid red zone 0xf3 -- not accessible: stack right red zone 0xfa -- not accessible: globals red zone 0xff -- not accessible Covering global variables The routines __asan_register_globals, __asan_unregister_globals are used to poison/unpoison memory for global variables. The KASan runtime calls these functions while processing global constructors/destructors. For instance, the routine __asan_register_globals is invoked for every global variable. It takes as an argument a pointer to a data structure which describes the target global variable: the structure provides the starting address of the variable, its size not including the red zone and size of the global variable with the red zone. The red zone is extra padding the compiler inserts after the variable to increase the likelihood of detecting an out-of-bounds memory access. Red zones ensure there is extra space between adjacent global variables. It is the responsibility of __asan_register_globals routine to mark the corresponding shadow memory as accessible for the variable and as poisoned for the red zone. As the readers could infer from its name, the routine __asan_unregister_globals is invoked while processing global destructors and is intended to poison shadow memory for the target global variable. As a result, any memory access to such a global will cause a KASan violation. Memory copy functions The KASan compiler instrumentation routines __asan_loadXX_noabort, __asan_storeXX_noabort discussed above are used to verify individual memory load and store operations such as, reading or writing an array element or dereferencing a pointer. However, these routines don't cover memory access in bulk-memory copy functions such as memcpy, memmove, and memset. In many cases these functions are provided by the runtime library or implemented in assembly to optimize for performance. Therefore, in order to be able to catch invalid memory access in these functions, we would need to provide sanitized versions of memcpy, memmove, and memset functions in our KASan implementation which would verify memory buffers to be valid memory regions. Avoiding false positives for noreturn functions Another routine required by KASan is __asan_handle_no_return, to perform cleanup before a noreturn function and avoid false positives on the stack. KASan adds red zones around stack variables at the start of each function, and removes them at the end. If a function does not return normally (for example, in case of longjmp-like functions and exception handling), red zones must be removed explicitly with __asan_handle_no_return. Hook heap memory allocation routines Bare-metal code in the vast majority of cases provides its own heap implementation. It is our responsibility to implement an instrumented version of heap memory allocation and freeing routines which enable KASan to detect memory corruption bugs on the heap. Essentially, we would need to instrument the memory allocator with the code which unpoisons KASan shadow memory corresponding to the allocated memory buffer. Additionally, we may want to insert an extra poisoned red zone memory (which accessing would then generate a KASan violation) to the end of the allocated buffer to increase the likelihood of catching out-of-bounds memory reads/writes. Similarly, in the memory deallocation routine (such as free) we would need to poison the shadow memory corresponding to the free buffer so that any subsequent access (such as, use-after-free) would generate a KASan violation. We can go even further by placing the freed memory buffer into a quarantine instead of immediately returning the free memory back to the allocator. This way, the freed memory buffer is suspended in quarantine for some time and will have its KASan shadow bytes poisoned for a longer period of time, increasing the probability of catching a use-after-free access to this buffer. Enable KASan for heap, stack and global variables With all the necessary building blocks implemented we are ready to enable KASan for our bare-metal code by applying the following compiler options while building the target with the LLVM toolchain. The -fsanitize=kernel-address Clang option instructs the compiler to instrument memory load/store operations with the KASan verification routines. We use the -asan-mapping-offset LLVM option to indicate where we want our shadow memory to be located. For instance, let’s assume that we would like to cover address range 0x40000000 - 0x4fffffff and we want to keep shadow memory at address 0x4A700000. So, we would use -mllvm -asan-mapping-offset=0x42700000 as 0x40000000 >> 3 + 0x42700000 == 0x4A700000. To cover globals and stack variables with KASan we would need to pass additional options to the compiler: -mllvm -asan-stack=1 -mllvm -asan-globals=1. It’s worth mentioning that instrumenting both globals and stack variables will likely result in an increase in size of the corresponding memory which might need to be accounted for in the linker script. Finally, to prevent significant increase in size of the code section due to KASan instrumentation we instruct the compiler to always outline KASan checks using the -mllvm -asan-instrumentation-with-call-threshold=0 option. Otherwise, the compiler might inline __asan_loadXX_noabort, __asan_storeXX_noabort routines for load/store operations resulting in bloating the generated object code. LLVM has traditionally only supported sanitizers with runtimes for specific targets with predefined runtimes, however we have upstreamed LLVM sanitizer support for bare-metal targets under the assumption that the runtime can be defined for the particular target. You’ll need the latest version of Clang to benefit from this. Conclusion Following these steps we managed to enable KASan for a firmware target and use it in pre-production test builds. This led to early discovery of memory corruption issues that were easily remediated due to the actionable reports produced by KASan. These builds can be used with fuzzers to detect edge case bugs that normal testing fails to trigger, yet which can have significant security implications. Our work with KASan is just one example of the multiple techniques the Android team is exploring to further secure bare-metal firmware in the Android Platform. Ideally we want to avoid introducing memory safety vulnerabilities in the first place so we are working to address this problem through adoption of memory-safe Rust in bare-metal environments. The Android team has developed Rust training which covers bare-metal Rust extensively. We highly encourage others to explore Rust (or other memory-safe languages) as an alternative to C/C++ in their firmware. If you have any questions, please reach out – we’re here to help! Acknowledgements: Thank you to Roger Piqueras Jover for contributions to this post, and to Evgenii Stepanov for upstreaming LLVM support for bare-metal sanitizers. Special thanks also to our colleagues who contribute and support our firmware security efforts: Sami Tolvanen, Stephan Somogyi, Stephan Chen, Dominik Maier, Xuan Xing, Farzan Karimi, Pirama Arumuga Nainar, Stephen Hines.

Real-time, privacy-preserving URL protection

Thursday March 14th, 2024 04:01:32 PM
Posted by Jasika Bawa, Xinghui Lu, Google Chrome Security & Jonathan Li, Alex Wozniak, Google Safe Browsing For more than 15 years, Google Safe Browsing has been protecting users from phishing, malware, unwanted software and more, by identifying and warning users about potentially abusive sites on more than 5 billion devices around the world. As attackers grow more sophisticated, we've seen the need for protections that can adapt as quickly as the threats they defend against. That’s why we're excited to announce a new version of Safe Browsing that will provide real-time, privacy-preserving URL protection for people using the Standard protection mode of Safe Browsing in Chrome. Current landscape Chrome automatically protects you by flagging potentially dangerous sites and files, hand in hand with Safe Browsing which discovers thousands of unsafe sites every day and adds them to its lists of harmful sites and files. So far, for privacy and performance reasons, Chrome has first checked sites you visit against a locally-stored list of known unsafe sites which is updated every 30 to 60 minutes – this is done using hash-based checks. Hash-based check overview But unsafe sites have adapted — today, the majority of them exist for less than 10 minutes, meaning that by the time the locally-stored list of known unsafe sites is updated, many have slipped through and had the chance to do damage if users happened to visit them during this window of opportunity. Further, Safe Browsing’s list of harmful websites continues to grow at a rapid pace. Not all devices have the resources necessary to maintain this growing list, nor are they always able to receive and apply updates to the list at the frequency necessary to benefit from full protection. Safe Browsing’s Enhanced protection mode already stays ahead of such threats with technologies such as real-time list checks and AI-based classification of malicious URLs and web pages. We built this mode as an opt-in to give users the choice of sharing more security-related data in order to get stronger security. This mode has shown that checking lists in real time brings significant value, so we decided to bring that to the default Standard protection mode through a new API – one that doesn't share the URLs of sites you visit with Google. Introducing real-time, privacy-preserving Safe Browsing How it works In order to transition to real-time protection, checks now need to be performed against a list that is maintained on the Safe Browsing server. The server-side list can include unsafe sites as soon as they are discovered, so it is able to capture sites that switch quickly. It can also grow as large as needed because the Safe Browsing server is not constrained in the same way that user devices are. Behind the scenes, here's what is happening in Chrome: When you visit a site, Chrome first checks its cache to see if the address (URL) of the site is already known to be safe (see the “Staying speedy and reliable” section for details). If the visited URL is not in the cache, it may be unsafe, so a real-time check is necessary. Chrome obfuscates the URL by following the URL hashing guidance to convert the URL into 32-byte full hashes. Chrome truncates the full hashes into 4-byte long hash prefixes. Chrome encrypts the hash prefixes and sends them to a privacy server (see the “Keeping your data private” section for details). The privacy server removes potential user identifiers and forwards the encrypted hash prefixes to the Safe Browsing server via a TLS connection that mixes requests with many other Chrome users. The Safe Browsing server decrypts the hash prefixes and matches them against the server-side database, returning full hashes of all unsafe URLs that match one of the hash prefixes sent by Chrome. After receiving the unsafe full hashes, Chrome checks them against the full hashes of the visited URL. If any match is found, Chrome will show a warning. Keeping your data private In order to preserve user privacy, we have partnered with Fastly, an edge cloud platform that provides content delivery, edge compute, security, and observability services, to operate an Oblivious HTTP (OHTTP) privacy server between Chrome and Safe Browsing – you can learn more about Fastly's commitment to user privacy on their Customer Trust page. With OHTTP, Safe Browsing does not see your IP address, and your Safe Browsing checks are mixed amongst those sent by other Chrome users. This means Safe Browsing cannot correlate the URL checks you send as you browse the web. Before hash prefixes leave your device, Chrome encrypts them using a public key from Safe Browsing. These encrypted hash prefixes are then sent to the privacy server. Since the privacy server doesn’t know the private key, it cannot decrypt the hash prefixes, which offers privacy from the privacy server itself. The privacy server then removes potential user identifiers such as your IP address and forwards the encrypted hash prefixes to the Safe Browsing server. The privacy server is operated independently by Fastly, meaning that Google doesn’t have access to potential user identifiers (including IP address and User Agent) from the original request. Once the Safe Browsing server receives the encrypted hash prefixes from the privacy server, it decrypts the hash prefixes with its private key and then continues to check the server-side list. Ultimately, Safe Browsing sees the hash prefixes of your URL but not your IP address, and the privacy server sees your IP address but not the hash prefixes. No single party has access to both your identity and the hash prefixes. As such, your browsing activity remains private. Real-time check overview Staying speedy and reliable Compared with the hash-based check, the real-time check requires sending a request to a server, which adds additional latency. We have employed a few techniques to make sure your browsing experience continues to be smooth and responsive. First, before performing the real-time check, Chrome checks against a global and local cache on your device to avoid unnecessary delay. The global cache is a list of hashes of known-safe URLs that is served by Safe Browsing. Chrome fetches it in the background. If any full hash of the URL is found in the global cache, Chrome will consider it less risky and perform a hash-based check instead. The local cache, on the other hand, is a list of full hashes that are saved from previous Safe Browsing checks. If there is a match in the local cache, and the cache has not yet expired, Chrome will not send a real-time request to the Safe Browsing server. Both caches are stored in memory, so it is much faster to check them than sending a real-time request over the network. In addition, Chrome follows a fallback mechanism in case of unsuccessful or slow requests. If the real-time request fails consecutively, Chrome will enter a back-off mode and downgrade the checks to hash-based checks for a certain period. We are also in the process of introducing an asynchronous mechanism, which will allow the site to load while the real-time check is in progress. This will improve the user experience, as the real-time check won’t block page load. What real-time, privacy-preserving URL protection means for you Chrome users With the latest release of Chrome for desktop, Android, and iOS, we’re upgrading the Standard protection mode of Safe Browsing so it will now check sites using Safe Browsing’s real-time protection protocol, without sharing your browsing history with Google. You don't need to take any action to benefit from this improved functionality. If you want more protection, we still encourage you to turn on the Enhanced protection mode of Safe Browsing. You might wonder why you need enhanced protection when you'll be getting real-time URL protection in Standard protection – this is because in Standard protection mode, the real-time feature can only protect you from sites that Safe Browsing has already confirmed to be unsafe. On the other hand, Enhanced protection mode is able to use additional information together with advanced machine learning models to protect you from sites that Safe Browsing may not yet have confirmed to be unsafe, for example because the site was only very recently created or is cloaking its true behavior to Safe Browsing’s detection systems. Enhanced protection also continues to offer protection beyond real-time URL checks, for example by providing deep scans for suspicious files and extra protection from suspicious Chrome extensions. Enterprises The real-time feature of the Standard protection mode of Safe Browsing is on by default for Chrome. If needed, it may be configured using the policy SafeBrowsingProxiedRealTimeChecksAllowed. It is also worth noting that in order for this feature to work in Chrome, enterprises may need to explicitly allow traffic to the Fastly privacy server. If the server is not reachable, Chrome will downgrade the checks to hash-based checks. Developers While Chrome is the first surface where these protections are available, we plan to make them available to eligible developers for non-commercial use cases via the Safe Browsing API. Using the API, developers and privacy server operators can partner to better protect their products’ users from fast-moving malicious actors in a privacy-preserving manner. To learn more, keep an eye out for our upcoming developer documentation to be published on the Google for Developers site.

Vulnerability Reward Program: 2023 Year in Review

Tuesday March 12th, 2024 03:59:14 PM
Posted by Sarah Jacobus, Vulnerability Rewards Team Last year, we again witnessed the power of community-driven security efforts as researchers from around the world contributed to help us identify and address thousands of vulnerabilities in our products and services. Working with our dedicated bug hunter community, we awarded $10 million to our 600+ researchers based in 68 countries. New Resources and Improvements Just like every year, 2023 brought a series of changes and improvements to our vulnerability reward programs: Through our new Bonus Awards program, we now periodically offer time-limited, extra rewards for reports to specific VRP targets. We expanded our exploit reward program to Chrome and Cloud through the launch of v8CTF, a CTF focused on V8, the JavaScript engine that powers Chrome. We launched Mobile VRP which focuses on first-party Android applications. Our new Bughunters blog shared ways in which we make the internet, as a whole, safer, and what that journey entails. Take a look at our ever-growing repository of posts! To further our engagement with top security researchers, we also hosted our yearly security conference ESCAL8 in Tokyo. It included live hacking events and competitions, student training with our init.g workshops, and talks from researchers and Googlers. Stay tuned for details on ESCAL8 2024. As in past years, we are sharing our 2023 Year in Review statistics across all of our programs. We would like to give a special thank you to all of our dedicated researchers for their continued work with our programs - we look forward to more collaboration in the future! Android and Google Devices In 2023, the Android VRP achieved significant milestones, reflecting our dedication to securing the Android ecosystem. We awarded over $3.4 million in rewards to researchers who uncovered remarkable vulnerabilities within Android and increased our maximum reward amount to $15,000 for critical vulnerabilities. We also saw a sharpened focus on higher severity issues as a result of our changes to incentivize report quality and increasing rewards for high and critical severity issues. Expanding our program’s scope, Wear OS has been added to the program to further incentivize research in new wearable technology to ensure users’ safety. Working closely with top researchers at the ESCAL8 conference, we also hosted a live hacking event for Wear OS and Android Automotive OS which resulted in $70,000 rewarded to researchers for finding over 20 critical vulnerabilities! We would also like to spotlight the hardwear.io security conferences. Hardwear.io gave us a platform to engage with top hardware security researchers who uncovered over 50 vulnerabilities in Nest, Fitbit, and Wearables, and received a total of $116,000 last year! The Google Play Security Reward Program continued to foster security research across popular Android apps on Google Play. A huge thank you to the researchers who made our program such a success. A special shout out to Zinuo Han (@ele7enxxh) of OPPO Amber Security Lab and Yu-Cheng Lin (林禹成) (@AndroBugs) for your hard work and continuing to be some of the top researchers contributing to Android VRPs! Chrome 2023 was a year of changes and experimentation for the Chrome VRP. In Chrome Milestone 116, MiraclePtr was launched across all Chrome platforms. This resulted in raising the difficulty of discovery of fully exploitable non-renderer UAFs in Chrome and resulted in lower reward amounts for MiraclePtr-protected UAFs, as highly mitigated security bugs. While code and issues protected by MiraclePtr are expected to be resilient to the exploitation of non-renderer UAFs, the Chrome VRP launched the MiraclePtr Bypass Reward to incentivize research toward discovering potential bypasses of this protection. The Chrome VRP also launched the Full Chain Exploit Bonus, offering triple the standard full reward amount for the first Chrome full-chain exploit reported and double the standard full reward amount for any follow-up reports. While both of these large incentives have gone unclaimed, we are leaving the door open in 2024 for any researchers looking to take on these challenges. In 2023, Chrome VRP also introduced increased rewards for V8 bugs in older channels of Chrome, with an additional bonus for bugs existing before M105. This resulted in a few very impactful reports of long-existing V8 bugs, including one report of a V8 JIT optimization bug in Chrome since at least M91, which resulted in a $30,000 reward for that researcher. All of this resulted in $2.1M in rewards to security researchers for 359 unique reports of Chrome Browser security bugs. We were also able to meet some of our top researchers from previous years who were invited to participate in bugSWAT as part of Google’s ESCAL8 event in Tokyo in October. We capped off the year by publicly announcing our 2023 Top 20 Chrome VRP reporters who received a bonus reward for their contributions. Thank you to the Chrome VRP security researcher community for your contributions and efforts to help us make Chrome more secure for everyone! Generative AI Last year, we also ran a bugSWAT live-hacking event targeting LLM products. Apart from fun, sun, and a lot to do, we also got 35 reports, totaling more than $87,000 - and discovered issues like Johann, Joseph, and Kai’s “Hacking Google Bard - From Prompt Injection to Data Exfiltration” and Roni, Justin, and Joseph’s “We Hacked Google A.I. for $50,000”. To help AI-focused bughunters know what’s in scope and what’s not, we recently published our criteria for bugs in AI products. This criteria aims to facilitate testing for traditional security vulnerabilities as well as risks specific to AI systems, and is one way that we are implementing the voluntary AI commitments that Google made at the White House in July. Looking Forward We remain committed to fostering collaboration, innovation, and transparency with the security community. Our ongoing mission is to stay ahead of emerging threats, adapt to evolving technologies, and continue to strengthen the security posture of Google’s products and services. We look forward to continuing to drive greater advancements in the world of cybersecurity. A huge thank you to our bug hunter community for helping to make Google products and platforms more safe and secure for our users around the world! Thank you to Adam Bacchus, Dirk Göhmann, Eduardo Vela, Sarah Jacobus, Amy Ressler, Martin Straka, Jan Keller, Tony Mendez.

Secure by Design: Google’s Perspective on Memory Safety

Friday March 8th, 2024 10:12:51 AM
Alex Rebert, Software Engineer, Christoph Kern, Principal Engineer, Security FoundationsGoogle’s Project Zero reports that memory safety vulnerabilities—security defects caused by subtle coding errors related to how a program accesses memory—have been "the standard for attacking software for the last few decades and it’s still how attackers are having success". Their analysis shows two thirds of 0-day exploits detected in the wild used memory corruption vulnerabilities. Despite substantial investments to improve memory-unsafe languages, those vulnerabilities continue to top the most commonly exploited vulnerability classes.In this post, we share our perspective on memory safety in a comprehensive whitepaper. This paper delves into the data, challenges of tackling memory unsafety, and discusses possible approaches for achieving memory safety and their tradeoffs. We'll also highlight our commitments towards implementing several of the solutions outlined in the whitepaper, most recently with a $1,000,000 grant to the Rust Foundation, thereby advancing the development of a robust memory-safe ecosystem. Why we’re publishing this now2022 marked the 50th anniversary of memory safety vulnerabilities. Since then, memory safety risks have grown more obvious. Like others', Google's internal vulnerability data and research show that memory safety bugs are widespread and one of the leading causes of vulnerabilities in memory-unsafe codebases. Those vulnerabilities endanger end users, our industry, and the broader society. We're encouraged to see governments also taking this issue seriously, as with the U.S. Office of the National Cyber Director publication of a paper on the topic last week.By sharing our insights and experiences, we hope to inspire the broader community and industry to adopt memory-safe practices and technologies, ultimately making technology safer. Our perspectiveAt Google, we have decades of experience addressing, at scale, large classes of vulnerabilities that were once similarly prevalent as memory safety issues. Our approach, which we call “Safe Coding”, treats vulnerability-prone coding constructs  themselves as hazards (i.e., independently of, and in addition to, the vulnerability they might cause), and is centered around ensuring developers do not encounter such hazards during regular coding practice.Based on this experience, we expect that high assurance memory safety can only be achieved via a Secure-by-Design approach centered around comprehensive adoption of languages with rigorous memory safety guarantees. As a consequence, we are considering a gradual transition towards memory-safe languages like Java, Go, and Rust.Over the past decades, in addition to large Java and Go memory-safe codebases, Google has developed and accumulated hundreds of millions of lines of C++ code that is in active use and under active, ongoing development. This very large existing codebase results in significant challenges for a transition to memory safety: We see no realistic path for an evolution of C++ into a language with rigorous memory safety guarantees that include temporal safety. A large-scale rewrite of all existing C++ code into a different, memory-safe language appears very difficult and will likely remain impractical. We consider it important to complement a transition to memory safe languages for new code and particularly at-risk components with safety improvements for existing C++ code, to the extent practicable. We believe that substantial improvements can be achieved through an incremental transition to a partially-memory-safe C++ language subset, augmented with hardware security features when available. For instance, see our work improving spatial safety in GCP's networking stack. Our investments in memory-safe languagesWe are actively investing in many of the solutions outlined in our whitepaper and in our response to the US Federal Government’s RFI on Open Source Software Security. Android has written several components in Rust over the last few years, leading to compelling security improvements. In Android’s Ultra-wideband (UWB) module, this has improved the security of the module while also reducing the memory usage and inter-procedural calls.  Chrome has started shipping some features in Rust; in one case, Chrome was able to move its QR code generator out of a sandbox by adopting a new memory-safe library written in Rust, leading to both better security and better performance. Google recently announced a $1,000,000 grant to the Rust foundation to enhance interoperability with C++ code. This will facilitate incremental adoption of Rust in existing memory-unsafe code bases, which will be key to enabling even more new development to occur in a memory-safe language. Relatedly, we are also working on addressing cross-language attacks that can occur when mixing Rust and C++ in the same binary. Google is investing in building the memory-safe open-source ecosystem through ISRG Prossimo and OpenSSF’s Alpha-Omega project. Back in 2021, we funded efforts to bring Rust to the Linux Kernel, which is now enabling us to write memory-safe drivers. This funding is also going towards providing alternatives or upgrades to key open-source libraries in a memory-safe language, such as providing a memory safe TLS implementation. We know that memory safe languages will not address every security bug, but just as our efforts to eliminate XSS attacks through tooling showed, removing large classes of exploits both directly benefits consumers of software and allows us to move our focus to addressing further classes of security vulnerabilities. To access the full whitepaper and learn more about Google's perspective on memory safety, visit https://research.google/pubs/secure-by-design-googles-perspective-on-memory-safety/

Piloting new ways of protecting Android users from financial fraud

Wednesday April 3rd, 2024 08:19:31 PM
Posted by Eugene Liderman, Director of Mobile Security Strategy, Google From its founding, Android has been guided by principles of openness, transparency, safety, and choice. Android gives you the freedom to choose which device best fits your needs, while also providing the flexibility to download apps from a variety of sources, including preloaded app stores such as the Google Play Store or the Galaxy Store; third-party app stores; and direct downloads from the Internet.Keeping users safe in an open ecosystem takes sophisticated defenses. That’s why Android provides multiple layers of protections, powered by AI and backed by a large dedicated security & privacy team, to help to protect our users from security threats while continually making the platform more resilient. We also provide our users with numerous built-in protections like Google Play Protect, the world’s most widely deployed threat detection service, which actively scans over 125 billion apps on devices every day to monitor for harmful behavior. That said, our data shows that a disproportionate amount of bad actors take advantage of select APIs and distribution channels in this open ecosystem. Elevating app security in an open ecosystem While users have the flexibility to download apps from many sources, the safety of an app can vary depending on the download source. Google Play, for example, carries out rigorous operational reviews to ensure app safety, including proper high-risk API use and permissions handling. Other app stores may also follow established policies and procedures that help reduce risks to users and their data. These protections often include requirements for developers to declare which permissions their apps use and how developers plan to use app data. Conversely, standalone app distribution sources like web browsers, messaging apps or file managers – which we commonly refer to as Internet-sideloading – do not offer the same rigorous requirements and operational reviews. Our data demonstrates that users who download from these sources today face unusually high security risks due to these missing protections. We recently launched enhanced Google Play Protect real-time scanning to help better protect users against novel malicious Internet-sideloaded apps. This enhancement is designed to address malicious apps that leverage various methods, such as AI, to avoid detection. This feature, now deployed on Android devices with Google Play Services in India, Thailand, Singapore and Brazil, has already made a significant impact on user safety. As a result of the real-time scanning enhancement, Play Protect has identified 515,000 new malicious apps and issued more than 3.1 million warnings or blocks of those apps. Play Protect is constantly improving its detection capabilities with each identified app, allowing us to strengthen our protections for the entire Android ecosystem. A new pilot to combat financial fraud Cybercriminals continue to invest in advanced financial fraud scams, costing consumers more than $1 trillion in losses. According to the 2023 Global State of Scams Report by the Global Anti-Scam Alliance, 78 percent of mobile users surveyed experienced at least one scam in the last year. Of those surveyed, 45 percent said they’re experiencing more scams in the last 12 months. The Global Scam Report also found that scams were most often initiated by sending scam links via various messaging platforms to get users to install malicious apps and very often paired with a phone call posing to be from a valid entity. Scammers frequently employ social engineering tactics to deceive mobile users. Using urgent pretenses that often involve a risk to a user’s finances or an opportunity for quick wealth, cybercriminals convince users to disable security safeguards and ignore proactive warnings for potential malware, scams, and phishing. We’ve seen a large percentage of users ignore, or are tricked into dismissing, these proactive Android platform warnings and proceed with installing malicious apps. This can lead to users ultimately disclosing their security codes, passwords, financial information and/or transferring funds unknowingly to a fraudster. To help better protect Android users from these financial fraud attacks, we are piloting enhanced fraud protection with Google Play Protect. As part of a continued strategic partnership with the Cyber Security Agency of Singapore (CSA), we will launch this first pilot in Singapore in the coming weeks to help keep Android users safe from mobile financial fraud. This enhanced fraud protection will analyze and automatically block the installation of apps that may use sensitive permissions frequently abused for financial fraud when the user attempts to install the app from an Internet-sideloading source (web browsers, messaging apps or file managers). This enhancement will inspect the permissions the app declared in real-time and specifically look for four permission requests: RECEIVE_SMS, READ_SMS, BIND_Notifications, and Accessibility. These permissions are frequently abused by fraudsters to intercept one-time passwords via SMS or notifications, as well as spy on screen content. Based on our analysis of major fraud malware families that exploit these sensitive permissions, we found that over 95 percent of installations came from Internet-sideloading sources. During the upcoming pilot, when a user in Singapore attempts to install an application from an Internet-sideloading source and any of these four permissions are declared, Play Protect will automatically block the installation with an explanation to the user. Collaborating to combat mobile fraud This enhanced fraud protection has undergone testing by the Singapore government and will be rolling out to Android devices with Google Play services. “The fight against online scams is a dynamic one. As cybercriminals refine their methods, we must collaborate and innovate to stay ahead, “ said Mr Chua Kuan Seah, Deputy Chief Executive of CSA. “Through such partnerships with technology players like Google, we are constantly improving our anti-scam defenses to protect Singaporeans online and safeguard their digital assets.” Together with CSA, we will be closely monitoring the results of the pilot program to assess its impact and make adjustments as needed. We will also support CSA by continuing to assist with malware detection and analysis, sharing malware insights and techniques, and creating user and developer education resources. How developers can prepareFor developers distributing apps that may be affected by this pilot, please take the time to review the device permissions your app is requesting and ensure you’re following developer best practices. Your app should only request permissions that the app needs to complete an action and ensure it does not violate the Mobile Unwanted Software principles. Always ensure that your app does not engage in behavior that could be considered potentially harmful or malware. If you find that your app is affected by the app protection pilot you can refer to our updated developer guidance for Play Protect warnings for tips on how to help fix potential issues with your app and instructions for filing an appeal if needed. Check out the video below to learn more.Our commitment to protecting Android users We believe industry collaboration is essential to protect users from mobile security threats and fraud. Piloting these new protections will help us stay ahead of new attacks and evolve our solutions to defeat scammers and their expanding fraud attempt. We have an unwavering commitment to protecting our users around the world and look forward to continuing to partner with governments, ecosystem partners and other stakeholders to improve user protections.

Improving Interoperability Between Rust and C++

Wednesday February 7th, 2024 02:30:31 AM
Posted by Lars Bergstrom – Director, Android Platform Tools & Libraries and Chair of the Rust Foundation Board Back in 2021, we announced that Google was joining the Rust Foundation. At the time, Rust was already in wide use across Android and other Google products. Our announcement emphasized our commitment to improving the security reviews of Rust code and its interoperability with C++ code. Rust is one of the strongest tools we have to address memory safety security issues. Since that announcement, industry leaders and government agencies have echoed our sentiment. We are delighted to announce that Google has provided a grant of $1 million to the Rust Foundation to support efforts that will improve the ability of Rust code to interoperate with existing legacy C++ codebases. We’re also furthering our existing commitment to the open-source Rust community by aggregating and publishing audits for Rust crates that we use in open-source Google projects. These contributions, along with our previous interoperability contributions, have us excited about the future of Rust. “Based on historical vulnerability density statistics, Rust has proactively prevented hundreds of vulnerabilities from impacting the Android ecosystem. This investment aims to expand the adoption of Rust across various components of the platform.” – Dave Kleidermacher, Google Vice President of Engineering, Android Security & Privacy While Google has seen the most significant growth in the use of Rust in Android, we’re continuing to grow its use across more applications, including clients and server hardware. “While Rust may not be suitable for all product applications, prioritizing seamless interoperability with C++ will accelerate wider community adoption, thereby aligning with the industry goals of improving memory safety.” – Royal Hansen, Google Vice President of Safety & Security The Rust tooling and ecosystem already support interoperability with Android and with continued investment in tools like cxx, autocxx, bindgen, cbindgen, diplomat, and crubit, we are seeing regular improvements in the state of Rust interoperability with C++. As these improvements have continued, we’ve seen a reduction in the barriers to adoption and accelerated adoption of Rust. While that progress across the many tools continues, it is often only expanded incrementally to support the particular needs of a given project or company. In order to accelerate both Rust adoption at Google as well as more broadly across the industry, we are eager to invest in and collaborate on any needed ABI changes, tooling and build system support, wrapper libraries, or other areas identified. We are excited to support this work through the Rust Foundation’s Interop Initiative and in collaboration with the Rust project to ensure that any additions made are suitable and address the challenges of Rust adoption that projects using C++ face. Improving memory safety across the software industry is one of the key technology challenges of our time, and we invite others across the community and industry to join us in working together to secure the open source ecosystem for everyone. Learn more about the Rust Foundation’s Interop Initiative by reading their recent announcement.

UN Cybercrime Treaty Could Endanger Web Security

Thursday February 1st, 2024 06:40:22 PM
Royal Hansen, Vice President of Privacy, Safety and Security EngineeringThis week, the United Nations convened member states to continue its years-long negotiations on the UN Cybercrime Treaty, titled “Countering the Use of Information and Communications Technologies for Criminal Purposes.” As more aspects of our lives intersect with the digital sphere, law enforcement around the world has increasingly turned to electronic evidence to investigate and disrupt criminal activity. Google takes the threat of cybercrime very seriously, and dedicates significant resources to combating it. When governments send Google legal orders to disclose user data in connection with their investigations, we carefully review those orders to make sure they satisfy applicable laws, international norms, and Google’s policies. We also regularly report the number of these orders in our Transparency Report. To ensure that transnational legal demands are issued consistent with rule of law, we have long called for an international framework for digital evidence that includes robust due process protections, respects human rights (including the right to free expression), and aligns with existing international norms. This is particularly important in the case of transnational criminal investigations, where the legal protections  in one jurisdiction may not align with those in others. Such safeguards aren’t just important to ensuring free expression and human rights, they are also critical to protecting web security. Too often, as we know well from helping stand up the Security Researcher Legal Defense Fund, individuals working to advance cybersecurity for the public good end up facing criminal charges. The Cybercrime Treaty should not criminalize the work of legitimate cybersecurity researchers and penetration testers, which is designed to protect individual systems and  the web as a whole.  UN Member States have an opportunity to strengthen global cybersecurity by adopting a treaty that encourages the criminalization of the most egregious and systemic activities — on which all parties can agree — while adopting a framework for sharing digital evidence that is transparent, grounded in the rule of law, based on pre-existing international frameworks like the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, and aligned with principles of necessity and proportionality. At the same time, Member States should avoid attempts to criminalize activities that raise significant freedom of expression issues, or that actually undercut the treaty’s goal of reducing cybercrime. That will require strengthening critical guardrails and protections.  We urge Member States to heed calls from civil society groups to address critical gaps in the Treaty and revise the text to protect users and security professionals — not endanger the security of the web.  

Scaling security with AI: from detection to solution

Tuesday February 13th, 2024 06:59:43 PM
Dongge Liu and Oliver Chang, Google Open Source Security Team, Jan Nowakowski and Jan Keller, Machine Learning for Security TeamThe AI world moves fast, so we’ve been hard at work keeping security apace with recent advancements. One of our approaches, in alignment with Google’s Secure AI Framework (SAIF), is using AI itself to automate and streamline routine and manual security tasks, including fixing security bugs. Last year we wrote about our experiences using LLMs to expand vulnerability testing coverage, and we’re excited to share some updates. Today, we’re releasing our fuzzing framework as a free, open source resource that researchers and developers can use to improve fuzzing’s bug-finding abilities. We’ll also show you how we’re using AI to speed up the bug patching process. By sharing these experiences, we hope to spark new ideas and drive innovation for a stronger ecosystem security.Update: AI-powered vulnerability discoveryLast August, we announced our framework to automate manual aspects of fuzz testing (“fuzzing”) that often hindered open source maintainers from fuzzing their projects effectively. We used LLMs to write project-specific code to boost fuzzing coverage and find more vulnerabilities. Our initial results on a subset of projects in our free OSS-Fuzz service were very promising, with code coverage increased by 30% in one example. Since then, we’ve expanded our experiments to more than 300 OSS-Fuzz C/C++ projects, resulting in significant coverage gains across many of the project codebases. We’ve also improved our prompt generation and build pipelines, which has increased code line coverage by up to 29% in 160 projects. How does that translate to tangible security improvements? So far, the expanded fuzzing coverage offered by LLM-generated improvements allowed OSS-Fuzz to discover two new vulnerabilities in cJSON and libplist, two widely used projects that had already been fuzzed for years. As always, we reported the vulnerabilities to the project maintainers for patching. Without the completely LLM-generated code, these two vulnerabilities could have remained undiscovered and unfixed indefinitely. And more: AI-powered vulnerability fixingFuzzing is fantastic for finding bugs, but for security to improve, those bugs also need to be patched. It’s long been an industry-wide struggle to find the engineering hours needed to patch open bugs at the pace that they are uncovered, and triaging and fixing bugs is a significant manual toll on project maintainers. With continued improvements in using LLMs to find more bugs, we need to keep pace in creating similarly automated solutions to help fix those bugs. We recently announced an experiment doing exactly that: building an automated pipeline that intakes vulnerabilities (such as those caught by fuzzing), and prompts LLMs to generate fixes and test them before selecting the best for human review.This AI-powered patching approach resolved 15% of the targeted bugs, leading to significant time savings for engineers. The potential of this technology should apply to most or all categories throughout the software development process. We’re optimistic that this research marks a promising step towards harnessing AI to help ensure more secure and reliable software.Try it outSince we’ve now open sourced our framework to automate manual aspects of fuzzing, any researcher or developer can experiment with their own prompts to test the effectiveness of fuzz targets generated by LLMs (including Google’s VertexAI or their own fine-tuned models) and measure the results against OSS-Fuzz C/C++ projects. We also hope to encourage research collaborations and to continue seeing other work inspired by our approach, such as Rust fuzz target generation. If you’re interested in using LLMs to patch bugs, be sure to read our paper on building an AI-powered patching pipeline. You’ll find a summary of our own experiences, some unexpected data about LLM’s abilities to patch different types of bugs, and guidance for building pipelines in your own organizations. 

Effortlessly upgrade to Passkeys on Pixel phones with Google Password Manager

Wednesday January 31st, 2024 01:08:49 AM
Posted by Sherif Hanna, Group Product Manager, Pixel Security Helping Pixel owners upgrade to the easier, safer way to sign in Your phone contains a lot of your personal information, from financial data to photos. Pixel phones are designed to help protect you and your data, and make security and privacy as easy as possible. This is why the Pixel team has been especially excited about passkeys—the easier, safer alternative to passwords. Passkeys are safer because they’re unique to each account, and are more resistant against online attacks such as phishing. They’re easier to use because there’s nothing for you to remember: when it’s time to sign in, using a passkey is as simple as unlocking your device with your face or fingerprint, or your PIN/pattern/password. Google is working to accelerate passkey adoption. We’ve launched support for passkeys on Google platforms such as Android and Chrome, and recently we announced that we’re making passkeys a default option across personal Google Accounts. We’re also working with our partners across the industry to make passkeys available on more websites and apps. Recently, we took things a step further. As part of last December’s Pixel Feature Drop, we introduced a new feature to Google Password Manager: passkey upgrades. With this new feature, Google Password Manager will let you discover which of your accounts support passkeys, and help you upgrade with just a few taps. This new passkey upgrade experience is now available on Pixel phones (starting from Pixel 5a) as well as Pixel Tablet. Google Password manager will incorporate these updates for other platforms in the future. Best of all, today we’re happy to announce that we’ve teamed up with Adobe, Best Buy, DocuSign, eBay, Kayak, Money Forward, Nintendo, PayPal, Uber, Yahoo! Japan—and soon, TikTok as well, to help bring you this easy passkey upgrade experience and usher you into the passwordless future. If you have an account with one of these early launch partners, Google Password Manager on Pixel will helpfully guide you to the exact location on the partner’s website or app where you can upgrade to a passkey. There’s no need to manually hunt for the option in account settings. And because the technology that makes this possible is open, any website or app, as well as any other password manager, can leverage it to help their users upgrade to passkeys for supporting accounts. It’s all part of Google’s commitment to help make signing in easier and safer.

MiraclePtr: protecting users from use-after-free vulnerabilities on more platforms

Thursday January 11th, 2024 07:18:14 PM
Posted by Keishi Hattori, Sergei Glazunov, Bartek Nowierski on behalf of the MiraclePtr team Welcome back to our latest update on MiraclePtr, our project to protect against use-after-free vulnerabilities in Google Chrome. If you need a refresher, you can read our previous blog post detailing MiraclePtr and its objectives. More platforms We are thrilled to announce that since our last update, we have successfully enabled MiraclePtr for more platforms and processes: In June 2022, we enabled MiraclePtr for the browser process on Windows and Android. In September 2022, we expanded its coverage to include all processes except renderer processes. In June 2023, we enabled MiraclePtr for ChromeOS, macOS, and Linux. Furthermore, we have changed security guidelines to downgrade MiraclePtr-protected issues by one severity level! Evaluating Security Impact First let’s focus on its security impact. Our analysis is based on two primary information sources: incoming vulnerability reports and crash reports from user devices. Let's take a closer look at each of these sources and how they inform our understanding of MiraclePtr's effectiveness. Bug reports Chrome vulnerability reports come from various sources, such as: Chrome Vulnerability Reward Program participants, our fuzzing infrastructure, internal and external teams investigating security incidents. For the purposes of this analysis, we focus on vulnerabilities that affect platforms where MiraclePtr was enabled at the time the issues were reported. We also exclude bugs that occur inside a sandboxed renderer process. Since the initial launch of MiraclePtr in 2022, we have received 168 use-after-free reports matching our criteria. What does the data tell us? MiraclePtr effectively mitigated 57% of these use-after-free vulnerabilities in privileged processes, exceeding our initial estimate of 50%. Reaching this level of effectiveness, however, required additional work. For instance, we not only rewrote class fields to use MiraclePtr, as discussed in the previous post, but also added MiraclePtr support for bound function arguments, such as Unretained pointers. These pointers have been a significant source of use-after-frees in Chrome, and the additional protection allowed us to mitigate 39 more issues. Moreover, these vulnerability reports enable us to pinpoint areas needing improvement. We're actively working on adding support for select third-party libraries that have been a source of use-after-free bugs, as well as developing a more advanced rewriter tool that can handle transformations like converting std::vector<T*> into std::vector<raw_ptr<T>>. We've also made several smaller fixes, such as extending the lifetime of the task state object to cover several issues in the “this pointer” category. Crash reports Crash reports offer a different perspective on MiraclePtr's effectiveness. As explained in the previous blog post, when an allocation is quarantined, its contents are overwritten with a special bit pattern. If the allocation is used later, the pattern will often be interpreted as an invalid memory address, causing a crash when the process attempts to access memory at that address. Since the dereferenced address remains within a small, predictable memory range, we can distinguish MiraclePtr crashes from other crashes. Although this approach has its limitations — such as not being able to obtain stack traces from allocation and deallocation times like AddressSanitizer does — it has enabled us to detect and fix vulnerabilities. Last year, six critical severity vulnerabilities were identified in the default setup of Chrome Stable, the version most people use. Impressively, five of the six were discovered while investigating MiraclePtr crash reports! One particularly interesting example is CVE-2022-3038. The issue was discovered through MiraclePtr crash reports and fixed in Chrome 105. Several months later, Google's Threat Analysis Group discovered an exploit for that vulnerability used in the wild against clients of a different Chromium-based browser that hadn’t shipped the fix yet. To further enhance our crash analysis capabilities, we've recently launched an experimental feature that allows us to collect additional information for MiraclePtr crashes, including stack traces. This effectively shortens the average crash report investigation time. Performance MiraclePtr enables us to have robust protection against use-after-free bug exploits, but there is a performance cost associated with it. Therefore, we have conducted experiments on each platform where we have shipped MiraclePtr, which we used in our decision-making process. The main cost of MiraclePtr is memory. Specifically, the memory usage of the browser process increased by 5.5-8% on desktop platforms and approximately 2% on Android. Yet, when examining the holistic memory usage across all processes, the impact remains within a moderate 1-3% range to lower percentiles only. The main cause of the additional memory usage is the extra size to allocate the reference count. One might think that adding 4 bytes to each allocation wouldn’t be a big deal. However, there are many small allocations in Chrome, so even the 4B overhead is not negligible. Moreover, PartitionAlloc also uses pre-defined allocation bucket sizes, so this extra 4B pushes certain allocations (particularly power-of-2 sized) into a larger bucket, e.g. 4096B → 5120B. We also considered the performance cost. We verified that there were no regressions to the majority of our top-level performance metrics, including all of the page load metrics, like Largest Contentful Paint, First Contentful Paint and Cumulative Layout Shift. We did find a few regressions, such as a 10% increase in the 99th percentile of the browser process main thread contention metric, a 1.5% regression in First Input Delay on ChromeOS, and a 1.5% regression in tab startup time on Android. The main thread contention metric tries to estimate how often a user input can be delayed and so for example on Windows this was a change from 1.6% to 1.7% at the 99th percentile only. These are all minor regressions. There has been zero change in daily active usage, and we do not anticipate these regressions to have any noticeable impact on users. Conclusion In summary, MiraclePtr has proven to be effective in mitigating use-after-free vulnerabilities and enhancing the overall security of the Chrome browser. While there are performance costs associated with the implementation of MiraclePtr, our analysis suggests that the benefits in terms of security improvements far outweigh these. We are committed to continually refining and expanding the feature to cover more areas. For example we are working to add coverage to third-party libraries used by the GPU process, and we plan to enable BRP on the renderer process. By sharing our findings and experiences, we hope to contribute to the broader conversation surrounding browser security and inspire further innovation in this crucial area.

Hardening cellular basebands in Android

Tuesday December 12th, 2023 05:00:09 PM
Posted by Ivan Lozano and Roger Piqueras Jover Android’s defense-in-depth strategy applies not only to the Android OS running on the Application Processor (AP) but also the firmware that runs on devices. We particularly prioritize hardening the cellular baseband given its unique combination of running in an elevated privilege and parsing untrusted inputs that are remotely delivered into the device. This post covers how to use two high-value sanitizers which can prevent specific classes of vulnerabilities found within the baseband. They are architecture agnostic, suitable for bare-metal deployment, and should be enabled in existing C/C++ code bases to mitigate unknown vulnerabilities. Beyond security, addressing the issues uncovered by these sanitizers improves code health and overall stability, reducing resources spent addressing bugs in the future. An increasingly popular attack surface As we outlined previously, security research focused on the baseband has highlighted a consistent lack of exploit mitigations in firmware. Baseband Remote Code Execution (RCE) exploits have their own categorization in well-known third-party marketplaces with a relatively low payout. This suggests baseband bugs may potentially be abundant and/or not too complex to find and exploit, and their prominent inclusion in the marketplace demonstrates that they are useful. Baseband security and exploitation has been a recurring theme in security conferences for the last decade. Researchers have also made a dent in this area in well-known exploitation contests. Most recently, this area has become prominent enough that it is common to find practical baseband exploitation trainings in top security conferences. Acknowledging this trend, combined with the severity and apparent abundance of these vulnerabilities, last year we introduced updates to the severity guidelines of Android’s Vulnerability Rewards Program (VRP). For example, we consider vulnerabilities allowing Remote Code Execution (RCE) in the cellular baseband to be of CRITICAL severity. Mitigating Vulnerability Root Causes with Sanitizers Common classes of vulnerabilities can be mitigated through the use of sanitizers provided by Clang-based toolchains. These sanitizers insert runtime checks against common classes of vulnerabilities. GCC-based toolchains may also provide some level of support for these flags as well, but will not be considered further in this post. We encourage you to check your toolchain’s documentation. Two sanitizers included in Undefined Behavior Sanitizer (UBSan) will be our focus – Integer Overflow Sanitizer (IntSan) and BoundsSanitizer (BoundSan). These have been widely deployed in Android userspace for years following a data-driven approach. These two are well suited for bare-metal environments such as the baseband since they do not require support from the OS or specific architecture features, and so are generally supported for all Clang targets. Integer Overflow Sanitizer (IntSan) IntSan causes signed and unsigned integer overflows to abort execution unless the overflow is made explicit. While unsigned integer overflows are technically defined behavior, it can often lead to unintentional behavior and vulnerabilities – especially when they’re used to index into arrays. As both intentional and unintentional overflows are likely present in most code bases, IntSan may require refactoring and annotating the code base to prevent intentional or benign overflows from trapping (which we consider a false positive for our purposes). Overflows which need to be addressed can be uncovered via testing (see the Deploying Sanitizers section) BoundsSanitizer (BoundSan) BoundSan inserts instrumentation to perform bounds checks around some array accesses. These checks are only added if the compiler cannot prove at compile time that the access will be safe and if the size of the array will be known at runtime, so that it can be checked against. Note that this will not cover all array accesses as the size of the array may not be known at runtime, such as function arguments which are arrays. As long as the code is correctly written C/C++, BoundSan should produce no false positives. Any violations discovered when first enabling BoundSan is at least a bug, if not a vulnerability. Resolving even those which aren’t exploitable can greatly improve stability and code quality. Modernize your toolchains Adopting modern mitigations also means adopting (and maintaining) modern toolchains. The benefits of this go beyond utilizing sanitizers however. Maintaining an old toolchain is not free and entails hidden opportunity costs. Toolchains contain bugs which are addressed in subsequent releases. Newer toolchains bring new performance optimizations, valuable in the highly constrained bare-metal environment that basebands operate in. Security issues can even exist in the generated code of out-of-date compilers. Maintaining a modern up-to-date toolchain for the baseband entails some costs in terms of maintenance, especially at first if the toolchain is particularly old, but over time the benefits, as outlined above, outweigh the costs. Where to apply sanitizers Both BoundSan and IntSan have a measurable performance overhead. Although we were able to significantly reduce this overhead in the past (for example to less than 1% in media codecs), even very small increases in CPU load can have a substantial impact in some environments. Enabling sanitizers over the entire codebase provides the most benefit, but enabling them in security-critical attack surfaces can serve as a first step in an incremental deployment. For example: Functions parsing messages delivered over the air in 2G, 3G, 4G, and 5G (especially functions handling pre-authentication messages that can be injected with a false/malicious base station) Libraries encoding/decoding complex formats (e.g. ASN.1, XML, DNS, etc…) IMS, TCP and IP stacks Messaging functions (SMS, MMS) In the particular case of 2G, the best strategy is to disable the stack altogether by supporting Android’s “2G toggle”. However, 2G is still a necessary mobile access technology in certain parts of the world and some users might need to have this legacy protocol enabled. Deploying Sanitizers Having a clear plan for deployment of sanitizers saves a lot of time and effort. We think of the deployment process as having three stages: Detecting (and fixing) violations Measuring and reducing overhead Soaking in pre-production We also introduce two modes in which sanitizers should be run: diagnostics mode and trapping mode. These will be discussed in the following sections, but briefly: diagnostics mode recovers from violations and provides valuable debug information, while trapping mode actively mitigates vulnerabilities by trapping execution on violations. Detecting (and Fixing) Violations To successfully ship these sanitizers, any benign integer overflows must be made explicit and accidental out-of-bounds accesses must be addressed. These will have to be uncovered through testing. The higher the code coverage your tests provide, the more issues you can uncover at this stage and the easier deployment will be later on. To diagnose violations uncovered in testing, sanitizers can emit calls to runtime handlers with debug information such as the file, line number, and values leading to the violation. Sanitizers can optionally continue execution after a violation has occurred, allowing multiple violations to be discovered in a single test run. We refer to using the sanitizers in this way as running them in “diagnostics mode”. Diagnostics mode is not intended for production as it provides no security benefits and adds high overhead. Diagnostics mode for the sanitizers can be set using the following flags: -fsanitize=signed-integer-overflow,unsigned-integer-overflow,bounds -fsanitize-recover=all Since Clang does not provide a UBSan runtime for bare-metal targets, a runtime will need to be defined and provided at link time: // integer overflow handlers __ubsan_handle_add_overflow(OverflowData *data, ValueHandle lhs, ValueHandle rhs) __ubsan_handle_sub_overflow(OverflowData *data, ValueHandle lhs, ValueHandle rhs) __ubsan_handle_mul_overflow(OverflowData *data, ValueHandle lhs, ValueHandle rhs) __ubsan_handle_divrem_overflow(OverflowData *data, ValueHandle lhs, ValueHandle rhs) __ubsan_handle_negate_overflow(OverflowData *data, ValueHandle old_val) // boundsan handler __ubsan_handle_out_of_bounds_overflow(OverflowData *data, ValueHandle old_val) As an example, see the default Clang implementation; the Linux Kernels implementation may also be illustrative. With the runtime defined, enable the sanitizer over the entire baseband codebase and run all available tests to uncover and address any violations. Vulnerabilities should be patched, and overflows should either be refactored or made explicit through the use of checked arithmetic builtins which do not trigger sanitizer violations. Certain functions which are expected to have intentional overflows (such as cryptographic functions) can be preemptively excluded from sanitization (see next section). Aside from uncovering security vulnerabilities, this stage is highly effective at uncovering code quality and stability bugs that could result in instability on user devices. Once violations have been addressed and tests are no longer uncovering new violations, the next stage can begin. Measuring and Reducing Overhead Once shallow violations have been addressed, benchmarks can be run and the overhead from the sanitizers (performance, code size, memory footprint) can be measured. Measuring overhead must be done using production flags – namely “trapping mode”, where violations cause execution to abort. The diagnostics runtime used in the first stage carries significant overhead and is not indicative of the actual performance sanitizer overhead. Trapping mode can be enabled using the following flags: -fsanitize=signed-integer-overflow,unsigned-integer-overflow,bounds -fsanitize-trap=all Most of the overhead is likely due to a small handful of “hot functions”, for example those with tight long-running loops. Fine-grained per-function performance metrics (similar to what Simpleperf provides for Android), allows comparing metrics before and after sanitizers and provides the easiest means to identify hot functions. These functions can either be refactored or, after manual inspection to verify that they are safe, have sanitization disabled. Sanitizers can be disabled either inline in the source or through the use of ignorelists and the -fsanitize-ignorelist flag. The physical layer code, with its extremely tight performance margins and lower chance of exploitable vulnerabilities, may be a good candidate to disable sanitization wholesale if initial performance seems prohibitive. Soaking in Pre-production With overhead minimized and shallow bugs resolved, the final stage is enabling the sanitizers in trapping mode to mitigate vulnerabilities. We strongly recommend a long period of internal soak in pre-production with test populations to uncover any remaining violations not discovered in testing. The more thorough the test coverage and length of the soak period, the less risk there will be from undiscovered violations. As above, the configuration for trapping mode is as follows: -fsanitize=signed-integer-overflow,unsigned-integer-overflow,bounds -fsanitize-trap=all Having infrastructure in place to collect bug reports which result from any undiscovered violations can help minimize the risk they present. Transitioning to Memory Safe Languages The benefits from deploying sanitizers in your existing code base are tangible, however ultimately they address only the lowest hanging fruit and will not result in a code base free of vulnerabilities. Other classes of memory safety vulnerabilities remain unaddressed by these sanitizers. A longer term solution is to begin transitioning today to memory-safe languages such as Rust. Rust is ready for bare-metal environments such as the baseband, and we are already using it in other bare-metal components in Android. There is no need to rewrite everything in Rust, as Rust provides a strong C FFI support and easily interfaces with existing C codebases. Just writing new code in Rust can rapidly reduce the number of memory safety vulnerabilities. Rewrites should be limited/prioritized only for the most critical components, such as complex parsers handling untrusted data. The Android team has developed a Rust training meant to help experienced developers quickly ramp up Rust fundamentals. An entire day for bare-metal Rust is included, and the course has been translated to a number of different languages. While the Rust compiler may not explicitly support your bare-metal target, because it is a front-end for LLVM, any target supported by LLVM can be supported in Rust through custom target definitions. Raising the Bar As the high-level operating system becomes a more difficult target for attackers to successfully exploit, we expect that lower level components such as the baseband will attract more attention. By using modern toolchains and deploying exploit mitigation technologies, the bar for attacking the baseband can be raised as well. If you have any questions, let us know – we’re here to help!

Improving Text Classification Resilience and Efficiency with RETVec

Wednesday November 29th, 2023 05:00:03 PM
Elie Bursztein, Cybersecurity & AI Research Director, and Marina Zhang, Software EngineerSystems such as Gmail, YouTube and Google Play rely on text classification models to identify harmful content including phishing attacks, inappropriate comments, and scams. These types of texts are harder for machine learning models to classify because bad actors rely on adversarial text manipulations to actively attempt to evade the classifiers. For example, they will use homoglyphs, invisible characters, and keyword stuffing to bypass defenses. To help make text classifiers more robust and efficient, we’ve developed a novel, multilingual text vectorizer called RETVec (Resilient & Efficient Text Vectorizer) that helps models achieve state-of-the-art classification performance and drastically reduces computational cost. Today, we’re sharing how RETVec has been used to help protect Gmail inboxes.Strengthening the Gmail Spam Classifier with RETVecFigure 1. RETVec-based Gmail Spam filter improvements.Over the past year, we battle-tested RETVec extensively inside Google to evaluate its usefulness and found it to be highly effective for security and anti-abuse applications. In particular, replacing the Gmail spam classifier’s previous text vectorizer with RETVec allowed us to improve the spam detection rate over the baseline by 38% and reduce the false positive rate by 19.4%. Additionally, using RETVec reduced the TPU usage of the model by 83%, making the RETVec deployment one of the largest defense upgrades in recent years. RETVec achieves these improvements by sporting a very lightweight word embedding model (~200k parameters), allowing us to reduce the Transformer model’s size at equal or better performance, and having the ability to split the computation between the host and TPU in a network and memory efficient manner.RETVec BenefitsRETVec achieves these improvements by combining a novel, highly-compact character encoder, an augmentation-driven training regime, and the use of metric learning. The architecture details and benchmark evaluations are available in our NeurIPS 2023 paper and we open-source RETVec on Github.Due to its novel architecture, RETVec works out-of-the-box on every language and all UTF-8 characters without the need for text preprocessing, making it the ideal candidate for on-device, web, and large-scale text classification deployments. Models trained with RETVec exhibit faster inference speed due to its compact representation. Having smaller models reduces computational costs and decreases latency, which is critical for large-scale applications and on-device models.Figure 1. RETVec architecture diagram.Models trained with RETVec can be seamlessly converted to TFLite for mobile and edge devices, as a result of a native implementation in TensorFlow Text. For web application model deployment, we provide a TensorflowJS layer implementation that is available on Github and you can check out a demo web page running a RETVec-based model.Figure 2.  Typo resilience of text classification models trained from scratch using different vectorizers.RETVec is a novel open-source text vectorizer that allows you to build more resilient and efficient server-side and on-device text classifiers. The Gmail spam filter uses it to help protect Gmail inboxes against malicious emails.If you would like to use RETVec for your own use cases or research, we created a tutorial to help you get started.This research was conducted by Elie Bursztein, Marina Zhang, Owen Vallis, Xinyu Jia, and Alexey Kurakin. We would like to thank Gengxin Miao, Brunno Attorre, Venkat Sreepati, Lidor Avigad, Dan Givol, Rishabh Seth and Melvin Montenegro and all the Googlers who contributed to the project.

Two years later: a baseline that drives up security for the industry

Tuesday December 5th, 2023 10:10:13 AM
Royal Hansen, Vice President of Privacy, Safety and Security Engineering, GoogleNearly half of third-parties fail to meet two or more of the Minimum Viable Secure Product controls. Why is this a problem? Because "98% of organizations have a relationship with at least one third-party that has experienced a breach in the last 2 years."In this post, we're excited to share the latest improvements to the Minimum Viable Secure Product (MVSP) controls. We'll also shed light on how adoption of MVSP has helped Google improve its security processes, and hope this example will help motivate third-parties to increase their adoption of MVSP controls and thus improve product security across the industry.About MVSPIn October 2021, Google publicly launched MVSP alongside launch partners. Our original goal remains unchanged: to provide a vendor-neutral application security baseline, designed to eliminate overhead, complexity, and confusion in the end-to-end process of onboarding third-party products and services. It covers themes such as procurement, security assessment, and contract negotiation.Improvements since launchAs part of MVSP’s annual control review, and our core philosophy of evolution over revolution, the working group sought input from the broader security community to ensure MVSP maintains a balance between security and achievability.As a result of these discussions, we launched updated controls. Key changes include: expanded guidance around external vulnerability reporting to protect bug hunters, and discouraging additional costs for access to basic security features – inline with CISA’s "Secure-by-Design" principles.In 2022, we developed guidance on build process security based on SLSA, to reflect the importance of supply chain security and integrity.From an organizational perspective, in the two years since launching, we've seen the community around MVSP continue to expand. The working group has grown to over 20 global members, helping to diversify voices and broaden expertise. We've also had the opportunity to present and discuss the program with a number of key groups, including an invitation to present at the United Nations International Computing Centre – Common Secure Conference.Google at the UNICC conference in Valencia, SpainHow Google uses MVSPSince its inception, Google has looked to integrate improvements to our own processes using MVSP as a template. Two years later, we can clearly see the impact through faster procurement processes, streamlined contract negotiations, and improved data-driven decision making.HighlightsAfter implementing MVSP into key areas of Google's third-party life-cycle, we've observed a 68% reduction in the time required for third-parties to complete assessment process.By embedding MVSP into select procurement processes, Google has increased data-driven decision making in earlier phases of the cycle.Aligning our Information Protection Addendum’s safeguards with MVSP has significantly improved our third-party privacy and security risk management processes.You use MVSP to enhance your software or procurement processes by reviewing some common use-cases and adopting them into your third-party risk management and/or contracting workflows .What's next?We're invested in helping the industry manage risk posture through continuous improvement, while increasing the minimum bar for product security across the industry.By making MVSP available to the wider industry, we are helping to create a solid foundation for growing the maturity level of products and services. Google has benefited from driving security and safety improvements through the use of leveled sets of requirements. We expect the same to be true across the wider industry.We've seen success, but there is still work to be done. Based on initial observations, as mentioned above, 48% of third-parties fail to meet two or more of the Minimum Viable Secure Product controls.As an industry, we can't stand still when it comes to product security. Help us raise the minimum bar for application security by adopting MVSP and ensuring we as an industry don’t accept anything less than a strong security baseline that works for the wider industry.AcknowledgementsGoogle and the MVSP working group would like to thank those who have supported and contributed since its inception. If you'd like to get involved or provide feedback, please reach out.Thank you to Chris John Riley, Gabor Acs-Kurucz, Michele Chubirka, Anna Hupa, Dirk Göhmann and Kaan Kivilcim from the Google MVSP Group for their contributions to this post.

Evolving the App Defense Alliance

Wednesday November 8th, 2023 02:03:58 PM
Posted by Nataliya Stanetsky, Android Security and Privacy Team The App Defense Alliance (ADA), an industry-leading collaboration launched by Google in 2019 dedicated to ensuring the safety of the app ecosystem, is taking a major step forward. We are proud to announce that the App Defense Alliance is moving under the umbrella of the Linux Foundation, with Meta, Microsoft, and Google as founding steering members. This strategic migration represents a pivotal moment in the Alliance’s journey, signifying a shared commitment by the members to strengthen app security and related standards across ecosystems. This evolution of the App Defense Alliance will enable us to foster more collaborative implementation of industry standards for app security. Uniting for App Security The digital landscape is continually evolving, and so are the threats to user security. With the ever-increasing complexity of mobile apps and the growing importance of data protection, now is the perfect time for this transition. The Linux Foundation is renowned for its dedication to fostering open-source projects that drive innovation, security, and sustainability. By combining forces with additional members under the Linux Foundation, we can adapt and respond more effectively to emerging challenges. The commitment of the newly structured App Defense Alliance’s founding steering members – Meta, Microsoft, and Google – is pivotal in making this transition a reality. With a member community spanning an additional 16 General and Contributor Members, the Alliance will support industry-wide adoption of app security best practices and guidelines, as well as countermeasures against emerging security risks. Continuing the Malware Mitigation Program The App Defense Alliance was formed with the mission of reducing the risk of app-based malware and better protecting Android users. Malware defense remains an important focus for Google and Android, and we will continue to partner closely with the Malware Mitigation Program members – ESET, Lookout, McAfee, Trend Micro, Zimperium – on direct signal sharing. The migration of ADA under the Linux Foundation will enable broader threat intelligence sharing across leading ecosystem partners and researchers. Looking Ahead and Connecting With the ADA We invite you to stay connected with the newly structured App Defense Alliance under the Linux foundation umbrella. Join the conversation to help make apps more secure. Together with the steering committee, alliance partners, and the broader ecosystem, we look forward to building more secure and trustworthy app ecosystems.

MTE - The promising path forward for memory safety

Tuesday November 7th, 2023 07:06:03 PM
Posted by Andy Qin, Irene Ang, Kostya Serebryany, Evgenii Stepanov Since 2018, Google has partnered with ARM and collaborated with many ecosystem partners (SoCs vendors, mobile phone OEMs, etc.) to develop Memory Tagging Extension (MTE) technology. We are now happy to share the growing adoption in the ecosystem. MTE is now available on some OEM devices (as noted in a recent blog post by Project Zero) with Android 14 as a developer option, enabling developers to use MTE to discover memory safety issues in their application easily. The security landscape is changing dynamically, new attacks are becoming more complex and costly to mitigate. It’s becoming increasingly important to detect and prevent security vulnerabilities early in the software development cycle and also have the capability to mitigate the security attacks at the first moment of exploitation in production.The biggest contributor to security vulnerabilities are memory safety related defects and Google has invested in a set of technologies to help mitigate memory safety risks. These include but are not limited to: Shifting to memory safe languages such as Rust as a proactive solution to prevent the new memory safety bugs from being introduced in the first place. Tools for detecting memory safety defects in the development stages and production environment, such as widely used sanitizer technologies1 (ASAN, HWASAN, GWP-ASAN, etc.) as well as fuzzing (with sanitizers enabled). Foundational technologies like MTE, which many experts believe is the most promising path forward for improving C/C++ software security and it can be deployed both in development and production at reasonably low cost. MTE is a hardware based capability that can detect unknown memory safety vulnerabilities in testing and/or mitigate them in production. It works by tagging the pointers and memory regions and comparing the tags to identify mismatches (details). In addition to the security benefits, MTE can also help ensure integrity because memory safety bugs remain one of the major contributors to silent data corruption that not only impact customer trust, but also cause lost productivity for software developers. At the moment, MTE is supported on some of the latest chipsets: Focusing on security for Android devices, the MediaTek Dimensity 9300 integrates support for MTE via ARM's latest v9 architecture (which is what Cortex-X4 and Cortex-A720 processors are based on). This feature can be switched on and off in the bootloader by users and developers instead of having it always on or always off. Tensor G3 integrates support for MTE only within the developer mode toggle. Feature can be activated by developers. For both chipsets, this feature can be switched on and off by developers, making it easier to find memory-related bugs during development and after deployment. MTE can help users stay safe while also improving time to market for OEMs.Application developers will be the first to leverage this feature as a way to improve their application security and reliability in the software development lifecycle. MTE can effectively help them to discover hard-to-detect memory safety vulnerabilities (buffer overflows, user-after-free, etc.) with clear & actionable stack trace information in integration testing or pre-production environments. Another benefit of MTE is that the engineering cost of memory-safety testing is drastically reduced because heap bug detection (which is majority of all memory safety bugs) does not require any source or binary changes to leverage MTE, i.e. advanced memory-safety can be achieved with just a simple environment or configuration change.We believe that MTE will play a very important role in detecting and preventing memory safety vulnerabilities and provide a promising path towards improving software security. Notes ASAN = Address Sanitizer; HWASAN = HW based ASAN;GWP-ASAN = sampling based ASAN ↩

Qualified certificates with qualified risks

Friday November 3rd, 2023 08:37:53 PM
Posted by Chrome Security team Improving the interoperability of web services is an important and worthy goal. We believe that it should be easier for people to maintain and control their digital identities. And we appreciate that policymakers working on European Union digital certificate legislation, known as eIDAS, are working toward this goal. However, a specific part of the legislation, Article 45, hinders browsers’ ability to enforce certain security requirements on certificates, potentially holding back advances in web security for decades. We and many past and present leaders in the international web community have significant concerns about Article 45's impact on security. We urge lawmakers to heed the calls of scientists and security experts to revise this part of the legislation rather than erode users’ privacy and security on the web.

More ways for users to identify independently security tested apps on Google Play

Thursday November 2nd, 2023 04:00:24 PM
Posted by Nataliya Stanetsky, Android Security and Privacy Team Keeping Google Play safe for users and developers remains a top priority for Google. As users increasingly prioritize their digital privacy and security, we continue to invest in our Data Safety section and transparency labeling efforts to help users make more informed choices about the apps they use. Research shows that transparent security labeling plays a crucial role in consumer risk perception, building trust, and influencing product purchasing decisions. We believe the same principles apply for labeling and badging in the Google Play store. The transparency of an app’s data security and privacy play a key role in a user’s decision to download, trust, and use an app. Highlighting Independently Security Tested VPN Apps Last year, App Defense Alliance (ADA) introduced MASA (Mobile App Security Assessment), which allows developers to have their apps independently validated against a global security standard. This signals to users that an independent third-party has validated that the developers designed their apps to meet these industry mobile security and privacy minimum best practices and the developers are going the extra mile to identify and mitigate vulnerabilities. This, in turn, makes it harder for attackers to reach users' devices and improves app quality across the ecosystem. Upon completion of the successful validation, Google Play gives developers the option to declare an “Independent security review” badge in its Data Safety section, as shown in the image below. While certification to baseline security standards does not imply that a product is free of vulnerabilities, the badge associated with these validated apps helps users see at-a-glance that a developer has prioritized security and privacy practices and committed to user safety. To help give users a simplified view of which apps have undergone an independent security validation, we’re introducing a new Google Play store banner for specific app types, starting with VPN apps. We’ve launched this banner beginning with VPN apps due to the sensitive and significant amount of user data these apps handle. When a user searches for VPN apps, they will now see a banner at the top of Google Play that educates them about the “Independent security review” badge in the Data Safety Section. Users also have the ability to “Learn More”, which redirects them to the App Validation Directory, a centralized place to view all VPN apps that have been independently security reviewed. Users can also discover additional technical assessment details in the App Validation Directory, helping them to make more informed decisions about what VPN apps to download, use, and trust with their data. VPN providers such as NordVPN, Google One, ExpressVPN, and others have already undergone independent security testing and publicly declared the badge showing their good standing with the MASA program. We encourage and anticipate additional VPN app developers to undergo independent security testing, bringing even more transparency to users. If you are a VPN developer and interested in learning more about this feature, please submit this form. Our Commitment to App Security and Privacy Transparency on Google Play By encouraging independent security testing and displaying security badges for validated apps, we highlight developers who prioritize user safety and data transparency. We also provide developers with app security and privacy best practices – through Play PolicyBytes videos, webinars, blog posts, the Developer Help Community, and other resources – in accordance with our developer policies that help keep Google Play safe. We are continually working on improvements to our app review process, policies, and programs to keep users safe and to help developers navigate our policies with ease. To learn more about how we give developers the tools to succeed while keeping users safe on Google Play, read the Google Safety Center article. Our efforts to prioritize security and privacy transparency on Google Play are aligned with the needs and expectations we’ve heard from both users and developers. We believe that by prioritizing initiatives that bolster user safety and trust, we can foster a thriving app ecosystem where users can make more informed app decisions and developers are encouraged to uphold the highest standards of security and privacy.

Increasing transparency in AI security

Thursday October 26th, 2023 01:05:09 PM
Mihai Maruseac, Sarah Meiklejohn, Mark Lodato, Google Open Source Security Team (GOSST)New AI innovations and applications are reaching consumers and businesses on an almost-daily basis. Building AI securely is a paramount concern, and we believe that Google’s Secure AI Framework (SAIF) can help chart a path for creating AI applications that users can trust. Today, we’re highlighting two new ways to make information about AI supply chain security universally discoverable and verifiable, so that AI can be created and used responsibly. The first principle of SAIF is to ensure that the AI ecosystem has strong security foundations. In particular, the software supply chains for components specific to AI development, such as machine learning models, need to be secured against threats including model tampering, data poisoning, and the production of harmful content. Even as machine learning and artificial intelligence continue to evolve rapidly, some solutions are now within reach of ML creators. We’re building on our prior work with the Open Source Security Foundation to show how ML model creators can and should protect against ML supply chain attacks by using SLSA and Sigstore.Supply chain security for MLFor supply chain security of conventional software (software that does not use ML), we usually consider questions like:Who published the software? Are they trustworthy? Did they use safe practices?For open source software, what was the source code?What dependencies went into building that software?Could the software have been replaced by a tampered version following publication? Could this have occurred during build time?All of these questions also apply to the hundreds of free ML models that are available for use on the internet. Using an ML model means trusting every part of it, just as you would any other piece of software. This includes concerns such as:Who published the model? Are they trustworthy? Did they use safe practices?For open source models, what was the training code?What datasets went into training that model?Could the model have been replaced by a tampered version following publication? Could this have occurred during training time?We should treat tampering of ML models with the same severity as we treat injection of malware into conventional software. In fact, since models are programs, many allow the same types of arbitrary code execution exploits that are leveraged for attacks on conventional software. Furthermore, a tampered model could leak or steal data, cause harm from biases, or spread dangerous misinformation. Inspection of an ML model is insufficient to determine whether bad behaviors were injected. This is similar to trying to reverse engineer an executable to identify malware. To protect supply chains at scale, we need to know how the model or software was created to answer the questions above.Solutions for ML supply chain securityIn recent years, we’ve seen how providing public and verifiable information about what happens during different stages of software development is an effective method of protecting conventional software against supply chain attacks. This supply chain transparency offers protection and insights with:Digital signatures, such as those from Sigstore, which allow users to verify that the software wasn’t tampered with or replacedMetadata such as SLSA provenance that tell us what’s in software and how it was built, allowing consumers to ensure license compatibility, identify known vulnerabilities, and detect more advanced threatsTogether, these solutions help combat the enormous uptick in supply chain attacks that have turned every step in the software development lifecycle into a potential target for malicious activity.We believe transparency throughout the development lifecycle will also help secure ML models, since ML model development follows a similar lifecycle as for regular software artifacts:Similarities between software development and ML model developmentAn ML training process can be thought of as a “build:” it transforms some input data to some output data. Similarly, training data can be thought of as a “dependency:” it is data that is used during the build process. Because of the similarity in the development lifecycles, the same software supply chain attack vectors that threaten software development also apply to model development: Attack vectors on ML through the lens of the ML supply chainBased on the similarities in development lifecycle and threat vectors, we propose applying the same supply chain solutions from SLSA and Sigstore to ML models to similarly protect them against supply chain attacks.Sigstore for ML modelsCode signing is a critical step in supply chain security. It identifies the producer of a piece of software and prevents tampering after publication. But normally code signing is difficult to set up—producers need to manage and rotate keys, set up infrastructure for verification, and instruct consumers on how to verify. Often times secrets are also leaked since security is hard to get right during the process.We suggest bypassing these challenges by using Sigstore, a collection of tools and services that make code signing secure and easy. Sigstore allows any software producer to sign their software by simply using an OpenID Connect token bound to either a workload or developer identity—all without the need to manage or rotate long-lived secrets.So how would signing ML models benefit users? By signing models after training, we can assure users that they have the exact model that the builder (aka “trainer”) uploaded. Signing models discourages model hub owners from swapping models, addresses the issue of a model hub compromise, and can help prevent users from being tricked into using a bad model. Model signatures make attacks similar to PoisonGPT detectable. The tampered models will either fail signature verification or can be directly traced back to the malicious actor. Our current work to encourage this industry standard includes:Having ML frameworks integrate signing and verification in the model save/load APIsHaving ML model hubs add a badge to all signed models, thus guiding users towards signed models and incentivizing signatures from model developersScaling model signing for LLMs SLSA for ML Supply Chain IntegritySigning with Sigstore provides users with confidence in the models that they are using, but it cannot answer every question they have about the model. SLSA goes a step further to provide more meaning behind those signatures. SLSA (Supply-chain Levels for Software Artifacts) is a specification for describing how a software artifact was built. SLSA-enabled build platforms implement controls to prevent tampering and output signed provenance describing how the software artifact was produced, including all build inputs. This way, SLSA provides trustworthy metadata about what went into a software artifact.Applying SLSA to ML could provide similar information about an ML model’s supply chain and address attack vectors not covered by model signing, such as compromised source control, compromised training process, and vulnerability injection. Our vision is to include specific ML information in a SLSA provenance file, which would help users spot an undertrained model or one trained on bad data. Upon detecting a vulnerability in an ML framework, users can quickly identify which models need to be retrained, thus reducing costs.We don’t need special ML extensions for SLSA. Since an ML training process is a build (shown in the earlier diagram), we can apply the existing SLSA guidelines to ML training. The ML training process should be hardened against tampering and output provenance just like a conventional build process. More work on SLSA is needed to make it fully useful and applicable to ML, particularly around describing dependencies such as datasets and pretrained models.  Most of these efforts will also benefit conventional software.For models training on pipelines that do not require GPUs/TPUs, using an existing, SLSA-enabled build platform is a simple solution. For example, Google Cloud Build, GitHub Actions, or GitLab CI are all generally available SLSA-enabled build platforms. It is possible to run an ML training step on one of these platforms to make all of the built-in supply chain security features available to conventional software.How to do model signing and SLSA for ML todayBy incorporating supply chain security into the ML development lifecycle now, while the problem space is still unfolding, we can jumpstart work with the open source community to establish industry standards to solve pressing problems. This effort is already underway and available for testing.  Our repository of tooling for model signing and experimental SLSA provenance support for smaller ML models is available now. Our future ML framework and model hub integrations will be released in this repository as well. We welcome collaboration with the ML community and are looking forward to reaching consensus on how to best integrate supply chain protection standards into existing tooling (such as Model Cards). If you have feedback or ideas, please feel free to open an issue and let us know. 

Google’s reward criteria for reporting bugs in AI products

Thursday October 26th, 2023 12:00:33 PM
Eduardo Vela, Jan Keller and Ryan Rinaldi, Google Engineering In September, we shared how we are implementing the voluntary AI commitments that we and others in industry made at the White House in July. One of the most important developments involves expanding our existing Bug Hunter Program to foster third-party discovery and reporting of issues and vulnerabilities specific to our AI systems. Today, we’re publishing more details on these new reward program elements for the first time. Last year we issued over $12 million in rewards to security researchers who tested our products for vulnerabilities, and we expect today’s announcement to fuel even greater collaboration for years to come. What’s in scope for rewards In our recent AI Red Team report, we identified common tactics, techniques, and procedures (TTPs) that we consider most relevant and realistic for real-world adversaries to use against AI systems. The following table incorporates shared learnings from Google’s AI Red Team exercises to help the research community better understand what’s in scope for our reward program. We're detailing our criteria for AI bug reports to assist our bug hunting community in effectively testing the safety and security of AI products. Our scope aims to facilitate testing for traditional security vulnerabilities as well as risks specific to AI systems. It is important to note that reward amounts are dependent on severity of the attack scenario and the type of target affected (go here for more information on our reward table). CategoryAttack ScenarioGuidancePrompt Attacks: Crafting adversarial prompts that allow an adversary to influence the behavior of the model, and hence the output in ways that were not intended by the application.Prompt injections that are invisible to victims and change the state of the victim's account or or any of their assets.In ScopePrompt injections into any tools in which the response is used to make decisions that directly affect victim users.In ScopePrompt or preamble extraction in which a user is able to extract the initial prompt used to prime the model only when sensitive information is present in the extracted preamble.In ScopeUsing a product to generate violative, misleading, or factually incorrect content in your own session: e.g. 'jailbreaks'. This includes 'hallucinations' and factually inaccurate responses. Google's generative AI products already have a dedicated reporting channel for these types of content issues.Out of ScopeTraining Data Extraction: Attacks that are able to successfully reconstruct verbatim training examples that contain sensitive information. Also called membership inference.Training data extraction that reconstructs items used in the training data set that leak sensitive, non-public information.In ScopeExtraction that reconstructs nonsensitive/public information.Out of ScopeManipulating Models: An attacker able to covertly change the behavior of a model such that they can trigger pre-defined adversarial behaviors.Adversarial output or behavior that an attacker can reliably trigger via specific input in a model owned and operated by Google ("backdoors"). Only in-scope when a model's output is used to change the state of a victim's account or data. In ScopeAttacks in which an attacker manipulates the training data of the model to influence the model’s output in a victim's session according to the attacker’s preference. Only in-scope when a model's output is used to change the state of a victim's account or data. In ScopeAdversarial Perturbation: Inputs that are provided to a model that results in a deterministic, but highly unexpected output from the model.Contexts in which an adversary can reliably trigger a misclassification in a security control that can be abused for malicious use or adversarial gain. In ScopeContexts in which a model's incorrect output or classification does not pose a compelling attack scenario or feasible path to Google or user harm.Out of ScopeModel Theft / Exfiltration: AI models often include sensitive intellectual property, so we place a high priority on protecting these assets. Exfiltration attacks allow attackers to steal details about a model such as its architecture or weights.Attacks in which the exact architecture or weights of a confidential/proprietary model are extracted.In ScopeAttacks in which the architecture and weights are not extracted precisely, or when they're extracted from a non-confidential model.Out of ScopeIf you find a flaw in an AI-powered tool other than what is listed above, you can still submit, provided that it meets the qualifications listed on our program page.A bug or behavior that clearly meets our qualifications for a valid security or abuse issue.In ScopeUsing an AI product to do something potentially harmful that is already possible with other tools. For example, finding a vulnerability in open source software (already possible using publicly-available static analysis tools) and producing the answer to a harmful question when the answer is already available online.Out of ScopeAs consistent with our program, issues that we already know about are not eligible for reward.Out of ScopePotential copyright issues: findings in which products return content appearing to be copyright-protected. Google's generative AI products already have a dedicated reporting channel for these types of content issues.Out of ScopeConclusion We look forward to continuing our work with the research community to discover and fix security and abuse issues in our AI-powered features. If you find a qualifying issue, please go to our Bug Hunter website to send us your bug report and–if the issue is found to be valid–be rewarded for helping us keep our users safe.

Joint Industry statement of support for Consumer IoT Security Principles

Friday October 27th, 2023 03:41:24 PM
David Kleidermacher, VP Engineering, Android Security & Privacy and DSPA Security & Privacy, and Eugene Liderman, Director, Android Security StrategyLast week at Singapore International Cyber Week and the ETSI Security Conferences, the international community gathered together to discuss cybersecurity hot topics of the day. Amidst a number of important cybersecurity discussions, we want to highlight progress on connected device security demonstrated by  joint industry principles for IoT security transparency. The future of connected devices offers tremendous potential for innovation and quality of life improvements. Putting a spotlight on consumer IoT security is a key aspect of achieving these benefits. Marketplace competition can be an important driver of security improvements, with consumers empowered and motivated to make informed purchasing decisions based on device security. As with other IoT security transparency initiatives globally, it’s great to see this topic being covered at both conferences this week. The below IoT security labeling principles are aimed at helping to improve consumer awareness and to foster marketplace competition based on security.To help consumers make an informed purchase decision they should receive clear, consistent, and actionable information about the security of the device (e.g. security support period, authentication support, cryptographic assurance) before purchase - a communication and transparency mechanism commonly referred to as “a label” or “labeling,” although the communication is not merely a printed sticker on physical product packaging. While an IoT label will not solve the problem of IoT security on its own, transparency can both help educate consumers and also facilitate the coordination of security responsibilities between all of the components in a connected device ecosystem.Our goal is to strengthen the security of IoT devices and ecosystems to protect individuals and organizations, and to unleash the full future benefit of IoT. Security labeling programs can support consumer purchase decisions that drive security improvements, but only if the label is credible, actionable, and easily understood. We are hopeful that the public sector and industry can work together to drive harmonized policies that achieve this goal. Signed,GoogleARMAssa AbloyFinite StateHackerOneKeysightNXPOpenPolicyRapid7SchlageSilicon Labs

Enhanced Google Play Protect real-time scanning for app installs

Wednesday October 18th, 2023 04:00:27 PM
Posted by Steve Kafka, Group Product Manager and Roman Kirillov, Senior Engineering Manager Mobile devices have supercharged our modern lives, helping us do everything from purchasing goods in store and paying bills online to storing financial data, health records, passwords and pictures. According to Data.ai, the pandemic accelerated existing mobile habits – with app categories like finance growing 25% year-over-year and users spending over 100 billion hours in shopping apps. It's now even more important that data is protected so that bad actors can't access the information. Powering up Google Play Protect Google Play Protect is built-in, proactive protection against malware and unwanted software and is enabled on all Android devices with Google Play Services. Google Play Protect scans 125 billion apps daily to help protect you from malware and unwanted software. If it finds a potentially harmful app, Google Play Protect can take certain actions such as sending you a warning, preventing an app install, or disabling the app automatically. To try and avoid detection by services like Play Protect, cybercriminals are using novel malicious apps available outside of Google Play to infect more devices with polymorphic malware, which can change its identifiable features. They’re turning to social engineering to trick users into doing something dangerous, such as revealing confidential information or downloading a malicious app from ephemeral sources – most commonly via links to download malicious apps or downloads directly through messaging apps. For this reason, Google Play Protect has always also offered users protection outside of Google Play. It checks your device for potentially harmful apps regardless of the install source when you’re online or offline as well. Previously, when installing an app, Play Protect conducted a real-time check and warned users when it identified an app known to be malicious from existing scanning intelligence or was identified as suspicious from our on-device machine learning, similarity comparisons, and other techniques that we are always evolving. Today, we are making Google Play Protect’s security capabilities even more powerful with real-time scanning at the code-level to combat novel malicious apps. Google Play Protect will now recommend a real-time app scan when installing apps that have never been scanned before to help detect emerging threats. Scanning will extract important signals from the app and send them to the Play Protect backend infrastructure for a code-level evaluation. Once the real-time analysis is complete, users will get a result letting them know if the app looks safe to install or if the scan determined the app is potentially harmful. This enhancement will help better protect users against malicious polymorphic apps that leverage various methods, such as AI, to be altered to avoid detection. Our security protections and machine learning algorithms learn from each app submitted to Google for review and we look at thousands of signals and compare app behavior. Google Play Protect is constantly improving with each identified app, allowing us to strengthen our protections for the entire Android ecosystem. This enhancement to Google Play Protect has started to roll out to all Android devices with Google Play services in select countries, starting with India, and will expand to all regions in the coming months. Our Multi-Layered User Protections on Android Android takes a multi-layered defense approach to help keep you safe from mobile malware and unwanted software on Android. Android’s built-in proactive and advanced user protections like Google Play Protect, ongoing security updates, app permission controls, Safe Browsing, and more – alongside spam and phishing protection in Messages by Google and Gmail – work together to help protect your data security and privacy. We are constantly improving this multi-layered approach to find new ways to protect our billions of users. Keeping Android users safe is a top priority. We are committed to working with our ecosystem partners and app developer community to improve the security of apps and combat malware and unwanted software to make Android even more secure.

Scaling BeyondCorp with AI-Assisted Access Control Policies

Tuesday October 17th, 2023 07:11:10 PM
Ayush Khandelwal, Software Engineer, Michael Torres, Security Engineer, Hemil Patel, Technical Program Manager, Sameer Ladiwala, Software EnginnerIn July 2023, four Googlers from the Enterprise Security and Access Security organizations developed a tool that aimed at revolutionizing the way Googlers interact with Access Control Lists - SpeakACL. This tool, awarded the Gold Prize during Google’s internal Security & AI Hackathon, allows developers to create or modify security policies using simple English instructions rather than having to learn system-specific syntax or complex security principles. This can save security and product teams hours of time and effort, while helping to protect the information of their users by encouraging the reduction of permitted access by adhering to the principle of least privilege.Access Control Policies in BeyondCorpGoogle requires developers and owners of enterprise applications to define their own access control policies, as described in BeyondCorp: The Access Proxy. We have invested in reducing the difficulty of self-service ACL and ACL test creation to encourage these service owners to define least privilege access control policies. However, it is still challenging to concisely transform their intent into the language acceptable to the access control engine. Additional complexity is added by the variety of engines, and corresponding policy definition languages that target different access control domains (i.e. websites, networks, RPC servers).To adequately implement an access control policy, service developers are expected to learn various policy definition languages and their associated syntax, in addition to sufficiently understanding security concepts. As this takes time away from core developer work, it is not the most efficient use of developer time. A solution was required to remove these challenges so developers can focus on building innovative tools and products.Making it WorkWe built a prototype interface for interactively defining and modifying access control policies for the BeyondCorp access control engine using the PaLM 2 Large Language Model (LLM). using the PaLM 2 Large Language Model (LLM). We used Google Colab to provide the model with a diverse, highly variable, dataset using in-context learning and fine-tuning. In-context learning allows the model to learn from a dataset of examples that are relevant to the task at hand, which we provided via few-shot learning. Fine-tuning allows the model to be adapted to a specific task by adjusting its parameters. Tuning the model with a diverse labeled dataset that we curated for this task allowed us to improve its ability to generate ACLs that are both syntactically accurate and adhered to the principle of least privilege. With SpeakACL, and other tools leveraging AI in security, it is always recommended to take a conservative approach with the autonomy you give an AI agent. To ensure our model outputs are correct & safe to use, we combined our tool with existing safeguards that exist at Google for all access policy modifications:Request LGTM from a teammate to ensure that the intent of the proposed change is correct. Automated Risk Assessment occurs on proposed security policy at Google. Manual Review by Security Engineers is performed on changes not assessed as low risk to ensure compliance with security policies and guidelines.Linting, unit tests, and integration tests ensure that the access control language syntax is correct, and that the change does not break any expected access or permit unexpected access.Looking to the futureWhile progress in AI is impressive, it is crucial we as an industry continue to prioritize safety while navigating the landscape. Other than adding checks to syntactically and semantically verify access policies produced by our model, we also designed safeguards for sensitive information disclosure, data leaking, prompt injections, and supply chain vulnerabilities to make sure our model is performing at the highest level of security.SpeakACL is an ACL Generation tool that has the potential to revolutionize the way access policies are created and managed. The efficiency, security, and ease of use achieved by this AI-powered ACL Generation Engine reflects Google’s ongoing commitment to leveraging AI across domains to develop cutting-edge products and infrastructure. 


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Malware don't need Coffee


Last feed update: Tuesday March 6th, 2018 11:07:51 PM

CoalaBot : http Ddos Bot

Monday October 16th, 2017 04:30:39 PM
CoalaBot appears to be build on August Stealer code (Panel and Traffic are really alike)I found it spread as a tasks in a Betabot and in an Andromeda spread via RIG fed by at least one HilltopAds malvertising. 2017-09-11: a witnessed infection chain to CoalaBotA look inside :CoalaBot: Login Screen(August Stealer alike) CoalaBot: StatisticsCoalaBot: BotsCoalaBot: TasksCoalaBot: TasksCoalaBot: New Taks (list)CoalaBot: https get task detailsCoalaBot: http post task detailsCoalaBot: SettingsHere is the translated associated advert published on 2017-08-23 by a user going with nick : Discomrade.(Thanks to Andrew Komarov and others who provided help here).------------------------------------------Coala Http Ddos Bot The software focuses on L7 attacks (HTTP). Lower levels have more primitive attacks.Attack types:• ICMP (PING) FLOOD• UDP FLOOD• TCP FLOOD• HTTP ARME• HTTP GET *• HTTP POST *• HTTP SLOWLORIS *• HTTP PULSE WAVE ** - Supports SMART mode, i.e. bypasses Cloudflare/Blazingfast and similar services (but doesn’t bypass CAPTCHA). All types except ICMP/UDP have support for using SSL.Binary:• .NET 2.0 x86 (100% working capacity WIN XP - WIN 7, on later versions ОС .NET 2.0 disabled by default)• ~100kb after obfuscation• Auto Backup (optional)• Low CPU load for efficient use• Encryption of incoming/outgoing traffic• No installation on machines from former CIS countries(RU/UA/BL/KZ/...)• Scan time non-FUD. Contact us if you need a recommendation for a good crypting service.• Ability to link a build to more than one gate.Panel:• Detailed statistics on time online/architecture/etc. • List of bots, detailed information• Number count of requests per second (total/for each bot)• Creation of groups for attacks• Auto sorting of bots by groups • Creation of tasks, the ability to choose by group/country• Setting an optional time for bots success rate Other:• Providing macros for randomization of sent data • Support of .onion gate• Ability to install an additional layer (BOT => LAYER => MAIN GATE) Requirements:• PHP 5.6 or higher• MySQL• Мodule for MySQLi(mysqli_nd); php-mbstring, php-json, php-mcrypt extensionsScreenshots:• Statistics- http://i.imgur.com/FUevsaS.jpg• Bots - http://i.imgur.com/nDwl9pY.jpg• Created tasks - http://i.imgur.com/RltiDhl.png• Task List - http://i.imgur.com/tqEEpX0.jpg• Settings - http://i.imgur.com/EbhExjE.jpgPrice:• $300 - build and panel. Up to 3 gates for one build.• $20 - rebuildThe price can vary depending on updates.Escrow service is welcome.Help with installation is no charge.------------------------------------------Sample:VT linkMD5 f3862c311c67cb027a06d4272b680a3bSHA1 0ff1584eec4fc5c72439d94e8cee922703c44049SHA256 fd07ad13dbf9da3f7841bc0dbfd303dc18153ad36259d9c6db127b49fa01d08fEmerging Threats rules :2024531 || ET TROJAN MSIL/CoalaBot CnC ActivityRead More:August in November: New Information Stealer Hits the Scene - 2016-12-07 - Proofpoint

Bye Empire, Hello Nebula Exploit Kit.

Thursday March 9th, 2017 08:20:31 AM
Nebula LogoWhile Empire (RIG-E) disappeared at the end of December after 4 months of activityIllustration of  the last month of witnessed Activity for Empireon 2017-02-17 an advert for a new exploit kit dubbed Nebula appeared underground.------Selling EK Nebula------Nebula Exploit kitFeatures:-Automatic domain scanning and generating (99% FUD)-API rotator domains-Exploit rate tested in different traffic go up 8/19%-knock rate tested whit popular botnet go 30/70%-Clean and modern user interface-Custom domains & server ( add & point your own domains coming soon...)-Unlimited flows & files-Scan file & domains-Multiple payload file types supported (exe , dll , js, vbs)-Multi. geo flow (split loads by country & file)-Remote file support ( check every 1 minute if file hash change ; if changed replace ) for automatic crypting-Public stats by file & flow-latest CVE-2016 CVE-2017-custom features just ask supportSubscriptions:24h - 100$7d - 600$31d - 2000$Jabber - nebula-support@xmpp.jpOffering free tests to trusted users ------In same thread some screenshots were shared by a customer.Earlier that same day, colleagues at Trendmicro told me they were seeing activity from a group we are following under the name "GamiNook" (illustration coming later) in Japan redirecting traffic to a variation of Sundown."GamiNook" redirecting to a Sundown Variation in Japan - 2017-02-17Payload : Pitou (6f9d71eebe319468927f74b93c820ce4 ) This Sundown variation was not so much different from the mainstream one.No "index.php?" in the landing URI, different domain pattern but same landing, exploits, etc... Some payload sent in clear (01.php) other RC4 encoded (00.php) as for Sundown.Digging more it appeared it was featuring an Internal TDS (as Empire). The same exact call would give you a different payload in France or in United Kingdom/Japan."GamiNook" traffic with geo in France - 2017-02-17Identicall payload call gives you Gootkit instead of PitouPayload : Gootkit (48ae9a5d10085e5f6a1221cd1eedade6)Note: to be sure that the payload difference is tied to Geo and not time based (rotation or operator changing it ) you need to make at least a third pass with first Geo and ensure dropped sample is identical as in first pass.At that point you can only suspect this Sundown variant might be Nebula (even if clues are multiple, a funny one being that the traffic illustrated in the advert thread is quite inline with the one captured in France).So I was naming that variation: Sundown-N. Intel shared by Frank Ruiz (FoxIT) on the 21st allowed me to know for sure this traffic was indeed Nebula.The following days i saw other actor sending traffic to this EK.Taxonomy tied to Nebula Activity in MISP - 2017-03-02Taxonomy tied to GamiNook traffic activity, EK and resulting payloadToday URI pattern changed from this morning :/?yWnuAH-XgstCZ3E=tCi6ZGr10KUDHiaOgKVNolmBgpc3rkRp-weok1A2JV-gkpS0luBwQDdM/?yXy3HX2F=tCu_Mj322aEBSXjYhatLoVmBgZJh_0Fg_wX_zQYxIg6nksDowOciFzNB/?yXzbGV2jkcB_eU8=4ya6MDz31KdQTi7ahapLolnWjJdj_EJt-VT4mwQxIQ6gksTllrB3EGRM/?ykjaKniEk6ZhH1-P=si-8YGj_1aANTynfh6Ye81mHhZE0_RNs_gn5nAExcV6okpTknOQgEmNN/?z0vDa0iBu-Q=tHnqNT_-1KcGGCzfhqVKoVmB08dm_BJt-QKumQEwJA2nksGyk-QhQDRA/?z13qMVqqoKRvTw=5S--Y2uk0apQGiyOhvdI81nQhZMwqxVo9FSsmVAyIgiokpPnl-V0QDIf/?z1fECTiT=sy7tYmz206FUGCvagKpK9VmGhMAxrxZq_1CungQwdF71ksDowOciFzNB/?zVnra0OCs9k=syjqMjel06ADFHuP0qNKolmGgsdh9BZq_geizlFkcQ2gksTllrB3EGRM/?zVnra0OCs9k=syjqMjel06ADFHuP0qNKolmGgsdh9BZq_geizlFkcQ2gksW2w7QsRTIf/?zWnBFniM=4Ca9Zjej0PRTGC3e06FJp1nVjJA1rBRpqleumABkJF2hksTllrB3EGRM/?zn3iKU_xjeNxWw=sHu7MTry2aoAFCyKgKUY8FmF0ZZi_kFg9ASimVQ2cl-lksTllrB3EGRM/?zy3jN0Gvi9RjY02F2g=4H27Yjn-0_EBHSrc26MfoVnV15Yx-hJqrwWrnwJjcVqnkpTknOQgEmNN(which is Sundown/Beps without the index.php) to/86fb7c1b/showpost.php?s=af75b6af5d0f08cf675149da13b1d3e4&p=13&postcount=8/641222267738845/thumb/6456dac5bc39ec7/comment_post.php?ice=bDaE06lCQU/507728217866857/9ecc534d/bug_report/media/pr.php?id=b38cb0526f8cd52d878009d9f27be8f4/gu/Strategy/qNXL8WmQ6G/rss.php?cat=MSFT/moddata/a9/showpost.php?s=0d2d722e1a2a625b3ceb042daf966593&p=13&postcount=1/2003/01/27/exchange-monday-wilderness/46198923243328031687/applications/blockStyle.php?last-name=6419f08706689953783a59fa4faeb75c/5wtYymZeVy/LKYcSFhKOi/showpost.php?s=2e3e8a3c3b6b00cd3033f8e20d174bf5&p=8&postcount=7/2006/08/05/fur-copper-shark/48396170957391254103/XD25OYwON1/showpost.php?s=abf72cd40a08463fad0b3d153da66cae&p=27&postcount=7/tV9FnNwo4h/b303debe9a6305791b9cd16b1f10b91e/promotion.php?catid=h/ef131fb2025525a/QLGWEFwfdh/550991586389812/core.write_file.php?lawyer=9H6UhvusOi/aPKr0Oe5GV/23861001482170285181/showpost.php?s=e74b32ba071772d5b55f97159db2e998&p=2&postcount=1/2/eb799e65a412b412ee63150944c7826d61cd7a544f7aa57029a9069698b4925b2068ed77dea8dc6210b933e3ecf1f35b/showthread.php?t=18024&page=14/js/archives/3f635a090e73f9b/showthread.php?t=6636&page=18/59cdf39001a623620bd7976a42dde55f190382060a264e21809fc51f/ff0a503d59ddb4d5e1fb663b6475dfe0ba08f0b84ce8692d/viewtopic.php?f=84&t=48361/615147354246727/339824645925013/nqHgct4sEE/showthread.php?t=51299&page=20/2012/04/22/present-measure-physical-examination(for those who would like to build their regexp, more pattern available here : https://raw.githubusercontent.com/Kafeine/public/master/Nebula_URI )2017-03-02 Nebula with its new pattern used here to drop Ramnit via Malvertising in NA - 2017-03-02This landing pattern change triggered the publication of this post. Nebula might end up not being a "vapor" EK but let's wait and see. The only difference with Sundown till today was its internal TDS.Exploits: CVE-2014-6332 + CVE-2015-0016CVE-2013-2551CVE-2016-0189 godmodeCVE-2015-8651CVE-2015-7645CVE-2016-4117Files:  Nebula_2017-03-02 (2 fiddler - password is malware)Acknowledgement :Thanks Joseph C Chen and Brooks Li (Trendmicro),  Frank Ruiz (Fox-IT InTELL) and Andrew Komarov ( InfoArmor Inc. ) for the help on different aspect of this post.Edit:2017-03-03 Corrected some CVE id + not all payload are in clear---Some IOCsDateSha256Comment2017/02/17f4627005c018071f8ec6b084eef3936e3a267660b0df99ffa0d27a8d943d1af5Flash Exploit (CVE-2016-4117)2017/02/27be86dc88e6337f09999991c206f890e0d52959d41f2bb4c6515b5442b23f2eccFlash Exploit (CVE-2016-4117)2017/02/1767d598c6acbd6545ab24bbd44cedcb825657746923f47473dc40d0d1f122abb6Flash Exploit (CVE-2015-7645 Sample seen previously in Sundown)2017/02/1704fb00bdd3d2c0667b18402323fe7cf495ace5e35a4562e1a30e14b26384f41cFlash Exploit (CVE-2015-8651 Sample seen previously in Sundown)2017/02/17b976cf6fd583b349e51cb34b73de6ef3a5ee72f86849f847b9158b4a7fb2315cPitou2017/02/176fe13d913f4d3f2286f67fbde08ab17418ba8370410e52354ffa12a0aaf498f8Gootkit2017/02/221a22211d01d2e8746efe0d14ab7e1e547c3e30863a83e0884a9d90325bd7b64bRamnit2017/03/026764f98ba6509b3351ad2f960dcc47c27d0dc00d53d7e0ae132a7c1d15067f4aDiamondFoxDateDomainIPComment2017/02/17tci.nhnph.com188.209.49.135Nebula Payload Domain2017/02/22gnd.lplwp.com188.209.49.135Nebula Payload Domain2017/02/24qcl.ylk8.xyz188.209.49.23Nebula Payload Domain2017/02/28hmn.losssubwayquilt.pw93.190.141.166Nebula Payload Domain2017/03/02qgg.losssubwayquilt.pw93.190.141.166Nebula Payload Domain2017/02/17agendawedge.shoemakerzippersuccess.stream188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/17clausmessage.nationweekretailer.club217.23.7.15Nebula2017/02/17equipmentparticle.shockadvantagewilderness.club217.23.7.15Nebula2017/02/17salaryfang.shockadvantagewilderness.club217.23.7.15Nebula2017/02/22deficitshoulder.lossicedeficit.pw188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/22distributionjaw.hockeyopiniondust.club188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/22explanationlier.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/23cowchange.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/23instructionscomposition.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/23paymentceramic.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/23soldierprice.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/23swissfacilities.gumimprovementitalian.stream188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/23transportdrill.facilitiesturkishdipstick.info188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/24authorisationmessage.casdfble.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24cowchange.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24departmentant.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24disadvantageproduction.brassreductionquill.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24disadvantageproduction.casdfble.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24europin.pedestrianpathexplanation.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24hygienicreduction.brassreductionquill.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24hygienicreduction.casdfble.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24instructionscomposition.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24jobhate.pedestrianpathexplanation.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24limitsphere.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24paymentceramic.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24penaltyinternet.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24phonefall.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24printeroutput.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24redrepairs.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24soldierprice.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24suggestionburn.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25advertiselaura.bubblecomparisonwar.top188.209.49.49Nebula2017/02/25apologycattle.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25apologycattle.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.49Nebula2017/02/25apologycattle.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/25apologycold.shearssuccessberry.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25authorizationmale.foundationspadeinventory.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25birthdayexperience.foundationspadeinventory.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25confirmationaustralian.retaileraugustplier.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25dancerretailer.shearssuccessberry.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25employergoods.deliverycutadvantage.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25fallhippopotamus.deliverycutadvantage.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25goallicense.shearssuccessberry.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25goalpanda.retaileraugustplier.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25holidayagenda.retaileraugustplier.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25marketsunday.deliverycutadvantage.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25penaltyinternet.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25phonefall.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25purposeguarantee.shearssuccessberry.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.49Nebula2017/02/25rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/25rollinterest.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25startguarantee.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25startguarantee.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.49Nebula2017/02/26advantagelamp.numberdeficitc-clamp.site93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26apologycattle.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26budgetdegree.maskobjectivebiplane.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/26competitionseason.numberdeficitc-clamp.site93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26customergazelle.cyclonesoybeanpossibility.bid93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26decembercommission.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/26distributionfile.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/26equipmentwitness.maskobjectivebiplane.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/26invoiceburst.cyclonesoybeanpossibility.bid93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26invoicegosling.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/26jailreduction.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/26rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26startguarantee.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/27afforddrill.xzv4rzuctndfo.club93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27approveriver.jsffu2zkt5va.trade93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27burglarsatin.jsffu2zkt5va.trade93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27distributionfile.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27invoicegosling.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27jailreduction.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27lipprice.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27marginswiss.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/27outputfruit.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/27rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/27reindeerprofit.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/27reminderdonna.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/27startguarantee.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/27supplyheaven.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/27transportbomb.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/28afforddrill.xzv4rzuctndfo.club93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28agesword.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/02/28authorparticle.390a20778a68d056c40908025df2fc4e.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28bakermagician.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/02/28bombclick.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/02/28burglarsatin.jsffu2zkt5va.trade93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28certificationplanet.87692f31beea22522f1488df044e1dad.top93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28chooseravioli.87692f31beea22522f1488df044e1dad.top93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28coachadvantage.reportattackconifer.site93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/28databasesilver.reportattackconifer.site93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/28date-of-birthtrout.87692f31beea22522f1488df044e1dad.top93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28dependentswhorl.jsffu2zkt5va.trade93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28derpenquiry.87692f31beea22522f1488df044e1dad.top93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28domainconsider.mxkznekruoays.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/03/01agesword.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/01authorparticle.390a20778a68d056c40908025df2fc4e.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/01bakermagician.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/01bombclick.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/02actressheight.knowledgedrugsaturday.club93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02agesword.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/02applywholesaler.tboapfmsyu.stream93.190.141.200Nebula2017/03/02approvepeak.knowledgedrugsaturday.club93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02bakermagician.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/02bombclick.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/02borrowfield.77e1084e.pro93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02boydescription.356020817786fb76e9361441800132c9.win93.190.141.39Nebula2017/03/02buglecommand.textfatherfont.info93.190.141.39Nebula2017/03/02buysummer.77e1084e.pro93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02captaincertification.77e1084e.pro93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02chargerule.textfatherfont.info93.190.141.39Nebula2017/03/02cityacoustic.textfatherfont.info93.190.141.39Nebula2017/03/02clickbarber.356020817786fb76e9361441800132c9.win93.190.141.39Nebula

CVE-2016-7200 & CVE-2016-7201 (Edge) and Exploit Kits

Wednesday March 8th, 2017 11:34:37 AM
CVE-2016-7200 & CVE-2016-7201 are vulnerabilities in the Chakra JavaScript scripting engine in Microsoft Edge. Reported by Natalie Silvanovich of Google Project Zero, those have been fixed  in november 2016 (MS16-129) by Microsoft.Note : No successful exploitation seen despite integration tries.On 2017-01-04 @theori_io released a POCProof-of-Concept exploit for Edge bugs (CVE-2016-7200 & CVE-2016-7201) —https://t.co/DnwQt5giMB— Theori (@theori_io) 4 janvier 2017providing again (cf CVE-2016-0189) ready-to-use code to Exploit Kit maintainer.After not far from 6 months without new exploit integrated in an EK ecosystem which has lost its innovation locomotive (Angler) , the drive-by landscape is struggling to stay in shape. Low infection rate means more difficulties to properly convert bought traffic.The exploits are spotted first in Sundown, but integration in RIG/Empire/Neutrino/Magnitude/Kaixin should be a matter of hours/days.[edit : 2017-01-10]​I have been told that with Win10 1607, Microsoft Edge has some quite strong mitigation: no WinExec, no CreateProcess, no ShellExecute, meaning every child process creation is blocked. The PoC might need a little more "magic powder" to work there.[/edit]Sundown:2017-01-06Sundown EK firing CVE-2016-7200/7201 to Edge 2017-01-06No exploitation here thoughFiddler: Sundown_Edge__CVE-2016-7201_170106.zip (password is malware)Out of topic: expected payload in that infection chain was zloader. (other payload seen in past weeks dropped via Sundown : Zeus Panda, Neutrino Bot, Dreambot, Chthonic, Andromeda, Smokebot, Betabot, Remcos, IAP, RTM, Kronos, Bitcoin Miner)Neutrino:2017-01-14--Thanks to Trendmicro for the multiple inputs that allowed me to keep plugged to this infection chain.--So as explained previously Neutrino is now in full private mode and fueled via Malvertising bought to several ad agencies (e.g. ZeroPark, ClickAdu, PropellerAds, HillTopAds) by a Traffer actor which I tag as NeutrAds. Their infection chain is now accepting/redirecting Microsoft Edge Browser as well.Without big surprise a new exploit is included in the Flash bundle : nw27 >  CVE-2016-7200/7201.NeutrAds redirect is now  accepting Edge traffic - 2017-01-14Neutrino Embedding CVE-2016-7200/7201 - 2017-01-14(Neutrino-v flash ran into Maciej ‘s Neutrino decoder )Extracted CVE-2016-7200/7201  elements - 2017-01-14Note: i did not get infection with- Edge 25.10586.0.0 / EdgeHTML 13.10586- Edge 20.10240.16384.0Fiddler&Pcap : Neutrino-v_CVE-2016-72007201_170114.zip  (Password is malware)Extracted exploits: Neutrino_2017-01-14.zip (Password is malware)reveiled[.space|45.32.113.97 - NeutrAds Filtering Redirectorvfwdgpx.amentionq[.win|149.56.115.166 - Neutrino Payload in that pass : Gootkit - b5567655caabb75af68f6ea33c7a22dbc1a6006ca427da6be0066c093f592610Associated C2 :buyyou[.org | 204.44.118.228felixesedit[.comfastfuriedts[.org monobrosexeld[.orgSo those days, in Asia you'll most probably get Cerber and in EU/NA you'll most probably get GootkitMISP : taxonomy illustrating some NeutrAds into Neutrino-v recorded activity (and post infection)Kaixin:2017-01-15 Finding by Simon ChoiCVE-2016-7200/7201 code fired by Kaixin - 2017-01-16Fiddler : Kaixin_2017-01-16.zip (Password is malware)Out of topic: payload in another pass (not fired by this exploit) was Blackmoon/Banbra 6c919213b5318cdb60d67a4b4ace709dfb7e544982c0e101c8526eff067c8332Callback:http://r.pengyou[.com/fcg-bin/cgi_get_portrait.fcg?uins=1145265195http://67.198.186[.254/ca.php?m=525441744D5441744D6A63744E3055744D554D745130493D&h=437Edits:2016-11-10 - Adding information about mitigation on Edge2016-11-14 - Adding Neutrino2016-11-16 - Fixed the screenshot for Neutrino. Was stating CVE-2016-4117 was there. It's not2016-11-16 - Adding KaixinRead More:Three roads lead to Rome - Qihoo360 - 2016-11-29Proof-of-Concept exploit for Edge bugs (CVE-2016-7200 & CVE-2016-7201) - Theori-io - 2017-01-04

RIG evolves, Neutrino waves goodbye, Empire Pack appears

Monday December 5th, 2016 03:32:30 PM
  Around the middle of August many infection chains transitioned to RIG with more geo-focused bankers and less CryptXXX (CryptMic) Ransomware. Picture 1: Select Drive-by landscape - Middle of August 2016 vs Middle of July 2016RIG += internal TDS :Trying to understand that move, I suspected and confirmed the presence of an internal TDS (Traffic Distribution System) inside RIG Exploit Kit [Edit 2016-10-08 : It seems this functionality is limited to Empire Pack version of RIG]I believe this feature appeared in the EK market with Blackhole (if you are aware of a TDS integrated earlier directly in an EK please tell me) Picture2: Blackhole - 2012 - Internal TDS illustrationbut disappeared from the market with the end of Nuclear Pack Picture3: Nuclear Pack - 2016-03-09 - Internal TDS illustrationand Angler EK Picture 4 : Angler EK - Internal TDS illustrationThis is a key feature for load seller. It is making their day to day work with traffic provider far easier . It allows Exploit Kit operator to attach multiple payloads to a unique thread. The drop will be conditioned by Geo (and/or OS settings) of the victim.Obviously you can achieve the same result with any other exploit kit…but things are a little more difficult. You have to create one Exploit Kit thread per payload, use an external TDS (like Keitaro/Sutra/BlackHat TDS/SimpleTDS/BossTDS, etc…) and from that TDS, point the traffic to the correct Exploit Kit thread (or, if you buy traffic, tell your traffic provider where to send traffic for each targeted country). Picture 5: A Sutra TDS in action in 2012 - cf The path to infection RIG += RC4 encryption, dll drop and CVE-2016-0189:Around 2016-09-12 a variation of RIG (which i flag as RIG-v in my systems) appeared.A slightly different landing obfuscation, RC4 encoding, Neutrino-ish behavioral and added CVE-2016-0189 Picture 6: RIG-v Neutrino-ish behavioral captured by Brad Spengler’s modified cuckoo Picture 7: CVE-2016-0189 from RIG-v after 3 step de-obfuscation pass.Neutrino waves goodbye ?On 2016-09-09 on underground it has been reported a message on Jabber from the Neutrino seller account :“we are closed. no new rents, no extends more”This explains a lot. Here are some of my last Neutrino pass for past month. Picture 8: Some Neutrino passes for past month and associated taxonomy tags in MispAs you can see several actors were still using it…Now here is what i get for the past days : Picture 9: Past days in DriveBy land Not shown here, Magnitude is still around, mostly striking in AsiaDay after day, each of them transitioned to RIG or “RIG-v”. Around the 22nd of September 2016 the Neutrino advert and banner disappeared from underground. Picture 10: Last banner for Neutrino as of 2016-09-16Are we witnessing the end of Neutrino Exploit Kit ? To some degree. In fact it looks more like Neutrino is going in full “Private” mode “a la” Magnitude.Side reminder : Neutrino disappeared from march 2014 till november 2014A Neutrino VariantSeveral weeks ago, Trendmicro (Thanks!!) made me aware of a malvertising chain they spotted in Korea and Taiwan involving Neutrino. Picture 11: Neutrino-v pass on the 2016-09-21Upon replay I noticed that this Neutrino was somewhat different. Smoother CVE-2016-4117, more randomization in the landing, slightly modified flash bundle of exploits Picture 12: Neutrino-v flash ran into Maciej ‘s Neutrino decoder Note the pnw26 with no associated binary data, the rubbish and additionalInfoA Sample : 607f6c3795f6e0dedaa93a2df73e7e1192dcc7d73992cff337b895da3cba5523 Picture 13: Neutrino-v behavioral is a little different : drops name are not generated via the GetTempName api function k2(k) { var y = a(e + "." + e + "Request.5.1"); y.setProxy(n); y.open("GET", k(1), n); y.Option(n) = k(2); y.send(); if (200 == y.status) return Rf(y.responseText, k(n)) };Neutrino-v ensuring Wscript will use the default proxy (most often when a proxy is configured it’s only for WinINet , WinHTTP proxy is not set and Wscript will try to connect directly and fail)I believe this Neutrino variant is in action in only one infection chain (If you think this is inaccurate, i’d love to hear about it) Picture 14: Neutrino-v seems to be used by only one actor to spread Cerber 0079xThe actor behind this chain is the same as the one featured in the Malwarebytes Neutrino EK: more Flash trickery post.Empire Pack:Coincidentally a new Exploit Kit is being talked about underground : Empire Pack. Private, not advertised. Picture 15: King of Loads - Empire Pack PanelSome might feel this interface quite familiar…A look a the favicon will give you a hint Picture 16: RIG EK favicon on Empire Pack panel Picture 17: RIG PanelIt seems Empire Pack project was thought upon Angler EK disappearance and launched around the 14th of August 2016.[Speculation] I think this launch could be related to the first wave of switch to RIG that occurred around that time. I think, Empire Pack is a RIG instance managed by a Reseller/Load Seller with strong underground connections. [/Speculation]RIG-v is a “vip” version of RIG. Now how exactly those three elements (RIG, RIG-v, Empire Pack) are overlapping, I don’t know. I am aware of 3 variants of the API to RIGapi.php : historical RIG api3.php : RIG with internal TDS [ 2016-10-08 :  This is Empire Pack. Appears to be using also remote_api after this post went live. I flag it as RIG-E ]remote_api.php : RIG-vBut Empire Pack might be api3, remote_api, or a bit of both of them.By the way RIG has also (as Nuclear and Angler endup doing) added IP Whitelisting on API calls to avoid easy EK tracking from there.   :-" (Only whitelisted IP - from declared redirector or external TDS - can query the API to get the current landing) ConclusionLet’s just conclude this post with statistics pages of two Neutrino threads Picture 18: Neutrino stats - Aus focused thread - 2016-07-15Picture 19: Neutrino stats on 1 Million traffic - 2016-06-09“We will be known forever by the tracks we leave”Santee Sioux TribeSome IOCsDateDomainIPComment2016-10-01szsiul.bluekill[.]top137.74.55.6Neutrino-v2016-10-01twqivrisa.pinkargue[.]top137.74.55.7Neutrino-v2016-10-01u0e1.wzpub4q7q[.]top185.117.73.80RIG-E (Empire Pack)2016-10-01adspixel[.]site45.63.100.224NeutrAds Redirector2016-09-30re.flighteducationfinancecompany[.]com109.234.37.218RIG-v2016-09-28add.alislameyah[.]org193.124.117.13RIG-v2016-09-28lovesdeals[.]ml198.199.124.116RIG-v2016-09-27dns.helicopterdog[.]com195.133.201.23RIG2016-09-26sv.flickscoop[.]net195.133.201.41RIG2016-09-26red.truewestcarpetcare[.]com195.133.201.11RIG-v2016-09-26oitutn.yellowcarry[.]top78.46.167.130NeutrinoAcknowledgementsThanks Malc0de, Joseph C Chen (Trendmicro), Will Metcalf ( EmergingThreat/Proofpoint) for their inputs and help on multiple aspect of this post.Edits2016-10-03 :Removed limitation to KOR and TWN for Neutrino-v use by NeutrAds as Trendmicro informed me they are now seeing them in other Geos.Added explanation about the IP whitelisting on RIG API (it was not clear)2016-10-08 :Updated with gained information on Empire Pack2016-11-01 :RIG standard is now also using the pattern introduces past week by RIG-v. It's now in version 4.https://twitter.com/kafeine/status/790482708870864896RIG panelThe only instance of RIG using old pattern is Empire Pack (which previously could be guessed by domains pattern)2016-11-18 : Empire (RIG-E) is now using RC4 encoding as well. (still on old pattern and landing)RIG-E Behavioral2016-12-03RIG-v has increased filtering on IP ranges and added a pre-landing to filter out non IE traffic.2016-12-03 RIG-v Pre-landingRead MoreRIG’s Facelift - 2016-09-30 - SpiderLabs Is it the End of Angler ? - 2016-06-11 Neutrino : The come back ! (or Job314 the Alter EK) - 2014-11-01 Hello Neutrino ! - 2013-06-07The path to infection - Eye glance at the first line of “Russian Underground” - 2012-12-05

Fox stealer: another Pony Fork

Tuesday November 29th, 2016 02:25:59 PM
Gift for SweetTail-Fox-mlp by Mad-N-MonstrousSmall data drop about another Pony fork : Fox stealer.First sample of this malware I saw was at beginning of September 2016 thanks to Malc0de. After figuring out the panel name and to which advert it was tied we were referring to it as PonyForx.Advert :2016-08-11 - Sold underground by a user going with nickname "Cronbot"--------Стилер паролей и нетолько - Fox v1.0Мы выпускаем продукт на продажу. Уже проходит финальная стадия тестирования данного продукта.О продукте : 1. Умеет все что умеет пони. + добавлен новый софт.2. Актуален на 2016 год.3. Написан на С++ без дополнительных библиотек.4. Админка от пони.Условия : 1. Только аренда.2. Распространяется в виде EXE и DLL.3. Исходники продавать не будем.Аренда 250$ в месяц.Исходники 2000$ разово.----Translated by Jack Urban : ----Password stealer and more - Fox v.1.0We are releasing the product for general sale. Final stage of testing for this product is already underway.About the product:1. Is able to do everything that pony does. + new software has been added.2. Relevant for 2016.3. Written in C++ without additional libraries.4. Admin from pony.Conditions:1. For rent only.2. Distributed as an EXE and DLL.3. We will not be selling the source.Rent is $250 a month.Originals are a 2000$ one time fee. --------It's being loaded (with Locky Affid 13) by the Godzilla from ScriptJS (aka AfraidGate) group .MISP taxonomy tags reflecting ScriptJS activity in the last months(note : it's not the first time this group is pushing a stealer, they were dropping Pony with their Necurs between August and December 2015 [1] )2016-09-26 - ScriptJS infection chain into Neutrino into Godzilla loader into PonyForx and Locky Affid 13Here we can see the browsing history of the VM being sent to PonyForx (Fox stealer) C2Fox stealer (PonyForx) fingerprint in CuckooSample :cca1f8ba0be872ec86755e3defbb23c8fe4a272a6b4f7ec651302c5cddc5e183Associated C2:blognetoo[.]com/find.php/helloblognetoo[.]com/find.php/datablognetoo[.]com|104.36.83.52blognetoo[.]com|45.59.114.126Caught by ET rule :2821590 || ETPRO TROJAN Win32.Pony Variant Checkin[1] ScriptJS's Pony :master.districtpomade[.]com|188.166.54.203 - 2015-08-15 Pony C2 from ScriptJS​js.travelany[.]com[.]ve|185.80.53.18 - 2015-12-10 Pony C2 from ScriptJSRead More : http://pastebin.com/raw/uKLhTbLs few bits about ScriptJSInside Pony 1.7 / Fareit C&C - Botnet Control Panel - 2012-06-27Pony 1.9 (Win32/Fareit) - 2013-05-23 - Xylitol

CVE-2016-0189 (Internet Explorer) and Exploit Kit

Wednesday January 31st, 2018 01:59:11 PM
Spotted by Symantec in the wild  patched with MS16-051 in may 2016, CVE-2016-0189 is now being integrated in Exploit Kit.Neutrino Exploit Kit :Here 2016-07-13 but i am being told that i am late to the party.It's already [CN] documented hereNeutrino after ScriptJS redirector dropping Locky Affid 13- 2016-07-13Flash sample in that pass : 85b707cf63abc0f8cfe027153031e853fe452ed02034b792323eecd3bc0f7fd(Out of topic payload : 300a51b8f6ad362b3e32a5d6afd2759a910f1b6608a5565ddee0cad4e249ce18 - Locky Affid 13 ) Thanks to Malc0de for invaluable help here :)Files Here: Neutrino_CVE-2016-0189_160714 (Password is malware - VT Link)Sundown :Some evidence of CVE-2016-0189 being integrated in Sundown were spotted on jul 15 by @criznashOn the 16th I recorded a pass where the CVE-2016-0189 had his own calls :Sundown exploiting CVE-2016-0189 to drop Smokebot on the 2016-07-16(Out of topic payload :  61f9a4270c9deed0be5e0ff3b988d35cdb7f9054bc619d0dc1a65f7de812a3a1 beaconing to : vicolavicolom.com | 185.93.185.224 )Files : Sundown_CVE-2016-0189_160716 (password is malware)RIG:I saw it on 2016-09-12 but might have appeared before.RIG successfully exploiting CVE-2016-0189 - 2016-09-12CVE-2016-0189 from RIG after 3 step decoding passFiles : RIG_2016-0189_2016-09-12 (password is malware)Magnitude:Here pass from 2016-09-16 but is inside since at least 2016-09-04 (Source : Trendmicro - Thanks)CVE-2016-0189 in Magnitude on 2016-09-16Sorry i can't share fiddler publicly in that case (Those specific one would give to attack side too much information about some of the technics that can be used - You know how to contact me)Out of topic Payload:  Cerbera0d9ad48459933348fc301d8479580f85298ca5e9933bd20e051b81371942b2cGrandSoft:Spotted first on 2017-09-22 here is traffic from 2018-01-30 on : Win10 Build 10240 - IE11.0.10240.16431 - KB3078071CVE-2016-0189 in GrandSoft on 2018-01-30Out of topic Payload:  GandCrab Ransomwarea15c48c74a47e81c1c8b26073be58c64f7ff58717694d60b0b5498274e5d9243Fiddler here : GrandSoft_WorkingonIE11_Win10d.zip (pass is malware) Edits :2016-07-15 a previous version was stating CVE-2015-5122 for nw23. Fixed thanks to @dnpushme2016-07-20 Adding Sundown.2016-09-17 Adding RIG2016-09-19 Adding Magnitude2018-01-30 Adding GrandSoft (but appeared there on 2017-09-22)Read More :[CN] NeutrinoEK来袭:爱拍网遭敲诈者病毒挂马 2016-07-14 - Qihoo360Patch Analysis of CVE-2016-0189 - 2016-06-22 - TheoriInternet Explorer zero-day exploit used in targeted attacks in South Korea - 2016-05-10 - SymantecNeutrino EK: fingerprinting in a Flash - 2016-06-28 - MalwarebytesPost publication Reading :Exploit Kits Quickly Adopt Exploit Thanks to Open Source Release - 2016-07-14 - FireEye

Is it the End of Angler ?

Tuesday August 30th, 2016 02:05:23 PM
Everyone looking at the DriveBy landscape is seeing the same : as Nuclear disappeared around April 30th,  Angler EK has totally vanished on June 7th. We were first thinking about Vacation as in January 2016 or maybe Infrastructure move. But something else is going on.---On the Week-End of the 4-5th of June I noticed that the ongoing malvertising from SadClowns was redirecting to Neutrino Exploit Kit (dropping Cerber)EngageBDR malvertising redirecting to SadClowns infra pushing traffic to Neutrino to Drop Cerber RansomwareOn the 6th I noticed several group migrating to RIG, Neutrino or even Sundown.But I got speechless when I noticed that GooNky had switched to Neutrino to spread their CryptXXX U000001 and U000006.They were sticking exclusively to Angler EK since years and their vacation were synchronized with Angler's in January.Checking all known to me infection path I could hardly find some Angler....last one were behind the EItest infection chain on the night of the 6th to 7th of June.Last Angler pass I captured on 2016-06-07EITest into Angler dropping CryptXXX 3.200 U000017On June 7th around 5:30 AM GMT my tracker recorded its last Angler hit :Last Hit in my Angler tracker.After that...RIG, Neutrino instead of Angler almost everywhere.[Side note: Magnitude is still around...But as mentioned earlier it's a One Actor operation since some time]Aside SadClowns and GooNky here are two other big (cf traffic volume) group which transition has not been covered already"WordsJS"  (named NTL/NTLR by RiskIQ) into Neutrino > CryptXXX U0000102016-06-10"ScriptJS" (Named DoublePar by RiskIQ and AfraidGate by PaloAlto) into Neutrino > CryptXXX U000011This gang  was historically dropping Necurs, then Locky Affid13 before going to CryptXXXIllustrating with a picture of words and some arrows:MISP : select documented EK pass with associated tags.1 arrow where you would have find Angler several days before.(+ SadClowns + GooNky not featured in that selection)With the recent 50 arrests tied to Lurk in mind and knowing the infection vector for Lurk was the "Indexm" variant of Angler between 2012 and beginning of 2016...we might think there is a connection and that some actors are stepping back.Another hint that this is probably not vacation "only" for Angler is that Neutrino changed its conditions on June 9th. From 880$ per week on shared server and 3.5k$ per month on dedicated, Neutrino doubled the price to 7k$ on dedicated only (no more per week work). Such move were seen in reaction to Blackhole's coder (Paunch) arrest in October 2013.So is this the End of Angler ? The pages to be written will tell us.“If a book is well written, I always find it too short.” ― Jane Austen, Sense and SensibilityPost publication notes:[2016-06-12]RIG : mentioned they were sill alive and would not change their Price.Maybe unrelated to RIG mention, Neutrino updated his thread as announced previously on underground but conditions are revisited :------Google translate:-----Tarif week on a shared server:Rent: $ 1500Limit: 100k hosts per dayOne-time daily discharge limits: $ 200Rate per month on a dedicated server:Rent: $ 4000Limits: 500k hosts per day, and more - on an individual basis.One-time daily discharge limits: $ 200----------------So now only price per week is doubled and month rate + ~20%[2016-06-13]Our exploit kit stats for the last two weeks… Angler dives, Neutrino soars. pic.twitter.com/RcYAH6tVck— News from the Lab (@FSLabs) June 13, 2016Acknowledgement:Thanks to Will Metcalf (Emerging Threats/Proofpoint) who made the replay of SadClowns' malvertising possible. Thanks to EKWatcher and Malc0de for their help on several points.Read More :XXX is Angler EK - 2015-12-21Russian hacker gang arrested over $25m theft - 2016-06-02 - BBC NewsNeutrino EK and CryptXXX - 2016-06-08 - ISCSansLurk Banker Trojan: Exclusively for Russia - 2016-06-10 - Securelist - KasperskyHow we helped to catch one of the most dangerous gangs of financial cybercriminals - 2016-08-30 - SecureList

CVE-2016-4117 (Flash up to 21.0.0.213) and Exploit Kits

Saturday September 3rd, 2016 09:19:31 AM
Discovered being exploited in the wild by FireEye [1] on May 8, 2016, patched 4 days later with Flash 21.0.0.242, CVE-2016-4117 is making its way to Exploit Kits.Magnitude :CVE confirmed by FireEye - Thanks !On 2016-05-21 Magnitude is firing an exploit to Flash up to 21.0.0.213.Magnitude firing exploit to Flash 21.0.0.213 - 2016-05-21For now i did not get exploitation in the different pass i tried but in the Flash exploit we can see some quite explicit imports : import com.adobe.tvsdk.mediacore.timeline.operations.DeleteRangeTimelineOperation;Magnitude Flash Exploit showing import of the DeleteRangeTimelineOperationSpotted sample :  f5cea58952ff30e9bd2a935f5843d15952b4cf85cdd1ad5d01c8de2000c48b0aFiddler sent here.Updates to come as it appears to be a work in progress.Neutrino :2016-05-23Spotted by Eset.2016-05-23 Neutrino successfully exploit CVE-2016-4117 on Flash 21.0.0.213 and drop here CryptXXXSample in that pass : 30984accbf40f0920675f6ba0b6daf2a3b6d32c751fd6d673bddead2413170e8Fiddler sent here (Password is malware)Out of topic payload: 110891e2b7b992e238d4afbaa31e165a6e9c25de2aed442574d3993734fb5220 CryptXXXAngler EK:2016-05-23CVE identification by Henri Nurmi from F-Secure. Thanks !Angler EK successfully exploit Flash 21.0.0.213 on 2016-05-23 dropping DridexSample in that pass : 310528e97a26f3fee05baea69230f8b619481ac53c2325da90345ae7713dcee2Fiddler sent hereOut of topic payload  : 99a6f5674b738591588416390f22dedd8dac9cf5aa14d0959208b0087b718902Most likely Dridex 123 targeting Germany based on distribution path.Sundown :  [3]2016-08-27Sample in that pass : cf6be39135d8663be5241229e0f6651f9195a7434202067616ae00712a4e34e6 Fiddler sent here  (password : malware)Read More:[1] CVE-2016-4117: Flash Zero-Day Exploited in the Wild - 2016-05-13 - Genwei Jiang - FireEye[2] New Flash Vulnerability CVE-2016-4117 Shares Similarities With Older Pawn Storm Exploit - 2016-05-13 - Moony Li - TrendMicro[3] Sundown EK – Stealing Its Way to the Top - 2016-09-02 - Spiderlabs

U-Admin (Universal Admin): A Phishing(Web&Android)/Grabber/ATS/Token kit

Tuesday May 17th, 2016 09:43:21 AM
Fallout Vault Boy maskThe goal of the post is to open-source data on a kit that has been seen live impersonating bank portal. This is mostly Raw data, few part only will be "google translated".On September 2015 the 16th,  an advert about a multipurpose kit appeared underground :------------------------------------------By: [Redacted]Subject : Инжекты | Админки | Фейки, -50% от рыночных цен -Доброе время суток всем.Рад предоставить свои услуги по разработке следующих проектов:Инжекты;Grabers 80-150$*;Pasive ATS 500-800$*;Active ATS 800-1500$*;Tooken Panels 400-800$*;Replacers 200-400$*;И многое другое...Фейки;Простые клоны 70-150$*;Продвинутые с перехватом 200-500$*;Админки на пхп;Под любые нужды ...*данные цены служат ориентиром. Реальная цена будет зависеть от каждого техзадания индивидуальноJabber( [Redacted]@exploit.im )ICQ( 6[Redacted]8 )------------------------------------------Google Translated as :------------------------------------------By: [Redacted]Subject: Inject | admin area | Fakes, -50% of the market price -Good time of day to all.I am glad to provide services for the development of the following projects:Inject;Grabers 80-150 $ *;Pasive ATS 500-800 $ *;Active ATS 800-1500 $ *;Tooken Panels 400-800 $ *;Replacers 200-400 $ *;And much more...fakes;Simple clones 70-150 $ *;Advanced interception $ 200-500 *;Admin Center on php;Under any needs ...* These prices are a guide. The actual price will depend on each individual ToRsJabber ([Redacted] @ exploit.im)ICQ (6[Redacted]8)------------------------------------------NB : The Subject became later :--Инжекты | Админки | Фейки | Android Инжекты, -50% от рыночных цен --Inject | admin area | fakes | Inject Android, 50% of the market price ---Seller later added :------------------------------------------Последее время очень мнoго вопросов по поводу как работает перехват на скам странице. Решил детально описать процес чтобы изначально не вводить клиентов в заблуждение.В самом начале надо понять что такое "СКАМ СТАНИЦА"."СКАМ СТРАНИЦА"- это копия реальной странички логина в банк ,которая находится на нашем сервере с похожем на банк доменом. Все детали вводимые на ней будут лететь к нам.Далее уже на выбор, или дание идут на емайл, или на специально сделанную админку.Тоесть суть замута такова:жертва попадает на нашу страницу ->вводит данные->потом наша страница кидает жертву обратно на оригинал ->и мы поже ипользуем данные сами чтобы войти..| Это самый примитивный пример , на самом деле все чуток сложнее и зависит от фантазии заказа .Дальше надо понять что такое "ПЕРЕХВАТ"."ПЕРЕХВАТ" - eто вид обмана, очень часто ипользуетса в инжектах. Само название говорит за себя.Инжект перехватывает дание в рельном времени и присылает нам . В это время жертва как обычно ждет с гиф на экране,а вы заходите вместо него.| Зачем это надо?Затем что если для перевода вам требуется дополнительно второй пароль/смс/тукен то можно это запросить ,пока жертва ждёт, через специально сделанные команды в админке.Основной бенефит что это можно делать повторно ,много раз.|| Перехват на скам страничке работать точно также . Жертвa вводить дание и ждет пока мы его спросим то что нам надо.|Поэтапно:Преставим себе что есть банк где на вход надо UserName и Password . На активацию перевода по IBAN надо нoмер с тукен-прибора (Pin1) и для переводa надо ввести номер в тукен-прибор и тукен-прибор даст нам номер обратно (Pin2)Теперь преставим себе что у нас есть скам странница на этот банк , которая будет отсылать нам получение даные для входа и потом покажет заставку жертве с просьбой подождать. Мы находимся на другом конце в админке и наблюдаем такую катину .Краткое пособие по админке."I'am Online"- показывает находится ли оператор в админке , если "Off-line" то все жертвы будут перенаправлены обратно на оригинал страницу.Колонка "Keys" это есть полученные детали для входа.Колонка "Pin" это для получених тукенов/пинов .Колонка "Task" для добавленья операции по запросу тукена/пинов .Колонка "Redirect" показывает релле редиректа конкретной жертвы . Если поставить "On" то жертва будет перенапрвлена на оригинал сразу.| *Если жертва мегает красним то это значит что жертва какраз ждет от вас комадуИ так , на даном этапе у нас есть логины для входа , и ждущий человвек на нашей странице .Входим, идем на активацию IBAN . Там нас спрашивает Pin1/Tooken1 .Мы идем обратно на админку и нажимаем запрос операции. У нас откроется окно с выбором операций .Нажимаем на "ask Pin1" и жертва видит вот это:Дальше все просто. Жертва вводить "pin1" и он приходит к нам на админку . А жертва в это время снова видит пред собой заставку "подождите" .Если пин подошол, идем на перевод и такимже способом просим "pin2". Важно понимать что это все можно повторять много раз и после неверного пина можно снова его запросить .Если залив ушол , ставим "Redirect" на "On" и юсер уходит на оригинал. Или в продвинутых системах можно показать ему техроботы и попросить зайти попоже.Вот и все!**Все тексты на английском по админке написаны с ошибками , я это знаю ).Делал очень быстро . Никак не дойдут руки сделать до конца ------------------------------------------On march 2016 the 9th :------------------------------------------доброе время суток всем.С великой радостью рад предложить свои услуги по разработке инжектов под мобильные устройства для многих публичных андроид ботов .Цены зависят от тех заданий .Пример роботы на один из UK линков можно посмотреть тут [REDACTED]pass:demoWith great joy, I am pleased to offer its services on developing injects for mobile devices for many public android bots.The prices depend on those jobs.An example of one of the injects on the UK link can be found here [REDACTED]pass:demo------------------------------------------Files mirrored here. (pass: demo)On march 2016 the 16th:------------------------------------------Ladie's and Gentlemen's.Don't miss out some fresh and well-designed mobile injects for UK.9 common links.Hight % success task.------------------------------------------On march 2016 the 31st:------------------------------------------Доброе время суток всем.Последним временем много клиентов задают одни и те же вопросы связаны с видео o работе перехвата на Нидерланды.Я решил более детально описать систему работы и поставить ее где-то в общедоступном месте.Прежде всего пару строчек хотел бы написать o админ панели. Oна называется Universal Admin. называется она не просто так Универсал,у нее реализована возможность поддерживать много разных проектов таких как: Tooken intercept,Text manager,Log parser,Drop manager и многое другое.[2 images here...not available at dump time]Не обращайте внимания на разные цвета и стили на Скринах ,стили меняются тоже прямо с админки.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Tо есть админ панель одна а плагинов под нее может быть много.Hа видео Вы видели эту админку с плагином Tooken intercept + Text manager.Text manager-это менеджер текстовых блоков и название кнопок, которые будут автоматически вставляется в вашы страницы,инжекты и фишинг сраницы.[1 images here...not available at dump time]Все что надо сделать для работы это создать текстовый блок с определенным ID ,потом на вашей странице создать элемент с этим же ID ивставить одну функцию в конец документа.Для примера: У вас есть инжект в котором есть определенная Легенда запроса дополнительной информации.Чтобы изменить эту Легенду вам как минимум надо разбираться в HTML и как максимум пересобирать конфигурацию бота.С помощью текстового менеджера в моей админке все что вам надо это поменять текст в определенном блоке и нажать сохранить.Tooken intercept- это собственно то о чем мы будем сейчас говорить.Не важно каким способом Вы стараетесь обмануть жертву (Injec ,phishing page) цель является добытие определенного пакета информации .Для примера скажем у вас есть Paypal Phishing page с помощью которой вы добывайте username и пароль. эти данные отсылаются куда-то наадминку в нашем случае это Universal Admin.Username и пароль это и есть тот самый пакет информации который после отправки формы сохраняются у вас ,а кокретно вот тут[1 image here...not available at dump time]Использовать эту информацию можно по-разному в зависимости от вашего проекта.Одним из методов использования этой информации является перехват(intercept) ,то есть использовать информацию в реальном времени прямо сейчас.Вы перехватили username и пароль и вместо жертвы попадаете на ак ,пока жертва ждет думая что страница грузится.В случае с PayPal использования перехвата не совсем обязательно, так как полученные пакет информации а именно username и пароль Выможете использовать и через неделю. Но в связи с тем что последнее время много контор используют One Time password(Tooken),которые действительны только 30 секунд, обойтись без Tooken interstep нереально. Tooken intercept дает вам возможность использовать тот самый пароль(tooken) на протяжении 30 секунд пока жертва ждет загрузки следующей страницы. Возьмем тот же PayPal. Скажем вы получили только что username и пароль, зашли внутрь, и на главной странице вам выскочила рамочка гдеговорится что для подтверждения вашей личности на ваш мобильный телефон был отправлен SMS с коротким кодом(Tooken) код который надо вести тam же в рамочкe.Код который был отправлен на мобильный телефон жертвы!!! жертва которая на данный момент находится на вашей странице(Phishing Inject)!!!там где только что она(жертва) ввела username и пароль, username и пароль те что пришли к вам на админку и те что вы использовали для тогочтобы зайти на тот самый аккаунт где вам выскочила рамочка!! В стандартных методах это называется запал и етот пакет информации можно выбросить. можно сделать такую же рамочку после логин этападля всех юзеров на нашей пишем фишинг или инжекте, но проблема в том что это рамочка показывается не всем и не всегда и если жертвена телефон ничего не приходило то он туда ничего никогда не ведет.Я думаю всем понятно что здесь нужна динамическая страница с дистанционным управлением. То есть вы должны принимать решения показыватьрамочку данной жертве или не показывать.Именно это и есть основа.Страница которая присоединена к нашей админке может меняться исходя из команд которые вы задаете в админке.Команд может быть много, но для этого в определенном месте в админке для каждой жертвы eсть список команд, которые можнозадать для данной страницы на которой он(жертвa) находится.[1 image here...not available at dump time]в нашем примитивном пример из PayPal в списке операции должнa присутствовать кнопка "показать рамочку".Если вы зашли на аккаунт с только что полученными данными и у вас выкидывает эту рамочку вы нажимаете кнопку "показать рамочку" для данной жертвой.И у нее на экране покажет такую же рамочку.Tooken, который будет введён в эту рамочку прилетит к вам на админ туда же где лежат username и пароль от этой жертвы.Думаю здесь все понятно.Единственное что хотел бы подчеркнуть то что жертва в любой момент может закрыть страницу закрыть компьютер вырубить сеть.В таком случае связь страницы с админкой теряется и задавать команды для данной страницы не имеет смысла.Для этого в нашей админке есть Tracker онлайн статуса который позволяет нам следить находится ли жертва онлайн или нет. [1 image here...not available at dump time]Теперь структура Tooken intercept админки.Первая страница это главная страница где показана текучка всех посетителей(жертв) ваших инжектов и фишингов.Напротив каждого посетителя есть кнопка O-Panel при нажатии на которую вы попадаете уже на индивидуальную панель операций для данного посетителя.[1 image here...not available at dump time] Именно здесь и находится список операций.Именно здесь крупным планом видно онлайн статус. Прошу заметить что онлайн статусов бывает 3(ONLINE, OFFLINE и WAITING).WAITING статус светится красным и светится только тогда когда жертва ждет операции от вас ,то есть только что вам был отправленпакет информации и страница ждет дальнейших инструкций!.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Также жертва с этим статусом мигает красным и на главной странице что поднимает их в таблице вверх. Окей давайте теперь возьмем реальный пример Phishing страницы скажем одного из нидерландских банков. тут реализованные как PCтак и мобильная версия.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Вы делаете рассылку на email и линки могут открываться на мобильном. в основном 50% так и происходит.Скажем кто-то(жертвa) переходит на Линк в вашем email и попадает на нашу страницу. Вы об этом узнаете сразу через Jabber Alert,в котором будет говориться про нового посетителя.Самое время открыть Universal панель. там вы увидите Новую колонку с информацией про посетителя а Конкретно его айпи ширина экрана и многое другое[1 image here...not available at dump time]с минуты на минуту к нам прилетят логины, их можно ждать как на главной так и на O-Panel.после того как Вы получили логины, Посетитель уходит в режим ожидания. об этом Вам будут говорить красные мигающие панели, она экранe у жертвы будет примерно такое[1 image here...not available at dump time]Что делать вам с полученным пакетом Логинов Решать только Вам. Но если у вас, находясь внутри в аккаунте, попросят ввести tooken, пароль, SMS пароль то самое время вернуться на O-Panel и нажать соответствующую команду. Команда которая приведет к тому что страница на которой находится жертва покажет ему запрос того что вам надо.[1 image here...not available at dump time]После того как жертва ввела в форму Tooken ,она снова уходит в режим ожидания, и Вы снова должны определиться что делать и какую команду ему дать. И так до бесконечности или пока жертва не Закроет страницу. Но если все-таки это надоест вам то у васесть два варианта распрощаться жертвой. это поставить блок [1 image here...not available at dump time]или перенаправить его на оригинал страницу.[1 image here...not available at dump time]При работе с одним посетителем могут стучать другие новые.Это будет отвлекать и все новые посетители будут ждать. чтобы этого избежать на главной странице есть ричашки которые контролируютрегистрацию новых посетителей и переадресацию старых поголовно. Если поставить регистрацию OFF ,то в админке только будут работать Те кто уже Там есть, все новые будут попадать на оригинал страницы контор.A если поставить редирект всех ,то все посетители(жертвы) кто есть в админке будут перенаправлены на свои оригинальные страницы поголовно.Это надо делать когда вы собрались к примеру уходить.------------------------------------------On april 2016 the 4th:------------------------------------------увжаемые друзьяновые инжекты под Андроид------------------------------------------On april 2016 the 11th:------------------------------------------Продается Пак инжектов под андроид для сбора карт.WhatsUpFacebookInstagramViberSkaypGooglePlayPrice:450$user posted imageОбезательно посмотрите видео. В инжектах реализованы Responsive & animations приемы.[Redacted]pass:1qaz------------------------------------------File mirrored here (pass : 1qaz)On april 2016 the 12th:------------------------------------------Pack of Injects for Columbia banks for sale.Credit cards colectors with admin panel on https domen.bancofalabellarbmcolombiacolpatriabancolombiabbvanetbancodeoccidentebancodebogotabancopichinchaPrice:800$[3 images here...not available at dump time]Video: [Redacted]Pass:columbia ------------------------------------------File mirrored here  (pass: columbia)On april 2016 the 14th:------------------------------------------Pack of Injects for Canada banks for sale.Credit cards colectors with admin panel on https domen.TdCibcBmoDesjRbcPrice:500$[3 images here...not available at dump time]Video: [Redacted]Pass:canada ------------------------------------------File mirrored here (pass: canada)On april 2016 the 18th:------------------------------------------Недавно вышел апдейт на U-admin(Universal Admin).Теперь все более соответствует написанному выше описанием.Админ панель теперь имеют специальную директорию под plugins, и все плагины в этой директории автоматически прописывается в админке.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Например, вы приобрели U-admin а потом "Log parser Plugin". Для этого вам просто надо поставить папку Log parser в плагин директорию в админке.Также был разработан VNC плагин который дает возможность коннектится к вашему botnet API с запросом на соединение по VNC/SOCKS для определенного бота.Этот плагин является дополнением к "Tooken Intercept" плагина про который я писал вам выше. Если вы используете "Tooken Intercept" с инжектороми в вашем боте есть в VNC, и в админке вашего Бота есть API управление VNC то при наличии VLC plugin в U-admin возможно сделать запрос на соединение по vnc или socks с ботом.Как правило это делается автоматически при самом первом соединение с инжектоm,то есть когда жертва заходит на страницу перехвата.В связи с этим была слегка переделана O-Panel где в команды была добавлена новая опция проверки статуса VNC/SOCKS соединение.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Куда ,как вы видите, при успешном соединении выводятся данные на VNC/SOCKS------------------------------------------File Tree from some components :Folder PATH listingUADMIN_|   cp.php|   head.php|   index.php|   login.php|   session.php|  +---files|   |   animate.css|   |   bootbox.min.js|   |   bootstrap-notify.min.js|   |   bootstrap-social.css|   |   hover-min.css|   |   index.php|   |   jquery-ui.css|   |   jquery-ui.min.js|   |   jquery.js|   |   my.css|   |  |   +---bootstrap|   |   +---css|   |   |       bootstrap-theme.css|   |   |       bootstrap-theme.css.map|   |   |       bootstrap-theme.min.css|   |   |       bootstrap-theme.min.css.map|   |   |       bootstrap.css|   |   |       bootstrap.css.map|   |   |       bootstrap.min.css|   |   |       bootstrap.min.css.map|   |   |      |   |   +---fonts|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.eot|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.svg|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.ttf|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff2|   |   |      |   |   +---js|   |   |       bootstrap.js|   |   |       bootstrap.min.js|   |   |       npm.js|   |   |      |   |   \---switch|   |           bootstrap-switch.min.css|   |           bootstrap-switch.min.js|   |          |   +---dt|   |       dataTables.bootstrap.min.css|   |       dataTables.bootstrap.min.js|   |       jquery.dataTables.min.js|   |      |   \---images|           ui-icons_444444_256x240.png|           ui-icons_555555_256x240.png|           ui-icons_777620_256x240.png|           ui-icons_777777_256x240.png|           ui-icons_cc0000_256x240.png|           ui-icons_ffffff_256x240.png|          +---opt|       geo_switch.txt|       index.php|       theme.txt|      +---plugins|   +---intercept|   |   |   bc.php|   |   |   class.jabber.php|   |   |   dynamic__part.php|   |   |   functions.php|   |   |   gate.php|   |   |   head.php|   |   |   index.php|   |   |   main.php|   |   |   panel.php|   |   |   text.php|   |   |  |   |   +---ajax|   |   |       cp_ajax.php|   |   |       index.php|   |   |      |   |   +---files|   |   |   |   animate.css|   |   |   |   bootbox.min.js|   |   |   |   bootstrap-notify.min.js|   |   |   |   bootstrap-social.css|   |   |   |   hover-min.css|   |   |   |   index.php|   |   |   |   jquery-ui.css|   |   |   |   jquery-ui.min.js|   |   |   |   jquery.js|   |   |   |   my.css|   |   |   |  |   |   |   +---bootstrap|   |   |   |   +---css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.css.map|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.min.css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.min.css.map|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.css.map|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.min.css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.min.css.map|   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   +---fonts|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.eot|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.svg|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.ttf|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff2|   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   +---js|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.js|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.min.js|   |   |   |   |       npm.js|   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   \---switch|   |   |   |           bootstrap-switch.min.css|   |   |   |           bootstrap-switch.min.js|   |   |   |          |   |   |   +---dt|   |   |   |       dataTables.bootstrap.min.css|   |   |   |       dataTables.bootstrap.min.js|   |   |   |       jquery.dataTables.min.js|   |   |   |      |   |   |   \---images|   |   |           ui-icons_444444_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_555555_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_777620_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_777777_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_cc0000_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_ffffff_256x240.png|   |   |          |   |   \---public|   |           .ht.db|   |           index.php|   |           Removed.txt|   |          |   +---log_parser|   |   |   functions.php|   |   |   gate.php|   |   |   head.php|   |   |   index.php|   |   |   main.php|   |   |  |   |   +---ajax|   |   |       server_side.php|   |   |       ssp.class.php|   |   |      |   |   +---classes|   |   |       browser.php|   |   |      |   |   +---files|   |   |   |   animate.css|   |   |   |   bootbox.min.js|   |   |   |   bootstrap-notify.min.js|   |   |   |   bootstrap-social.css|   |   |   |   hover-min.css|   |   |   |   jquery-ui.min.js|   |   |   |   jquery.js|   |   |   |   my.css|   |   |   |  |   |   |   +---bootstrap|   |   |   |   +---css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.css.map|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.min.css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.min.css.map|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.css.map|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.min.css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.min.css.map|   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   +---fonts|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.eot|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.svg|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.ttf|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff2|   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   +---js|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.js| 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index.php|               texts.txt|              \---scrNote: If you are interested by the [Redacted] part please send a mail

Bedep has raised its game vs Bot Zombies

Sunday January 21st, 2018 10:39:22 PM
Simulacra & Simulation - Jean BaudrillardFeatured in MatrixBedep could be described as a fileless loader with a resident module that can optionally perform AdFraud. It's intimate to Angler EK and appeared around August 2014. On the 2016-03-24 I noticed several move in Bedep. Angler infecting a VM and integrating it into an instance of Bedep botnet2016-03-24No more variable in the URI (as several month before), the protocol Key changed and in most of my manual checks, all threads were sending a strange payload in the first stream.2ko size for Win7 64bits :80eb8a6aba5e6e70fb6c4032242e9ae82ce305d656b4ed8b629b24e1df0aef9aPopup shown by the first payload from Bedep Stream - Win7(in the background Angler Landing)48ko size for WinXP 32bits:a0fe4139133ddb62e6db8608696ecdaf5ea6ca79b5e049371a93a83cbcc8e780Popup shown by the first payload from Bedep Stream - WinXPLooking at my traffic I thought for some time that one of the Bedep instances was split in two.Then I understood that I got different result on my "manually" driven VM (on VMWare ESXi) and my automated Cuckoo driven one ( on VirtualBox). I suspected it was related to hardening, as this is one of the main difference between those two systems.And I got confirmation. Here is an example on a GooNky ([1] [2] [3]) malvertising traffic in Australia :A VM not hardened enough against Bedep got redirected to a "decoy" instance of Bedep that i will refer as :Bedep "Robot Town" - 2016-04-12Now look what i get instead with a VM that is not spotted as is:Same Angler thread - VM not detected. 1st Stream get Vawtrak2016-04-12( Vawtrak in that stream   d24674f2f9879ee9cec3eeb49185d4ea6bf555d150b4e840407051192eda1d61 )I am not skilled enough to give you the list of checks Bedep is doing. But here is one of them spotted by Cuckoo :Bedep doing some ACPI checksI think there are multiple level of checks. Some resulting in Bedep not trying to contact the C&C, some where the positive check end up with a different seed for the Bedep DGA redirecting spotted machines in a dedicated instance. This is quite powerful :- the checks are made without dropping an executable. - if you don't know what to expect it's quite difficult to figure out that you have been trapped- there is a lot of things that operators can do with this list of known bots and initial Bedep thread ID. One of them is for instance knowing which of the infection path are researcher/bots "highway" :Illustration for Bedep "Robot Town" from an "infection path" focused point of viewThis could be just a move to perform different tasks (AdFraud only (?) ) on VMs, but my guess it that this Bedep evolution on 2016-03-24 is a fast reaction to this Proofpoint Blog from 2016-03-18 which  show how Bedep threads are additional connectable dots. Sharing publicly is often a difficult decision. The question is which side will benefits the most from it, in the long time.For researchers:In the last 3 weeks, if your VM have communicated with :95.211.205.228 (which is a Bedep ip from end of 2015 reused) || ( 85.25.41.95  && http.uri.path  "ads.php?sid=1901" ) and you are interested by the "real payload" then you might want to give PAfish a run.Marvin - Paranoid AndroidOn the other hand, any of your VM which has communicated with 104.193.252.245 (Bedep "standard" 18xx 19xx instance)  since the 24 of March is hardened enough to grab the real payload.[Edits]- Removed the AU focused mention on the Vawtrak. I have been told (Thanks ! ) it's US focused. Got geo Glitched. Maybe more about that a day or the other.- Refine the check conditions for Researcher. IP  85.25.41.95 and sid=1901...otherwise...ok :)[/Edits]Acknowledgements :Thanks Will Metcalf and Malc0de for the discussions and help on this topic--I'm sorry, but I must do it...Greetings to Angler and Bedep guys. 😉 You are keeping us busy...and awake !Reading :Video Malvertising Bringing New Risks to High-Profile Sites - 2016-03-18 - ProofpointBedep’s DGA: Trading Foreign Exchange for Malware Domains - 2015-04-21 - Dennis Schwarz - ArborSertAngler EK : now capable of "fileless" infection (memory malware) - 2014-08-30Modifying VirtualBox settings for malware analysis - 2012-08-23  - Mikael Keri

CVE-2016-1019 (Flash up to 21.0.0.182/187) and Exploit Kits

Thursday May 5th, 2016 06:01:55 AM
Spotted in a "degraded" version on the 2016-04-02 in Magnitude, live also since 2016-03-31 in Nuclear Pack, Adobe was really fast at fixing  this vulnerability with the patch released on the 2016-04-07 bringing Flash Player to version 21.0.0.213It's not the first time a "0day" exploit is being used in a "degraded" state.This happened before with Angler and CVE-2015-0310 and CVE-2014-8439You'll find more details about the finding on that Proofpoint blog here :"Killing a zero-day in the egg: Adobe CVE-2016-1019"and on that FireEye blog here:CVE-2016-1019: A new flash exploit included in Magnitude Exploit KitNote : we worked with Eset, Kaspersky and Microsoft as well on this case.Nuclear Pack :2016-03-31 "Degraded"Identification by  Eset, Kaspersky and FireEye (Thanks)Exploit sent to Flash Player 20.0.0.306 by Nuclear Pack on the 2016-03-31CVE-2016-1019 insideSample in that pass:  301f163644a525155d5e8fe643b07dceac19014620a362d6db4dded65d9cad90Out of topic example of payload dropped that day by that instance of Nuclear : 42904b23cff35cc3b87045f21f82ba8b (locky)Note the string "CVE-2016-1001" in the Nuclear Pack, explaining why maybe this exploit is being used in a degraded state.CVE-2016-1001 string spotted by Denis O'Brien (Malwageddon), the 2016-04-05 in Nuclear Pack exploitMagnitude :2016-04-02 "Degraded" to 20.0.0.306Identified as is by FireEye[2016-04-07: TrendMicro told me they found some hits for this exploit in Magnitude back from 2016-03-31 as well]Magnitude exploiting Flash 20.0.0.306 with CVE-2016-1019 the 2016-04-02 in the morning.Payload is Cerber.Side note : the check on the redirector in front of Magnitude ( http://pastebin.com/raw/gfEz25fa ) which might have been fixed with the CVE-2015-2413 was in Magnitude landing itself from September to end of November 2015.res:// onload check features unobfuscated at that time in Magnitude Landing 2015-09-29Sample in that pass: 0a664526d00493d711ee93662a693eb724ffece3cd68c85df75e1b6757febde5Out of topic payload: 9d92fb315830ba69162bb7c39c45b219cb8399dd4e2ca00a1e21a5457f92fb3c Cerber RansomwareNote: I got successful pass with Windows 8.1 and Flash 20.0.0.272 as well and Windows 10 build 1511 (feb 2016) via Flash 20.0.0.306 on Internet Explorer 11. Edge seems not being served a landing.Neutrino:2016-04-11 - "degraded" as well it seems. (at least didn't got it to work on Flash 21.x)CVE id by @binjo and Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky)Neutrino successfully exploit Flash 20.0.0.306 with CVE-2016-10192016-04-11Fiddler : Sent to vtOut of topic payload: 83de3f72cc44215539a23d1408c140ae325b05f77f2528dbad375e975c18b82e Reading :Killing a zero day in the egg : CVE-2016-1019 - 2016-04-07 - ProofpointCVE-2016-1019: A new flash exploit included in Magnitude Exploit Kit - 2016-04-07 -  Genwei Jiang - FireEyeZero-Day Attack Discovered in Magnitude Exploit Kit Targeting CVE-2016-1019 in Older Versions of Adobe Flash Player - 2016-04-07 - Peter Pi, Brooks Li and Joseph C. Chen - TrendMicro

CVE-2016-1001 (Flash up to 20.0.0.306) and Exploit Kits

Monday April 4th, 2016 11:05:56 PM
Two weeks after Flash patch,  two months after last Flash exploit integration in Angler, on the 2016-03-25 Angler EK, in some threads, is starting to send an exploit to Flash Player 20.0.0.270 and 20.0.0.306I tried multiple configuration but I was not able to get exploited. The following day I got successful infections with Flash 20.0.0.270 and 20.0.0.306.Angler EK :2016-03-25The CVE here has been identificated as CVE-2016-1001 by Eset and Kaspersky (Thanks)2016-03-26 - Angler EK successfully exploiting Flash 20.0.0.306 in Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 7Fiddler sent to VT here.Hash of the associated SWF fwiw : b609ece7b9f4977bed792421b33b15daObserved as well : ab24d05f731caa4c87055af050f26917 - c4c59f454e53f1e45858e95e25f64d07NB : this is just "one" pass.  Angler EK can be used to spread whatever its customers want to spread .Selected examples I saw in the last 4 days : Teslacrypt (ID 20, 40,52, 74 ,47) , Locky (affid 14 - 7f2b678398a93cac285312354ce7d2b7  and affid 11 - f417b107339b79a49e4e63e116e84a32), GootKit b9bec4a5811c6aff6001efa357f1f99c, Vawtrak  0dc4d5370bc4b0c8333b9512d686946cRamnit 99f21ba5b02b3085c683ea831d79dc79Gozi ISFB (DGA nasa) 11d515c2a2135ca00398b88eebbf9299BandarChor, (several instances, ex f97395004053aa28cadc6d4dc7fc0464 - 3c9b5868b4121a2d48b980a81dda8569 )Graybird/LatentBot f985b38f5e8bd1dfb3767cfea89ca776Dridex - b0f34f62f49b9c40e2558c1fa17523b5 (this one was 10 days ago..but worth a mention)Andromeda (several instances)and obviously many Bedep threads and their stream of PE (evotob, reactorbot (several instances), Tofsee, Teslacrypt,Kovter, Miuref)Edit 1: 2016-03-29 -  I was mentioning 2016-1010 as a candidate but it's not. Modified with the correct CVE ID provided by Eset and Kaspersky..

CVE-2016-0034 (Silverlight up to 5.1.41105.0) and Exploit Kits

Tuesday March 29th, 2016 06:39:36 PM
Fixed with the January 2016 Microsoft patches, CVE-2016-0034  ( MS16-006 ) is a Silverlight Memory Corruption vulnerability and it has been spotted by Kaspersky with rules to hunt Vitaliy Toropov’s unknown Silverlight exploit mentioned in HackingTeam leak.Angler EK :On the 2016-02-18 the landing of Angler changed slightly to integrate this piece of code :Silverlight integration Snipet from Angler Landing after decoding2016-02-18resulting in a new call if silverlight is installed on the computer:Angler EK replying without body to silverlight callHere a Pass in great britain dropping Vawtrak via Bedep buildid 77862016-02-18I tried all instances i could find and the same behavior occured on all.2016-02-22 Here we go : call are not empty anymore.Angler EK dropping  Teslacrypt via silverlight  5.1.41105.0 after the "EITest" redirect 2016-02-22I made a pass with Silverlight : 5.1.41212.0 : safe.Edit1 : I received confirmation that it's indeed CVE-2016-0034 from multiple analyst including Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky). Thanks !Xap file : 01ce22f87227f869b7978dc5fe625e16Dll : 22a9f342eb367ea9b00508adb738d858Out of topic payload : 6a01421a9bd82f02051ce6a4ea4e2edc (Teslacrypt)Fiddler sent hereRIG : 2016-03-29Malc0de spotted modification in the Rig landing indicating integration of Silverlight Exploit.Here is a pass where the Silverlight is being fired and successfully exploited. CVE identification by : Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky)RIG - CVE-2016-0034 - 2016-03-29Xap file in that pass :  acb74c05a1b0f97cc1a45661ea72a67a080b77f8eb9849ca440037a077461f6bcontaining this dll : e535cf04335e92587f640432d4ec3838b4605cd7e3864cfba2db94baae060415( Out of topic payload : Qbot 3242561cc9bb3e131e0738078e2e44886df307035f3be0bd3defbbc631e34c80 )Files : Fiddler and sample (password is malware)Reading :The Mysterious Case of CVE-2016-0034: the hunt for a Microsoft Silverlight 0-day - 2016-01-13 - Costin Raiu & Anton Ivanov - KasperskyPost Publication Reading:(PDF) Analysis of Angler's new silverlight Exploit - 2016-03-10 - Bitdefender Labs

Cryptowall son of Borracho (Flimrans) ?

Wednesday February 10th, 2016 10:13:10 PM
Lately I received multiple questions about connection between Reveton and Cryptowall.I decided to have a look.A search in ET Intelligence portal at domains from Yonathan's Cryptowall TrackerET Intelligence search on Specspa .comshow that the first sample ET has talking with it is :e2f4bb542ea47e8928be877bb442df1b  2013-10-20A look at the http connexion shows the "us.bin" call mentioned by Yonathan (btw the us.bin item is still live there)ET Intelligence  : e2f4bb542ea47e8928be877bb442df1b http connexionsET Intelligence : Associated alert pointing at Cryptowall.A look into VirusTotal Intelligence shows that this sample is available in a Pcap captured and shared by ThreatGlass :NSFW://www.threatglass .com/malicious_urls/sunporno-comHiman EK dropping Cryptowall 2013-10-20captured by ThreatGlassWith the same referer and in the same Exploit Kit i got dropped 20 days earlier Flimrans :(See : http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2013/10/HiMan.html )Flimrans disappeared soon after this post from 2013-10-08 about the affiliate :http://malware.dontneedcoffee.com/2013/10/flimrans-affiliate-borracho.htmlInterestingly Flimrans is showing in US the same Design from Reveton pointed by Yonathan :Flimrans US 2013-10-03What is worth mentioning is that Flimrans was the only ransomware (i am aware of) to show a Spanish version of this same design :Flimrans ES 2013-10-03The timeline is also inline with a link between those two Ransomware (whereas Reveton was still being distributed months after these events).Digging into my notes/fiddlers i even found that this bworldonline .com which is still hosting the us.bin was in fact also the redirector to HiMan dropping Flimrans 20 days earlier from same sunporno upper.[The credits goes to Eoin Miller who at that time pointed that infection path allowing me to replay it]The compromised server storing the first design Blob used by cryptowallused to redirect 20 days earlier to Himan dropping Flimrans (which is using that same design).So...Cryptowall son of Borracho? I don't know for sure...but that could to be a possibility.Files : Items mentionned here. (password is malware)Read More:HiMan Exploit Kit. Say Hi to one more - 2013-10-02Flimrans Affiliate : Borracho - 2013-10-08

CVE-2015-8651 (Flash up to 20.0.0.228/235) and Exploit Kits

Thursday April 7th, 2016 12:08:26 PM
While other exploit kit are struggling to keep up with Angler (none is firing CVE-2015-8446 , maybe because of the Diffie-Hellman protection on Angler's exploits ),- Nuclear / Magnitude and Neutrino last exploits are from October (CVE-2015-7645)- RIG and Sundown are relying on July exploits (Hacking Team's one - CVE-2015-5122)( all have the IE CVE-2015-2419 from august)Angler has just integrated CVE-2015-8651 patched with Flash 20.0.0.270 on 2015-12-28Angler EK : 2016-01-25The exploit might be here since the 22 based on some headers modification which appeared that day.It's not yet pushed in all Angler EK threads but widely spread.Thanks Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky) for CVE Identification !CVE-2015-8651 (and CVE-2015-2419) being successfully exploited by Angler EK to load bedep in memory2016-01-25Fiddler sent to VT.---Another pass via the "noisy" Cryptowall "crypt13x" actor which threads also has it :CVE-2015-8651 being successfully exploited by Angler EK to load Cryptowall  (crypt13001)from the widely spread and covered "crypt13x" actor thread - 2016-01-25(Out of Topic payload : 5866906a303b387b9918a8d7f8b08a51 Cryptowall crypt13001 )I have been told by Eset that the exploit is successful on Flash 20.0.0.235 and Firefox.---I spotted a thread serving a landing and an exploit to Firefox.2016-03-23 Firefox pass with Sandbox escape :Angler EK exploiting CVE-2015-8651 on Firefox 33.1.1 and Flash 20.0.0.305Bedep successfully wrote its payload on the drive.2016-03-23Files : Fiddler in a zip (password malware)Neutrino :Thanks Eset for identifying the added CVE here.Neutrino Exploiting CVE-2015-8651 on 2016-02-09Here Bunitu droppedNote: For some reason couldn't have it working with Flash 20.0.0.228.Files : Fiddler here (password is malware)Nuclear Pack:Thanks again Eset for CVE identification here.Nuclear Pack exploit CVE-2015-8651 on 2016-02-10Out of topic payload: cdb0447019fecad3a949dd248d7ae30f which is a loader for CloudScout (topflix .info - which we can find in RIG as well those days)It seems Chrome won't save you if you do let it update.2016-02-17 on DE/US/FR trafficThis is not something i can reproduce.Is what i get with Chrome 46.0.2490.71 and its builtin 19.0.0.207 (which should fast update itself to last version)Files : Fiddler here (password: malware)Magnitude:2016-02-18CVE ID confirmed by Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky)Magnitude dropping Cryptowall via CVE-2015-86512016-02-18Files : Fiddler here (Password is malware)RIG :Some days before 2016-04-06Thanks FireEye for CVE identification.CVE-2015-8651 successfuly exploited by RIG on 2016-04-07Sample in that pass: 4888cc96a390e2970015c9c1d0206011a6fd8e452063863e5e054b3776deae02( Out of topic payload: 30cb7ed7a67eb08fa2845990b7270d64d51e769d6e0dad4f9c2b8e7551bced0a Probably Godzilla downloader)Files : RIG_2016-04-07 (swf, payload and Fiddler - password is malware)Read More:(GoogleTranslate - via @eromang ) Offshore "Dark Hotel" organization of domestic business executives launched APT attacks - 2015-12-31 - ThreatBookPost publication reading :An Analysis on the Principle of CVE-2015-8651 - Antiy Labs - 2016-01-26

XXX is Angler EK

Tuesday August 30th, 2016 02:06:14 PM
Snipshot of MonterAV AffiliateAs I got many questions about an EK named XXX (that is said to be better than Angler 😉 ) I decided to share some data here.XXX Control Panel Login Page.XXX is Angler EK ( it's the real name of its most documented instance at least)Angler EK / XXX  IE sploit only Stats on 2015-07-25(for some reason Flash Exploits were not activated on that thread)Note the Chase Logo >> JPMorgan  >>  Cool EK's Exploit Buyer ;)You might want to read "The Transition - "Reveton Team" or "Mr.J/Monster AV" from :Paunch's arrest...The end of an Era ! (2013-10-11) . This is where I first wrote the defense chosen name for this Exploit Kit. The name is chosen after a logo from the Reveton Affiliate.Snipshot of "The Transition" after Paunch's ArrestBut Angler was around before the Reveton team started to use it.Here is one used against Ukrainian that i captured  in August 20132013-08-27 - Exploit Kit unknown to me at that timeAncestor of Angler EK as we know it[Payload here is most probably Lurk]when Reveton Team was still on Cool EK. It appears that instance had already Fileless capabilities.A Russian researcher friend connect that instance back to this Securelist post from 2012-03-16 : A unique ‘bodiless’ bot attacks news site visitorsSo the (c) 2010 at the bottom of the control panel is probably...the real birth year of Angler.This indexm.html variant of Angler EK is most probably still being used in RU/UA and was one of the early adopter of CVE-2015-0311 (a flash 0day from January) before many "standard" instances of Angler. There was still java exploit inside in march2015-01-27 - Angler EK "indexm" exploiting CVE-2015-2551 and firing Java exploits[Payload here is most probably Lurk]Angler EK has been briefly mentioned (translation here ) as part of a "partnerka" by a user using Menatep as Nickname in February 2014Conclusion : xxx is what we call Angler EK and Angler EK (indexm instance) is not that young!Files : 2 Fiddler pass of Angler EK "indexm" from 2013 and 2015 (Password : malware)Read More :Police Locker land on Android Devices - 2014-05-04Paunch's arrest...The end of an Era ! - 2013-10-11Crimeware Author Funds Exploit Buying Spree - 2013-01-07 - KrebsOnSecurityCool Exploit Kit - A new Browser Exploit Pack on the Battlefield with a "Duqu" like font drop - 2012-10-09A unique ‘bodiless’ bot attacks news site visitors - 2012-03-16 - Sergey Golovanov - SecurelistPost publication Reading :Russian hacker gang arrested over $25m theft - 2016-06-02 - BBC News [Cf Lurk]Is it the End of Angler ? - 2016-06-11How we helped to catch one of the most dangerous gangs of financial cybercriminals - 2016-08-30 - SecureList

CVE-2015-8446 (Flash up to 19.0.0.245) And Exploit Kits

Wednesday January 27th, 2016 03:27:21 AM
One week after patch Flash 19.0.0.245 is being exploited by Angler EK via CVE-2015-8446Angler EK :2015-12-14CVE identification by Anton Ivanov ( Kaspersky ) and FireEye  (Thanks !)Angler EK exploiting Flash 19.0.0.245 via CVE-2015-84462015-12-14Sample in that pass : b5920eef8a3e193e0fc492c603a30aafSample from other Angler EK instance : 0615fb9e037b7bf717cc9b04708e51da 720089b93a0f2bb2a72f1166430de522Fiddler sent to VT.(Not replayable. You know how to contact me to land on live instances. I might not reply to mail coming from gmail,live,yahoo etc...  mailboxes)Out of topic : in that pass Bedep BuildID 5004 is loaded in Memory and is then grabbing those 2 dll in a streamf5c1a676166fe3472e6c993faee42b34d65f155381d26f8ddfa304c83b1ad95a (Credential Stealer)and after that performing AdfraudCVE-2015-8446 in Angler EK - malicious mp3 is stored in encrypted JSON (same schema as in CVE-2015-5560). pic.twitter.com/FCyvP43Q0X— Anton Ivanov (@antonivanovm) December 17, 2015 Last safe version of Flash against commercial exploit kit  was 19.0.0.226 fixing CVE-2015-7645Post publication readings :(Google Translate) Angler EK latest CVE-2015-8446 Flash Exploit analysis - 2015-12-19 - Qihoo360

Nuclear Pack loads a fileless CVE-2014-4113 Exploit

Monday June 27th, 2016 08:23:00 AM
Yesterday's Nymaim spam campaign was also redirecting to Nuclear Pack.Without big surprise the sample ( 592899e0eb3c06fb9fda59d03e4b5b53 ) dropped by Nuclear is the same as the fake update proposed.But there was an additionnal 11kb payload call for which i could not find sample on driveNuclear Pack dropping Nymaim in the 2015-11-30 Spam CampaignIt was also unusually encoded with two XOR pass and first part of the decoded stream is a Shellcode.Friends (who don't want to be mentioned) figured a privilege escalation was in use there :According to Kaspersky and Timo Hirvonen (F-Secure) it's CVE-2014-4113 ( Win32k.sys Elevation of Privilege Vulnerability )I did not got to see the privilege escalation in live condition.Note: it's not the first time a public Exploit Kit is integrating an exploit to escalates right on dropped payload (Cf CVE-2015-2426 in Magnitude )Files : Fiddler and Dll here (password is malware - XOR key : 56774347426F664767  then  213404052d09212031)Thanks : Kaspersky,  Timo Hirvonen , Malc0de and 2 other friends for taking some time and use their wizardness  on this.Read More :An Analysis of A Windows Kernel-Mode Vulnerability (CVE-2014-4113) - 2014-10-29 - TrendMicro

Inside Jahoo (Otlard.A ?) - A spam Botnet

Tuesday December 29th, 2015 05:48:11 PM
Trash and Mailbox by Bethesda SoftworksOtlard.A (or let's say at least the malware triggering 2806902 || ETPRO TROJAN Win32.Otlard.A C&C Checkin response )  is a Spam BotnetI saw it loaded as a plugin in an instance of AndromedaThat Andromeda is being spread via :Bedep build id 6005 and here 6007 from an Angler EK fed by Malvertising :VirtualDonna group redirecting traffic to an Angler instance loading Bedep buildid 6007 in memoryBedep 6007 loading Andromeda 55ead0e4010c7c1a601511286f879e33 before update task.2015-09-28Note : Bedep 6007 was sometimes loading it with other payload-2015-09-16 for : ec5d314fc392765d065ff16f21722008 with Trapwot (FakeAV) e600985d6797dec2f7388e86ae3e82ba and Pony a4f08c845cc8e2beae0d157a3624b686-2015-09-29 for : 37898c10a350651add962831daa4fffa with Kovter ( 24143f110e7492c3d040b2ec0cdfa3d0 )That Andromeda beaconing to dnswow .com enslaved >10k bots in a week :Andromeda dnswow 2015-11-22Andromeda dnswow 2015-11-27Here the Otlard.A task in that Andromeda instance :Task installing Otlard.A as a plugin to Andromedaa Task in a Smokebot dropped by Nuclear Pack fed by Malvertising :Malvertising > Nuclear Pack > Smokebot > Stealer, Ramnit, Htbot and Andromeda > Otlard.A2015-11-28Smokebot : cde587187622d5f23e50b1f5b6c86969Andromeda : b75f4834770fe64da63e42b8c90c6fcd(out of topic Ramnit : 28ceafaef592986e4914bfa3f4c7f5c0 - It's being massively spread those days in many infection path. (Edit 2015-12-29 :  Htbot.B :  d0a14abe51a61c727420765f72de843a named ProxyBack by PaloAlto)Now here is what the control panel of that plugin looks like :Otlard.A panel :Otlard.A - JahooManager - Main - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooManager - Servers - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooManager - Settings - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooManager - Campaigns - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooManager - Bot - 2015-09-27that exe is : 2387fb927e6d9d6c027b4ba23d8c3073 and appears to be AndromedaOtlard.A - JahooSender - Tasks - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooSender - Tasks - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Tasks - Done Task - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooSender - Domains - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooSender - Domains - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - Edit a Message - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - Edit a Message - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - Edit a Message - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Headers - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Headers - Editing Header - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Headers - Editing Header - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Macross - Editing macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender  - Macross - Editing macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Macross - Editing macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Attach - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Attach - Attached image - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Rules - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Rules > Spam - 2015-11-28Olard.A - JahooSender - Rules > User - 2015-11-28Olard.A - Bases - Emails - 2015-11-28Olard.A - Bases - Blacklist - 2015-11-28Olard.A - Bases - Blacklist - Edit - 2015-11-28Olard.A - Botnet - Main - 2015-09-27Olard.A - Botnet - Main - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - Botnet - Modules - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - Botnet - Modules - Edit - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - Incubator - Accounts - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - Incubator - Settings - 2015-11-28Note : registrator menu has disappeared in last version. --Andromeda C&C 2015-11-28 :5.8.35.241202023 | 5.8.35.0/24 | LLHOST | EU | llhost-inc.com | LLHost IncSpam Module C&C 2015-11-28 :5.8.32.10 5.8.32.85.8.32.525.8.34.205.8.32.535.8.32.56202023 | 5.8.32.0/24 | LLHOST | EU | zanufact.com | LLHost IncThanks : Brett StoneGross for helping me with decoding/understanding the network communicationsFiles :All samples which hashes have been discussed here are in that zip.Jahoo - socker.dll : 7d14c9edfd71d2b76dd18e3681fec798( If you want to look into this, i can provide associated network traffic)Read More :Inside Andromeda Bot v2.06 Webpanel / AKA Gamarue - Botnet Control Panel 2012-07-02Inside Pony 1.7 / Fareit C&C - Botnet Control Panel - 2012-06-27Inside Smoke Bot - Botnet Control Panel - 2012-04-28Post publication Reading :ProxyBack Malware Turns User Systems Into Proxies Without Consent - 2015-12-23 - JeffWhite - PaloAlto

CVE-2015-7645 (Flash up to 19.0.0.207) and Exploit Kits

Saturday March 12th, 2016 12:09:34 PM
The CVE-2015-7645 has been fixed with Adobe Flash Player 19.0.0.226. Spotted in the wild (2015-10-13) in APT28's exploit kit by TrendMicro, this exploit was already reported 2 weeks before (2015-09-29) to Adobe by Natalie Silvanovich.I reported the Flash 0-day (CVE-2015-7645) two weeks before it was found in the wild https://t.co/nYeAWRG5jO— Natalie Silvanovich (@natashenka) 16 Octobre 2015 It has now made its way to Exploit KitAngler EK :2015-10-29CVE id confirmed by by Anton Ivanov ( Kaspersky )Angler EK successfully exploiting Flash 19.0.0.2072015-10-29Flash sample in that pass : 4af57fb1c71bb9c1599371d48240ff36Another sample : bea824974f958ac4efc58484a88a9c18One more from the Poweliks instance : 0d72221d41eff55dcfd0da50cd1c545eNot replayable fiddler sent to VTOut of topic sample loaded by bedep :5a60925ea3cc52c264b837e6f2ee915e Necursa9d5a9a997954f5421c94ac89d2656cd Vawtrak ( < that one was not expected in that infection path)2016-03-12Edge is now being served a landing and the flash being sent is targeting this CVE according to Kaspersky and EsetAngler EK exploiting Flash 18.0.0.209 on Windows 10 (build 10240) through EdgeFiddler : AnglerEK_Edge_18.0.0.209_2016-03-11.zipNuclear Pack:2015-10-30Nuclear Pack which has been playing with landing URI pattern lately has integrated itCVE-2015-7645 in Nuclear Pack on 2015-10-30Sample in that pass : f5dd2623ae871d58483bf14ec5d635e4Out of topic payload : 0b3de2a8d838883e10a1d824d20fe95c Kelihos Loader (harsh02)Fiddler sent to VTMagnitude:2015-11-10Magnitude trying to exploit CVE-2015-76452015-11-10Spotted sample : 21993dd3b943d935a9296aeff831cbb9 CVE id confirmed by Timo HirvonenNo payload but the actor behind that thread would like to see you Cryptowalled. Update might come.Spartan :2015-11-12Without surprise as Spartan is the work of the coder of Nuclear Pack.Note : old version of Chrome <= 43.0.257 and Firefox < 38 seems to be falling as wellSpartan pushing Pony and Alphacrypt via CVE-2015-76452015-11-12Sample in that pass : 1c074c862d3e25ec9674e6bd62965ad8  (another one: 66f34cd7ef06a78df552d18c729ae53c )(out of topic payload : Pony: 29c940f9d0805771e9c7ec8a5939fa25 (45.63.71.12 /myadvert/autoget.php) and Cryptowall 74ebff4acc4ad9c2a2e665ff293c02e6  NB earlier today drops were Pony and Alphacrypt ) Fiddler sent to VTNeutrino:Most probably appeared 2015-10-16Necurs being dropped by Neutrino via CVE-2015-76452015-11-17Sample in that pass: 7dd9813ef635e98dd9585deaefecfcff(Out of topic payload : Necurs a83a96e87e80adef1e4598a645f2918c )Fiddler sent to VT  (You might want to read the detailed analysis by Trustave)Read More :Adobe Flash: Type Confusion in IExternalizable.writeExternal When Performing Local Serialization - 2015-09-29 - Natalie SilvanovichNew Adobe Flash Zero-Day Used in Pawn Storm Campaign Targeting Foreign Affairs Ministries - 2015-10-13 - Feike Hacquebord - Brooks Li - Peter Pi - TrendMicroLatest Flash Exploit Used in Pawn Storm Circumvents Mitigation Techniques - 2015-10-16 - Peter Pi - TrendMicroPost Publication Reading :Neutrino Exploit Kit – One Flash File to Rule Them All - 2015-12-28 - Daniel Chechik and Anat Davidi - Spiderlabs/Trustwave

A DoubleClick https open redirect used in some malvertising chain

Saturday January 16th, 2016 04:05:15 PM
In the post on the UK focused Shifu I illustrated malvertising traffic to Angler.The traffer group behind this activity is the same exposed by BelchSpeak from Invincea in many tweets (explaining the addition of code to spot Invincea Sandbox)  FoxIT in june,  Malwarebytes in September,  or Trendmicro 2 weeks ago.As it's easier to have a name to share/talk  about stuff i'll use "VirtualDonna Traffers" to refer to them (virtualdonna .com is one of the domains they used that got some attention)Earlier this year they were using https bit.ly,2015-07-11 - bit.ly as https url shortenertiny url2015-07-11 - tiny url as https url shorteneror goo.gl url shortener2015-06-12 - goo.gl as https url shorterner and switched to their own https redirector behind cloudflare around the middle of September ( naotsandhap.euTwo pass here : same source (Dailymotion), same country (Australia), same Traffer for same customer (how/why? same payload : Reactorbot  srvdexpress3 .com)Different Legit part of the chain2015-09-29then 2 weeks ago mediacpm.com and wrontoldretter.eu )https gives the traffer the ability to kill the referer chain (making it more difficult to figure out where the Exploit Kit landing spotted in the traffic is coming from).Once discovered a way to Sig this is to flag the ssl certificate being used.Those days they are using a DoubleClick https open redirect.VirtualDonna Traffers exploiting an https open redirect by Doubleclick in its chain to Angler EKGB - 2015-10-15Out of topic Payload in that pass : Shifu - 695d6fbd8ab789979a97fb886101c576 beaconing to nyctradersacademy .comDoubleclick has been informed about the issue.Post Publication Readings :The shadow knows: Malvertising campaigns use domain shadowing to pull in Angler EK - 2015-12-15 - ProofpointLet’s Encrypt Now Being Abused By Malvertisers - 2016-01-06 - TrendMicro

Shifu <3 Great Britain

Monday February 29th, 2016 08:29:24 AM
I noticed since several days a shift in malware distribution in the UK.Many infection path that I follow are now dropping a banker that i already saw many times, especially at the end of 2014 and mostly in Italy.First time I encountered that threat : 2014-10-08Angler EK dropping 165146e43ccee9c29b62693caf290df7 in an IT focused infection path2014-10-08At that time I learnt from Frank Ruiz ( FoxIT ) that he spotted it 1 month earlier (2014-09-03 exactly). We were using a "non public" name to talk about it.So two days ago in UK traffic :2015-09-22 - An Angler EK dropping  0598ee3e06c681d7f9e05d83bb7ea422 via malvertising on GBR trafficI saw that banking trojan again. (note : contacted,  Frank Ruiz told me that this banker activity never really stopped). What was new to me is that it was installing Apache,Apache folder installed by 0598ee3e06c681d7f9e05d83bb7ea422 2015-09-22Apache ConfigData folder of the Apache installationCustomers of 4 financial institutions are targeted by the injects stored in the config.xmlconfig.xmlThe same day i saw it again, other malvertising campaign (read: other actor bringing the traffic) and not dropped directly but as a 2nd Stage in a bedep thread which was not grabbing an adfraud module:Angler EK pushing bedep grabbing 791491ba9f0a7670659f45f1e5421c83 2015-09-22Seeing it again today in malvertising campaign focused on UK, I decided to write about that and contacted Brett StoneGross (Dell SecureWorks) to try and get the 'defense name' for this. He told me that what I was describing was probably Shifu ..and fast confirmed it looking at the sample. (Edit reaction to twitter : He also told me that Shifu is based on Shiz)So here we are: Shifu <3 GBRShifu <3 GBR2015-09-24Side note : Here are some of the DGA in case main domain stop working.Files : ShifuPackage_2015-09-24.zip Password : malwareContains : 4 fiddler, 1 pcap, 6 samples and 2 apache config folder (with injects).Thanks: Frank Ruiz (Foxit) and Brett StoneGross (Dell SecureWorks) for their inputs/insight/awesomeness.Read More:Shifu: ‘Masterful’ New Banking Trojan Is Attacking 14 Japanese Banks - 2015-08-31 - Limor Kessem - IBM X-ForceJapanese Banking Trojan Shifu Combines Malware Tools - 2015-09-24 - Diwakar Dinkar - McAfeePost publication Reading:3,000 High-Profile Japanese Sites Hit By Massive Malvertising Campaign  2015-09-30 - Trenmicro

CVE-2015-5560 (Flash up to 18.0.0.209) and Exploit Kits

Tuesday January 12th, 2016 06:06:14 PM
Patched with flash version 18.0.0.232, CVE-2015-5560 is now being exploited by Angler EK.Angler EK :2015-08-29[Edit : 2015-09-01] Exploit candidated by by Anton Ivanov ( Kaspersky ) as CVE-2015-5560 [/edit]The exploit has been added the 28th. It's not being sent to Flash 18.0.0.232..It uses the same Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange technique described by FireEye as in their CVE-2015-2419 implementation making a default fiddler unreplayable.Angler EK pushing Bedep to Win7 IE11 Flash 18.0.0.209 - CVE-2015-55602015-08-29Sample in that pass : 9fbb043f63bb965a48582aa522cb1fd0Fiddler sent to VT (password is malware)Note: with help from G Data, a replayable fiddler is available. No public share (you know how to get it).Nuclear Pack :2015-09-10Additional post spotted on the 2015-09-10Nuclear Pack additionnal post on 2015-09-10 showing integration of CVE-2015-5560 was on the roadand got a first payload  the day after :Nuclear Pack successfully exploiting Flash 18.0.0.209 with CVE-2015-5560 (rip from Angler)2015-09-11( Out of topic payload : 91b76aaf6f7b93c667f685a86a7d68de  Smokebot C&C  hostnamessimply1.effers .com: )Files : Fiddler here (Password is malware)Read More :Adobe Flash: Overflow in ID3 Tag Parsing - 2015-06-12 Google Security ResearchThree bypasses and a fix for one of Flash's Vector.<*> mitigations - 2015-08-19 - Chris Evans - Google Project ZeroCVE-2015-2419 – Internet Explorer Double-Free in Angler EK  - 2015-08-10 - FireEyeBedep’s DGA: Trading Foreign Exchange for Malware Domains - 2015-04-21 - Dennis Schartz - Arbor SertPost publication reading :Attacking Diffie-Hellman protocol implementation in the Angler Exploit Kit - 2015-09-08 KasperskyAnalysis of Adobe Flash Player ID3 Tag Parsing Integer Overflow Vulnerability (CVE-2015-5560) - 2016-01-12 - Nahuel Riva - CoreSecurity

CVE-2015-2419 (Internet Explorer) and Exploits Kits

Wednesday July 6th, 2016 10:00:12 AM
As published by FireEye Angler EK is now exploiting CVE-2015-2419 fixed with MS15-065Angler EK :2015-08-10It seems they might have started to work on that exploit as early as 2015-07-24 where some instances briefly used code to gather ScriptEngineVersion from redirected visitors :Angler EK gathering ScriptEngineVersion data the fast way.2015-07-24Today first pass i made was showing a new POST call and was successfully exploiting a VM that used to be safe to Angler.CVE-2015-2419 successfully exploiting IE11 in windows 72015-08-10(Here bedep grabbing Pony and TeslaCrypt then doing some AdFraud)I spent (too much 😉 ) time trying to decode that b value in the POST reply.Here are some materials :- The landing after first pass of decoding and with some comments : http://pastebin.com/JQuyAXarThe post call is handled by String['prototype']['jjd'] , ggg is sent to Post data as well as the ScriptEngineVersion (in the shared pass : 17728 )- The l() function handling the post : http://pastebin.com/hxZJwbaY- The post data and reply after first pass of decoding : http://pastebin.com/raw.php?i=NWkU7CXrFiles : 2 Fiddlers (ScriptEngineVersion Gathering and successfull pass - use malware as password)Thanks :Horgh_RCE for his helpMagnitude :2015-08-22( I am waiting for some strong confirmation on CVE-2015-2426 used as PrivEsc only here )Magnitude successfully exploiting CVE-2015-2419 to push an elevated (CVE-2015-2426) Cryptowall on IE11 in Win72015-08-22As you can see the CVE-2015-2419 is a RIP of Angler EK's implementation (even containing their XTea key, despite payload is in clear)Note : The CVE-2015-2426 seems to be used for privilege escalation onlyCryptowall dropped by Magnitude executed as NT Authority\system after CVE-2015-24262015-08-23and has been associated to flash Exploit as well.Pass showing the privilege escalation has been associated to flash Exploit as well.2015-08-23Files : CVE-2015-2419 pass (password: malware)CVE-2015-5122 pass featuring CVE-2015-2426 (password : malware)Thanks :Horgh_RCE , EKWatcher and Will Metcalf for their helpNuclear Pack:2015-08-23Nuclear Pack exploiting IE11 in Win7 with CVE-2015-2419 to push TeslaCrypt2015-08-23Files :  Fiddler (Password is malware)Neutrino :CVE Identification by Timo HirvonenNeutrino successfully exploiting CVE-2015-2419 on IE11 in Windows 72015-08-27(Out of topic payload : c7692ccd9e9984e23003bef3097f7746  Betabot)Files: Fiddler (Password is malware)RIG:2015-08-27RIG successfully exploiting CVE-2015-24192015-08-27(Out of topic payload : fe942226ea57054f1af01f2e78a2d306 Kelihos (kilo601)Files : Fiddler (password is malware)Hunter :2015-08-27@hunter_exploit 2015-08-26As spotted by Proofpoint Hunter EK has integrated CVE-2015-2419Hunter Exploit Kit successfully exploiting CVE-2015-24192015-08-27Files : Fiddler (password is malware)Kaixin :2016-01-08Files: Fiddler here (password is malware)( out of topic Payload : bb1fff88c3b86baa29176642dc5f278d firing PCRat/Gh0st ET rule 2016922 )Sundown :2016-07-06 - Thanks  Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky) for confirmationSundown successfully Exploiting CVE-2015-2419 - 2016-07-06cmd into wscript into Neutrino-ish named / RC4ed Payload let think this is a Rip from Neutrino implementation( Out of topic payload: bcb80b5925ead246729ca423b7dfb635 is a Netwire Rat )Files : Sundown_CVE-2015-2419_2016-07-06 (password is malware)Read More :Hunter Exploit Kit Targets Brazilian Banking Customers - 2015-08-27 - ProofpointCVE-2015-2419 – Internet Explorer Double-Free in Angler EK - 2015-08-10 - Sudeep Singh, Dan Caselden - FireEye2015-08-10 - ANGLER EK FROM 144.76.161.249 SENDS BEDEP This pass shared by Brad from Malware-Traffic-Analysis is including the CVE-2015-2419Generic bypass of next-gen intrusion / threat / breach detection systems - 2015-06-05 - Zoltan Balazs - EffitasPost publication Reading :Attacking Diffie-Hellman protocol implementation in the Angler Exploit Kit - 2015-09-08 Kaspersky

CVE-2015-1671 (silverlight up to 5.1.30514.0) and Exploit Kits

Tuesday September 1st, 2015 07:32:11 AM
Patched with ms15-044 CVE-2015-1671 is described as TrueType Font Parsing Vulnerability.Silverlight up to 5.1.30514.0 are affected, but note : most browser will warn that the plugin is outdatedOut of date Plugin protection in Chrome 39.0.2171.71Out of date ActiveX controls blocking in Internet Explorer 11(introduced in August 2014)and also consider that Microsoft announced the end of Silverlight at beginning of the month.Angler EK :2015-07-21Around the 1st of July some new Silverlight focused code appeared in Angler EK landing.It even seems coders made some debug or something wrong as you could see this kind of popup several hours long on Angler EK.Deofuscated snipet of Silverlight call exposed to Victims in Angler EK2015-07-02I failed trying to get something else than a 0 size silverlight calls.I heard about filled calls from Eset and EKWatcher.The exploit sent was 3fff76bfe2084c454be64be7adff2b87  and appears to be a variation of CVE-2015-1671 (Silverlight 5 before 5.1.40416.00).  I spent hours trying to get a full exploit chain....No luck. Only 0size calls.But, it seems it's back today (or i get more lucky ? ) :--Disclaimer : many indicators are whispering it's the same variation of CVE-2015-1671, but I am still waiting for a strong confirmation--Silverlight 5.1.30514.0 exploited by Angler EK via CVE-2015-1671 in IE 11 on Windows 72015-07-21Silverlight 5.1_10411.0 exploited by Angler EK via CVE-2015-1671 in Chrome 39 on Windows 72015-07-21Silverlight 5.1.30514.0 exploited by Angler EK via CVE-2015-1671 in Firefox 38 on Windows 72015-07-21Two x86 - x64 dll are encoded in the payload stream with XTea Key : m0boo69biBjSmd3pSilverlight dll in DotPeek after Do4dotSample in those pass : ac05e093930662a2a2f4605f7afc52f2(Out of topic payload is bedep which then gather an adfraud module - you have the XTea key if you want to extract)Files: Fiddler (password is malware)[Edit : 2015-07-26, has been spread to all Angler Threads]Thanks for help/tips :Eset, Microsoft, Horgh_RCE,  Darien Huss, Will Metcalf, EKWatcher.Magnitude :2015-07-28  has been spotted by Will Metcalf in MagnitudeIt's a rip of Angler's oneSilverlight 5.1.30514.0 exploited by Magnitude2015-08-29Files: Fiddler (password is malware)Read more :CVE-2013-0074/3896 (Silverlight) integrates Exploit Kits - 2013-11-13


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