Threat News Ledger

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The following is the most recent public Cyber Threat news posted on Website

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Security Affairs

Read, think, share … Security is everyone's responsibility

Last feed update: Saturday March 9th, 2019 01:06:48 AM

FBI informed software giant Citrix of a security breach

Friday March 8th, 2019 10:52:39 PM Pierluigi Paganini
The American multinational software company Citrix disclosed a security breach, according to the firm an international cyber criminals gang gained access to its internal network. The American multinational software company Citrix is the last victim of a security breach, according to the company an international cyber criminal gang gained access to its internal network, Hackers […] The post FBI informed software giant Citrix of a security breach appeared first on Security Affairs.

Evading AV with JavaScript Obfuscation

Friday March 8th, 2019 12:41:33 PM Pierluigi Paganini
A few days ago, Cybaze-Yoroi ZLAB researchers spotted a suspicious JavaScript file that implemented several techniques to evade detection of all AV solutions. Introduction A few days ago, Cybaze-Yoroi ZLAB researchers spotted a suspicious JavaScript file needing further attention: it leveraged several techniques in order to evade all AV detection and no one of the […] The post Evading AV with JavaScript Obfuscation appeared first on Security Affairs.

Google discloses Windows zero-day actively exploited in targeted attacks

Friday March 8th, 2019 11:11:42 AM Pierluigi Paganini
Google this week revealed a Windows zero-day that is being actively exploited in targeted attacks alongside a recently fixed Chrome flaw. Google this week disclosed a Windows zero-day vulnerability that is being actively exploited in targeted attacks alongside a recently addressed flaw in Chrome flaw (CVE-2019-5786). The Windows zero-day vulnerability is a local privilege escalation […] The post Google discloses Windows zero-day actively exploited in targeted attacks appeared first on Security Affairs.

Zerodium $500,000 for VMware ESXi, Microsoft Hyper-V Exploits

Friday March 8th, 2019 09:09:02 AM Pierluigi Paganini
Zero-day broker firm Zerodium is offering up to $500,000 for VMware ESXi (vSphere) and Microsoft Hyper-V vulnerabilities. Exploit acquisition firm Zerodium is offering up to $500,000 for VMware ESXi and Microsoft Hyper-V vulnerabilities. The company is looking for exploits that allow guest-to-host escapes in default configurations to gain full access to the host. The overall […] The post Zerodium $500,000 for VMware ESXi, Microsoft Hyper-V Exploits appeared first on Security Affairs.

Research confirms rampant sale of SSL/TLS certificates on darkweb

Friday March 8th, 2019 07:35:15 AM Pierluigi Paganini
A study conducted by academics discovered that SSL and TLS certificates and associated services can be easily acquired from dark web marketplaces. A study sponsored by Venafi and conducted by researchers from Georgia State University in the U.S. and the University of Surrey in the U.K. discovered that SSL and TLS certificates and associated services […] The post Research confirms rampant sale of SSL/TLS certificates on darkweb appeared first on Security Affairs.

Cisco security updates fix dozens of flaws in Nexus Switches

Thursday March 7th, 2019 08:39:58 PM Pierluigi Paganini
Cisco released security updates to address over two dozen serious vulnerabilities affecting the Cisco Nexus switches. Cisco released security updates to address over two dozen serious vulnerabilities affecting the Cisco Nexus switches, including denial-of-service (DoS) issues, arbitrary code execution and privilege escalation flaws. Cisco published security advisories for most of the vulnerabilities, many of them impact the […] The post Cisco security updates fix dozens of flaws in Nexus Switches appeared first on Security Affairs.

StealthWorker Malware Uses Windows, Linux Bots to Hack Websites

Thursday March 7th, 2019 03:26:39 PM Pierluigi Paganini
Security experts at FortiGuard uncovered a new malware campaign aimed at delivering the StealthWorker brute-force malware. The malicious code targets both Windows and Linux systems, compromised systems are used to carry out brute force attacks along with other infected systems. The malicious code was first discovered by Malwarebytes at the end of February and tracked […] The post StealthWorker Malware Uses Windows, Linux Bots to Hack Websites appeared first on Security Affairs.

Microsoft warns of economic damages caused by Iran-linked hackers

Thursday March 7th, 2019 11:55:54 AM Pierluigi Paganini
Researchers at Microsoft warn of damages caused by cyber operations conducted by Iran-linked cyberespionage groups. Security experts at Microsoft are warning of economic damages caused by the activity of Iran-linked hacking groups that are working to penetrate systems, businesses, and governments worldwide. According to Microsoft, the attackers already caused hundreds of millions of dollars in […] The post Microsoft warns of economic damages caused by Iran-linked hackers appeared first on Security Affairs.

Too much UPnP-enabled connected devices still vulnerable to cyber attacks

Thursday March 7th, 2019 09:56:14 AM Pierluigi Paganini
UPnP-enabled devices running outdated software are exposed to a wide range of attacks exploiting known flaws in UPnP libraries. A broad range of UPnP-enabled devices running outdated software are exposed to attacks exploiting known flaws in UPnP libraries, Tony Yang, Home Network Researcher, has found 1,648,769 devices using the Shodan search engine, 35% were using […] The post Too much UPnP-enabled connected devices still vulnerable to cyber attacks appeared first on Security Affairs.

Whitefly espionage group was linked to SingHealth Singapore Healthcare Breach

Thursday March 7th, 2019 07:39:31 AM Pierluigi Paganini
Security experts at Symantec linked the massive Singapore Healthcare breach suffered by SingHealth to the ‘Whitefly’ cyberespionage group. In 2018, the largest healthcare group in Singapore, SingHealth, has suffered a massive data breach that exposed personal information of 1.5 million patients who visited the clinics of the company between May 2015 and July 2018. Stolen […] The post Whitefly espionage group was linked to SingHealth Singapore Healthcare Breach appeared first on Security Affairs.

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Last feed update: Saturday July 20th, 2024 02:26:10 PM

Beyond the blue screen of death: Why software updates matter

Friday July 19th, 2024 04:20:11 PM
The widespread IT outages triggered by a faulty CrowdStrike update have put software updates in the spotlight. Here’s why you shouldn’t dread them.

The complexities of cybersecurity update processes

Friday July 19th, 2024 12:28:24 PM
If a software update process fails, it can lead to catastrophic consequences, as seen today with widespread blue screens of death blamed on a bad update by CrowdStrike

Hello, is it me you’re looking for? How scammers get your phone number

Monday July 15th, 2024 11:45:35 AM
Your humble phone number is more valuable than you may think. Here’s how it could fall into the wrong hands – and how you can help keep it out of the reach of fraudsters.

Should ransomware payments be banned? – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday July 12th, 2024 12:30:20 PM
Blanket bans on ransomware payments are a much-debated topic in cybersecurity and policy circles. What are the implications of outlawing the payments, and would the ban be effective?

Understanding IoT security risks and how to mitigate them | Cybersecurity podcast

Wednesday July 10th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
As security challenges loom large on the IoT landscape, how can we effectively counter the risks of integrating our physical and digital worlds?

HotPage: Story of a signed, vulnerable, ad-injecting driver

Thursday July 18th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
A study of a sophisticated Chinese browser injector that leaves more doors open!

Social media and teen mental health – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Thursday July 4th, 2024 02:31:24 PM
Social media sites are designed to make their users come back for more. Do laws restricting children's exposure to addictive social media feeds have teeth or are they a political gimmick?

5 common Ticketmaster scams: How fraudsters steal the show

Tuesday July 9th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Scammers gonna scam scam scam, so before hunting for your tickets to a Taylor Swift gig or other in-demand events, learn how to stop fraudsters from leaving a blank space in your bank account

Small but mighty: Top 5 pocket-sized gadgets to boost your ethical hacking skills

Tuesday July 16th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
These five formidable bits of kit that can assist cyber-defenders in spotting chinks in corporate armors and help hobbyist hackers deepen their understanding of cybersecurity

Key trends shaping the threat landscape in H1 2024 – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday June 28th, 2024 01:13:12 PM
Learn about the types of threats that 'topped the charts' and the kinds of techniques that bad actors leveraged most commonly in the first half of this year

AI in the workplace: The good, the bad, and the algorithmic

Tuesday July 2nd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
While AI can liberate us from tedious tasks and even eliminate human error, it's crucial to remember its weaknesses and the unique capabilities that humans bring to the table

No room for error: Don’t get stung by these common scams

Wednesday July 3rd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
From sending phishing emails to posting fake listings, here’s how fraudsters hunt for victims while you’re booking your well-earned vacation

Cyber insurance as part of the cyber threat mitigation strategy

Wednesday June 26th, 2024 11:31:29 AM
Why organizations of every size and industry should explore their cyber insurance options as a crucial component of their risk mitigation strategies

The long-tail costs of a data breach – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday June 21st, 2024 11:54:09 AM
Understanding and preparing for the potential long-tail costs of data breaches is crucial for businesses that aim to mitigate the impact of security incidents

Buying a VPN? Here’s what to know and look for

Tuesday June 25th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
VPNs are not all created equal – make sure to choose the right provider that will help keep your data safe from prying eyes

ESET Threat Report H1 2024

Thursday June 27th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
A view of the H1 2024 threat landscape as seen by ESET telemetry and from the perspective of ESET threat detection and research experts

Hijacked: How hacked YouTube channels spread scams and malware

Monday July 1st, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Here’s how cybercriminals go after YouTube channels and use them as conduits for fraud – and what you should watch out for when watching videos on the platform

My health information has been stolen. Now what?

Thursday June 20th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
As health data continues to be a prized target for hackers, here's how to minimize the fallout from a breach impacting your own health records

Hacktivism is evolving – and that could be bad news for organizations everywhere

Wednesday June 19th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Hacktivism is nothing new, but the increasingly fuzzy lines between traditional hacktivism and state-backed operations make it a more potent threat

How Arid Viper spies on Android users in the Middle East – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday June 14th, 2024 11:58:03 AM
The spyware, called AridSpy by ESET, is distributed through websites that pose as various messaging apps, a job search app, and a Palestinian Civil Registry app

Preventative defense tactics in the real world

Monday June 17th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Don’t get hacked in the first place – it costs far less than dealing with the aftermath of a successful attack

ESET Research Podcast: APT Activity Report Q4 2023–Q1 2024

Friday June 14th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
The I-SOON data leak confirms that this contractor is involved in cyberespionage for China, while Iran-aligned groups step up aggressive tactics following the Hamas-led attack on Israel in 2023

Arid Viper poisons Android apps with AridSpy

Thursday June 13th, 2024 09:29:00 AM
ESET researchers discovered Arid Viper espionage campaigns spreading trojanized apps to Android users in Egypt and Palestine

WeLiveSecurity wins Best Cybersecurity Vendor Blog award!

Monday June 10th, 2024 03:19:06 PM
The results of the 2024 European Cybersecurity Blogger Awards are in and the winner of the Best Cybersecurity Vendor Blog is... drumroll, please... WeLiveSecurity!

560 million Ticketmaster customer data for sale? – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday June 7th, 2024 02:04:40 PM
Ticketmaster seems to have experienced a data breach, with the ShinyHunters hacker group claiming to have exfiltrated 560 million customer data

The job hunter’s guide: Separating genuine offers from scams

Thursday June 6th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
$90,000/year, full home office, and 30 days of paid leave for a junior data analyst – what's not to like? Except that these kinds of job offers are only intended to trick unsuspecting victims into giving up their data.

What happens when facial recognition gets it wrong – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday May 31st, 2024 01:45:32 PM
A facial recognition system misidentifies a woman in London as a shoplifter, igniting fresh concerns over the technology's accuracy and reliability

The murky world of password leaks – and how to check if you’ve been hit

Monday June 3rd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Password leaks are increasingly common and figuring out whether the keys to your own kingdom have been exposed might be tricky – unless you know where to look

AI in HR: Is artificial intelligence changing how we hire employees forever?

Thursday May 30th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Much digital ink has been spilled on artificial intelligence taking over jobs, but what about AI shaking up the hiring process in the meantime?

ESET World 2024: Big on prevention, even bigger on AI

Wednesday May 29th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
What is the state of artificial intelligence in 2024 and how can AI level up your cybersecurity game? These hot topics and pressing questions surrounding AI were front and center at the annual conference.

Mandatory reporting of ransomware attacks? – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday May 24th, 2024 01:11:17 PM
As the UK mulls new rules for ransomware disclosure, what would be the wider implications of such a move, how would cyber-insurance come into play, and how might cybercriminals respond?

Beyond the buzz: Understanding AI and its role in cybersecurity

Tuesday May 28th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
A new white paper from ESET uncovers the risks and opportunities of artificial intelligence for cyber-defenders

Introducing Nimfilt: A reverse-engineering tool for Nim-compiled binaries

Thursday May 23rd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Available as both an IDA plugin and a Python script, Nimfilt helps to reverse engineer binaries compiled with the Nim programming language compiler by demangling package and function names, and applying structs to strings

What happens when AI goes rogue (and how to stop it)

Wednesday May 22nd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
As AI gets closer to the ability to cause physical harm and impact the real world, “it’s complicated” is no longer a satisfying response

The who, where, and how of APT attacks – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday May 17th, 2024 04:09:11 PM
This week, ESET experts released several research publications that shine the spotlight on a number of notable campaigns and broader developments on the threat landscape

Untangling the hiring dilemma: How security solutions free up HR processes

Tuesday May 21st, 2024 09:30:00 AM
The prerequisites for becoming a security elite create a skills ceiling that is tough to break through – especially when it comes to hiring skilled EDR or XDR operators. How can businesses crack this conundrum?

ESET APT Activity Report Q4 2023–Q1 2024

Tuesday May 14th, 2024 10:41:07 AM
An overview of the activities of selected APT groups investigated and analyzed by ESET Research in Q4 2023 and Q1 2024

How to talk about climate change – and what motivates people to action: An interview with Katharine Hayhoe

Friday May 10th, 2024 07:44:31 PM
We spoke to climate scientist Katharine Hayhoe about climate change, faith and psychology – and how to channel anxiety about the state of our planet into meaningful action

In it to win it! WeLiveSecurity shortlisted for European Cybersecurity Blogger Awards

Friday May 10th, 2024 05:36:22 PM
We’re thrilled to announce that WeLiveSecurity has been named a finalist in the Corporates – Best Cybersecurity Vendor Blog category of the European Cybersecurity Blogger Awards 2024

It's a wrap! RSA Conference 2024 highlights – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday May 10th, 2024 11:46:00 AM
More than 40,000 security experts descended on San Francisco this week. Let's now look back on some of the event's highlights – including the CISA-led 'Secure by Design' pledge also signed by ESET.

RSA Conference 2024: AI hype overload

Thursday May 9th, 2024 06:41:39 PM
Can AI effortlessly thwart all sorts of cyberattacks? Let’s cut through the hyperbole surrounding the tech and look at its actual strengths and limitations.

To the Moon and back(doors): Lunar landing in diplomatic missions

Wednesday May 15th, 2024 09:15:20 AM
ESET researchers provide technical analysis of the Lunar toolset, likely used by the Turla APT group, that infiltrated a European ministry of foreign affairs

Ebury is alive but unseen: 400k Linux servers compromised for cryptocurrency theft and financial gain

Tuesday May 14th, 2024 10:50:52 AM
One of the most advanced server-side malware campaigns is still growing, with hundreds of thousands of compromised servers, and it has diversified to include credit card and cryptocurrency theft

Inspiring the next generation of scientists | Unlocked 403: Cybersecurity podcast

Tuesday May 7th, 2024 03:23:04 PM
As Starmus Earth draws near, we caught up with Dr. Garik Israelian to celebrate the fusion of science and creativity and venture where imagination flourishes and groundbreaking ideas take flight

Pay up, or else? – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday May 3rd, 2024 02:59:04 PM
Organizations that fall victim to a ransomware attack are often caught between a rock and a hard place, grappling with the dilemma of whether to pay up or not

Adding insult to injury: crypto recovery scams

Thursday May 2nd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Once your crypto has been stolen, it is extremely difficult to get back – be wary of fake promises to retrieve your funds and learn how to avoid becoming a victim twice over

How space exploration benefits life on Earth: An interview with David Eicher

Monday April 29th, 2024 07:27:05 PM
We spoke to Astronomy magazine editor-in-chief David Eicher about key challenges facing our planet, the importance of space exploration for humanity, and the possibility of life beyond Earth

Major phishing-as-a-service platform disrupted – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday April 26th, 2024 01:28:12 PM
The investigation uncovered at least 40,000 phishing domains that were linked to LabHost and tricked victims into handing over their sensitive details

MDR: Unlocking the power of enterprise-grade security for businesses of all sizes

Tuesday April 30th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Faced with expanding attack surfaces and a barrage of threats, businesses of all sizes are increasingly looking to unlock the manifold capabilities of enterprise-grade security

The hacker’s toolkit: 4 gadgets that could spell security trouble

Monday May 6th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Their innocuous looks and endearing names mask their true power. These gadgets are designed to help identify and prevent security woes, but what if they fall into the wrong hands?

What makes Starmus unique? Q&A with award-winning filmmaker Todd Miller

Wednesday April 24th, 2024 09:02:43 AM
The director of the Apollo 11 movie shares his views about the role of technology in addressing pressing global challenges, as well as why he became involved with Starmus

How technology drives progress: Q&A with Nobel laureate Michel Mayor

Tuesday April 23rd, 2024 01:33:51 PM
We spoke to Michel Mayor about the importance of public engagement with science and how to foster responsibility among the youth for the preservation of our changing planet

The vision behind Starmus: Q&A with the festival’s co-founder Garik Israelian

Tuesday April 23rd, 2024 09:36:40 AM
Dr. Israelian talks about Starmus's vision and mission, the importance of inspiring and engaging audiences, and a sense of community within the Starmus universe

Protecting yourself after a medical data breach – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday April 19th, 2024 01:14:39 PM
What are the risks and consequences of having your health data exposed and what are the steps to take if it happens to you?

The many faces of impersonation fraud: Spot an imposter before it’s too late

Thursday April 18th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
What are some of the most common giveaway signs that the person behind the screen or on the other end of the line isn’t who they claim to be?

The ABCs of how online ads can impact children’s well-being

Tuesday April 16th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
From promoting questionable content to posing security risks, inappropriate ads present multiple dangers for children. Here’s how to help them stay safe.

eXotic Visit includes XploitSPY malware – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday April 12th, 2024 02:05:06 PM
Almost 400 people in India and Pakistan have fallen victim to an ongoing Android espionage campaign called eXotic Visit

Bitcoin scams, hacks and heists – and how to avoid them

Monday April 15th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Here’s how cybercriminals target cryptocurrencies and how you can keep your bitcoin or other crypto safe

Beyond fun and games: Exploring privacy risks in children’s apps

Thursday April 11th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Should children’s apps come with ‘warning labels’? Here's how to make sure your children's digital playgrounds are safe places to play and learn.

The devil is in the fine print – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday April 5th, 2024 11:58:04 AM
Temu's cash giveaway where people were asked to hand over vast amounts of their personal data to the platform puts the spotlight on the data-slurping practices of online services today

Gripped by Python: 5 reasons why Python is popular among cybersecurity professionals

Thursday April 25th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Python’s versatility and short learning curve are just two factors that explain the language’s 'grip' on cybersecurity

RDP remains a security concern – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 29th, 2024 10:24:50 AM
Much has been written about the risks that poorly-secured RDP connections entail, but many organizations continue to leave themselves at risk and get hit by data breaches as a result

How often should you change your passwords?

Wednesday April 3rd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
And is that actually the right question to ask? Here’s what else you should consider when it comes to keeping your accounts safe.

Malware hiding in pictures? More likely than you think

Tuesday April 2nd, 2024 09:30:00 AM
There is more to some images than meets the eye – their seemingly innocent façade can mask a sinister threat.

AceCryptor attacks surge in Europe – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 22nd, 2024 12:21:34 PM
The second half of 2023 saw massive growth in AceCryptor-packed malware spreading in the wild, including courtesy of multiple spam campaigns where AceCryptor packed the Rescoms RAT

Borrower beware: Common loan scams and how to avoid them

Tuesday March 26th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Personal loan scams prey on your financial vulnerability and might even trap you in a vicious circle of debt. Here’s how to avoid being scammed when considering a loan.

Cybercriminals play dirty: A look back at 10 cyber hits on the sporting world

Thursday March 28th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
This rundown of 10 cyberattacks against the sports industry shows why every team needs to keep its eyes on the ball when it comes to cybersecurity

Cybersecurity starts at home: Help your children stay safe online with open conversations

Monday March 25th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Struggle to know how to help children and teens stay safe in cyberspace? A good ol’ fashioned chat is enough to put them on the right track.

A prescription for privacy protection: Exercise caution when using a mobile health app

Tuesday March 19th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Given the unhealthy data-collection habits of some mHealth apps, you’re well advised to tread carefully when choosing with whom you share some of your most sensitive data

Healthcare still a prime target for cybercrime gangs – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 15th, 2024 11:20:38 AM
Healthcare organizations remain firmly in attackers' crosshairs, representing 20 percent of all victims of ransomware attacks among critical infrastructure entities in the US in 2023

Threat intelligence explained | Unlocked 403: Cybersecurity podcast

Thursday March 14th, 2024 01:30:00 PM
We break down the fundamentals of threat intelligence and its role in anticipating and countering emerging threats

Rescoms rides waves of AceCryptor spam

Wednesday March 20th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Insight into ESET telemetry statistics about AceCryptor in H2 2023 with a focus on Rescoms campaigns in European countries

How to share sensitive files securely online

Wednesday March 13th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Here are a few tips for secure file transfers and what else to consider when sharing sensitive documents so that your data remains safe

APT attacks taking aim at Tibetans – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 8th, 2024 12:35:22 PM
Evasive Panda has been spotted targeting Tibetans in several countries and territories with payloads that included a previously undocumented backdoor ESET has named Nightdoor

Election cybersecurity: Protecting the ballot box and building trust in election integrity

Tuesday March 12th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
What cyberthreats could wreak havoc on elections this year and how worried should we as voters be about the integrity of our voting systems?

Top 10 scams targeting seniors – and how to keep your money safe

Wednesday March 6th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
The internet can be a wonderful place. But it’s also awash with fraudsters preying on people who are susceptible to fraud.

Irresistible: Hooks, habits and why you can’t put down your phone

Tuesday March 5th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Struggle to part ways with your tech? You’re not alone. Here’s why your devices are your vices.

Deceptive AI content and 2024 elections – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday March 1st, 2024 11:18:36 AM
As the specter of AI-generated disinformation looms large, tech giants vow to crack down on fabricated content that could sway voters and disrupt elections taking place around the world this year

Evasive Panda leverages Monlam Festival to target Tibetans

Thursday March 7th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
ESET researchers uncover strategic web compromise and supply-chain attacks targeting Tibetans

eXotic Visit campaign: Tracing the footprints of Virtual Invaders

Wednesday April 10th, 2024 10:31:20 AM
ESET researchers uncovered the eXotic Visit espionage campaign that targets users mainly in India and Pakistan with seemingly innocuous apps

Vulnerabilities in business VPNs under the spotlight

Wednesday February 28th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
As adversaries increasingly set their sights on vulnerable enterprise VPN software to infiltrate corporate networks, concerns mount about VPNs themselves being a source of cyber risk

PSYOP campaigns targeting Ukraine – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday February 23rd, 2024 12:32:29 PM
Coming in two waves, the campaign sought to demoralize Ukrainians and Ukrainian speakers abroad with disinformation messages about war-related subjects

10 things to avoid posting on social media – and why

Monday February 26th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Do you often take to social media to broadcast details from your life? Here’s why this habit may put your privacy and security at risk.

Cyber-insurance and vulnerability scanning – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday February 16th, 2024 02:05:01 PM
Here's how the results of vulnerability scans factor into decisions on cyber-insurance and how human intelligence comes into play in the assessment of such digital signals

What is AI, really? | Unlocked 403: Cybersecurity podcast

Thursday February 15th, 2024 03:32:31 PM
Artificial intelligence is on everybody’s lips these days, but there are also many misconceptions about what AI actually is and isn’t. We unpack AI's basics, applications and broader implications.

Operation Texonto: Information operation targeting Ukrainian speakers in the context of the war

Wednesday February 21st, 2024 05:00:00 AM
A mix of PSYOPs, espionage and … fake Canadian pharmacies!

Everything you need to know about IP grabbers

Thursday February 22nd, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Unsuspecting users beware, IP grabbers do not ask for your permission.

Watching out for the fakes: How to spot online disinformation

Tuesday February 20th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Why and how are we subjected to so much disinformation nowadays, and is there a way to spot the fakes?

Ransomware payments hit a record high in 2023 – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday February 9th, 2024 01:46:14 PM
Called a "watershed year for ransomware", 2023 marked a reversal from the decline in ransomware payments observed in the previous year

Deepfakes in the global election year of 2024: A weapon of mass deception?

Tuesday February 13th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
As fabricated images, videos and audio clips of real people go mainstream, the prospect of a firehose of AI-powered disinformation is a cause for mounting concern

7 reasons why cybercriminals want your personal data

Monday April 8th, 2024 09:30:00 AM
Here's what drives cybercriminals to relentlessly target the personal information of other people – and why you need to guard your data like your life depends on it

Blue Team toolkit: 6 open-source tools to assess and enhance corporate defenses

Thursday February 29th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Here’s how the blue team wards off red teamers and a few open-source tools it may leverage to identify chinks in the corporate armor

Grandoreiro banking malware disrupted – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday February 2nd, 2024 01:47:24 PM
The banking trojan, which targeted mostly Brazil, Mexico and Spain, blocked the victim’s screen, logged keystrokes, simulated mouse and keyboard activity and displayed fake pop-up windows

The buck stops here: Why the stakes are high for CISOs

Thursday February 8th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
Heavy workloads and the specter of personal liability for incidents take a toll on security leaders, so much so that many of them look for the exits. What does this mean for corporate cyber-defenses?

Could your Valentine be a scammer? How to avoid getting caught in a bad romance

Monday February 5th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
With Valentine’s Day almost upon us, here’s some timely advice on how to prevent scammers from stealing more than your heart

ESET Research Podcast: ChatGPT, the MOVEit hack, and Pandora

Wednesday January 31st, 2024 10:30:00 AM
An AI chatbot inadvertently kindles a cybercrime boom, ransomware bandits plunder organizations without deploying ransomware, and a new botnet enslaves Android TV boxes

ESET takes part in global operation to disrupt the Grandoreiro banking trojan

Tuesday January 30th, 2024 11:30:00 AM
ESET provided technical analysis, statistical information, known C&C servers and was able to get a glimpse of the victimology

Blackwood hijacks software updates to deploy NSPX30 – Week in security with Tony Anscombe

Friday January 26th, 2024 01:39:32 PM
The previously unknown threat actor used the implant to target Chinese and Japanese companies, as well as individuals in China, Japan, and the UK

Cyber: The Swiss army knife of tradecraft

Monday January 29th, 2024 10:30:00 AM
In today’s digitally interconnected world, advanced cyber capabilities have become an exceptionally potent and versatile tool of tradecraft for nation-states and criminals alike

VajraSpy: A Patchwork of espionage apps

Thursday February 1st, 2024 10:30:00 AM
ESET researchers discovered several Android apps carrying VajraSpy, a RAT used by the Patchwork APT group

Sucuri Blog

Protect Your Interwebs!

Last feed update: Saturday July 20th, 2024 02:26:10 PM

FBI Public Service Annoucement: Defacements Exploiting WordPress Vulnerabilities

Wednesday April 8th, 2015 12:24:11 AM Daniel Cid
The US Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) just released a public service announcement (PSA) to the public about a large number of websites being exploited and compromised through WordPress plugin vulnerabilities: Continuous Web site defacements are being perpetrated by individuals sympathetic to the Islamic State in the Levant (ISIL) a.k.a. Islamic State of Iraq andRead More

Security Advisory: Persistent XSS in WP-Super-Cache

Tuesday April 7th, 2015 03:12:29 PM Marc-Alexandre Montpas
Security Risk: Dangerous Exploitation level: Very Easy/Remote DREAD Score: 8/10 Vulnerability: Persistent XSS Patched Version:  1.4.4 During a routine audit for our Website Firewall (WAF), we discovered a dangerous Persistent XSS vulnerability affecting the very popular WP-Super-Cache plugin (more than a million active installs according to The security issue, as well as another bug-fixRead More

Website Malware – The SWF iFrame Injector Evolves

Thursday April 2nd, 2015 03:56:00 PM Peter Gramantik
Last year, we released a post about a malware injector found in an Adobe Flash (.SWF) file. In that post, we showed how a .SWF file is used to inject an invisible, malicious iFrame. It appears that the author of that Flash malware continued with this method of infection. Now we are seeing more varietiesRead More

Intro to E-Commerce and PCI Compliance – Part I

Tuesday March 31st, 2015 09:14:15 PM Daniel Cid
Have you ever heard of the term PCI? Specifically, PCI compliance? If you have an e-commerce website, you probably have already heard about it. But do you really understand what it means for you and your online business? In this series, we will try to explain the PCI standard and how it affects you andRead More

WordPress Malware Causes Psuedo-Darkleech Infection

Thursday March 26th, 2015 09:00:37 AM Denis Sinegubko
Darkleech is a nasty malware infection that infects web servers at the root level. It use malicious Apache modules to add hidden iFrames to certain responses. It’s difficult to detect because the malware is only active when both server and site admins are not logged in, and the iFrame is only injected once a dayRead More

Why Website Reinfections Happen

Tuesday March 24th, 2015 04:38:52 AM Valentin
I joined Sucuri a little over a month ago. My job is actually as a Social Media Specialist, but we have this process where regardless of your job you have to learn what website infections look like and more importantly, how to clean them. It’s this idea that regardless of you are you must alwaysRead More

The Impacts of a Hacked Website

Thursday March 19th, 2015 01:15:37 PM Tony Perez
Today, with the proliferation of open-source technologies like WordPress, Joomla! and other Content Management Systems (CMS) people around the world are able to quickly establish a virtual presence with little to no cost. In the process however, a lot is being lost in terms of what it means to own a website. We are failingRead More

Understanding WordPress Plugin Vulnerabilities

Tuesday March 17th, 2015 05:19:42 PM Daniel Cid
The last 7 days have been very busy with a number of vulnerabilities being disclosed on multiple WordPress plugins. Some of them are minor issues, some are more relevant, while others are what we’d categorize as noise. How are you supposed to make sense of all this? To help provide some clarity on the influxRead More

Inverted WordPress Trojan

Wednesday March 11th, 2015 06:40:16 PM Denis Sinegubko
Trojan (or trojan horse) is software that does (or pretends to be doing) something useful but also contains a secret malicious payload that inconspicuously does something bad. In WordPress, typical trojans are plugins and themes (usually pirated) which may have backdoors, or send out spam, create doorways, inject hidden links or malware. The trojan modelRead More

Security Advisory: MainWP-Child WordPress Plugin

Monday March 9th, 2015 11:56:20 PM Mickael Nadeau
Security Risk: Critical Exploitation level: Very Easy/Remote DREAD Score: 9/10 Vulnerability: Password bypass / Privilege Escalation Patched Version: During a routine audit of our Website Firewall (WAF), we found a critical vulnerability affecting the popular MainWP Child WordPress plugin. According to, it is installed on more than 90,000 WordPress sites as as remote administrationRead More

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Google Online Security Blog

The latest news and insights from Google on security and safety on the Internet.

Last feed update: Saturday July 20th, 2024 02:26:12 PM

Sustaining Digital Certificate Security - Entrust Certificate Distrust

Thursday June 27th, 2024 05:16:13 PM
Posted by Chrome Root Program, Chrome Security Team .code { font-family: "Courier New", Courier, monospace; font-size: 11.8px; font-weight: bold; background-color: #f4f4f4; padding: 10px; border: 1px solid #ccc; border-radius: 2px; white-space: pre-wrap; display: inline-block; line-height: 12px; } .highlight { color: red; } The Chrome Security Team prioritizes the security and privacy of Chrome’s users, and we are unwilling to compromise on these values. The Chrome Root Program Policy states that CA certificates included in the Chrome Root Store must provide value to Chrome end users that exceeds the risk of their continued inclusion. It also describes many of the factors we consider significant when CA Owners disclose and respond to incidents. When things don’t go right, we expect CA Owners to commit to meaningful and demonstrable change resulting in evidenced continuous improvement. Over the past several years, publicly disclosed incident reports highlighted a pattern of concerning behaviors by Entrust that fall short of the above expectations, and has eroded confidence in their competence, reliability, and integrity as a publicly-trusted CA Owner. In response to the above concerns and to preserve the integrity of the Web PKI ecosystem, Chrome will take the following actions. Upcoming change in Chrome 127 and higher: TLS server authentication certificates validating to the following Entrust roots whose earliest Signed Certificate Timestamp (SCT) is dated after October 31, 2024, will no longer be trusted by default. CN=Entrust Root Certification Authority - EC1,OU=See 2012 Entrust, Inc. - for authorized use only,O=Entrust, Inc.,C=US CN=Entrust Root Certification Authority - G2,OU=See 2009 Entrust, Inc. - for authorized use only,O=Entrust, Inc.,C=US Certification Authority (2048), incorp. by ref. (limits liab.)+OU=(c) 1999 Limited, CN=Entrust Root Certification Authority, is incorporated by reference+OU=(c) 2006 Entrust, Inc.,O=Entrust, Inc.,C=US CN=Entrust Root Certification Authority - G4,OU=See 2015 Entrust, Inc. - for authorized use only,O=Entrust, Inc.,C=US CN=AffirmTrust Commercial,O=AffirmTrust,C=US CN=AffirmTrust Networking,O=AffirmTrust,C=US CN=AffirmTrust Premium,O=AffirmTrust,C=US CN=AffirmTrust Premium ECC,O=AffirmTrust,C=US TLS server authentication certificates validating to the above set of roots whose earliest SCT is on or before October 31, 2024, will be unaffected by this change.This approach attempts to minimize disruption to existing subscribers using a recently announced Chrome feature to remove default trust based on the SCTs in certificates. Additionally, should a Chrome user or enterprise explicitly trust any of the above certificates on a platform and version of Chrome relying on the Chrome Root Store (e.g., explicit trust is conveyed through a Group Policy Object on Windows), the SCT-based constraints described above will be overridden and certificates will function as they do today. To further minimize risk of disruption, website operators are encouraged to review the “Frequently Asked Questions" listed below. Why is Chrome taking action? Certification Authorities (CAs) serve a privileged and trusted role on the Internet that underpin encrypted connections between browsers and websites. With this tremendous responsibility comes an expectation of adhering to reasonable and consensus-driven security and compliance expectations, including those defined by the CA/Browser TLS Baseline Requirements. Over the past six years, we have observed a pattern of compliance failures, unmet improvement commitments, and the absence of tangible, measurable progress in response to publicly disclosed incident reports. When these factors are considered in aggregate and considered against the inherent risk each publicly-trusted CA poses to the Internet ecosystem, it is our opinion that Chrome’s continued trust in Entrust is no longer justified. When will this action happen? Blocking action will begin on approximately November 1, 2024, affecting certificates issued at that point or later. Blocking action will occur in Versions of Chrome 127 and greater on Windows, macOS, ChromeOS, Android, and Linux. Apple policies prevent the Chrome Certificate Verifier and corresponding Chrome Root Store from being used on Chrome for iOS. What is the user impact of this action? By default, Chrome users in the above populations who navigate to a website serving a certificate issued by Entrust or AffirmTrust after October 31, 2024 will see a full page interstitial similar to this one. Certificates issued by other CAs are not impacted by this action. How can a website operator tell if their website is affected? Website operators can determine if they are affected by this issue by using the Chrome Certificate Viewer. Use the Chrome Certificate Viewer Navigate to a website (e.g., Click the “Tune" icon Click “Connection is Secure" Click “Certificate is Valid" (the Chrome Certificate Viewer will open) Website owner action is not required, if the “Organization (O)” field listed beneath the “Issued By" heading does not contain “Entrust" or “AffirmTrust”. Website owner action is required, if the “Organization (O)” field listed beneath the “Issued By" heading contains “Entrust" or “AffirmTrust”. What does an affected website operator do? We recommend that affected website operators transition to a new publicly-trusted CA Owner as soon as reasonably possible. To avoid adverse website user impact, action must be completed before the existing certificate(s) expire if expiry is planned to take place after October 31, 2024. While website operators could delay the impact of blocking action by choosing to collect and install a new TLS certificate issued from Entrust before Chrome’s blocking action begins on November 1, 2024, website operators will inevitably need to collect and install a new TLS certificate from one of the many other CAs included in the Chrome Root Store. Can I test these changes before they take effect? Yes. A command-line flag was added beginning in Chrome 128 (available in Canary/Dev at the time of this post’s publication) that allows administrators and power users to simulate the effect of an SCTNotAfter distrust constraint as described in this blog post FAQ. How to: Simulate an SCTNotAfter distrust1. Close all open versions of Chrome2. Start Chrome using the following command-line flag, substituting variables described below with actual values --test-crs-constraints=$[Comma Separated List of Trust Anchor Certificate SHA256 Hashes]:sctnotafter=$[epoch_timestamp] 3. Evaluate the effects of the flag with test websites Example: The following command will simulate an SCTNotAfter distrust with an effective date of April 30, 2024 11:59:59 PM GMT for all of the Entrust trust anchors included in the Chrome Root Store. The expected behavior is that any website whose certificate is issued before the enforcement date/timestamp will function in Chrome, and all issued after will display an interstitial. --test-crs-constraints=02ED0EB28C14DA45165C566791700D6451D7FB56F0B2AB1D3B8EB070E56EDFF5, 43DF5774B03E7FEF5FE40D931A7BEDF1BB2E6B42738C4E6D3841103D3AA7F339, 6DC47172E01CBCB0BF62580D895FE2B8AC9AD4F873801E0C10B9C837D21EB177, 73C176434F1BC6D5ADF45B0E76E727287C8DE57616C1E6E6141A2B2CBC7D8E4C, DB3517D1F6732A2D5AB97C533EC70779EE3270A62FB4AC4238372460E6F01E88, 0376AB1D54C5F9803CE4B2E201A0EE7EEF7B57B636E8A93C9B8D4860C96F5FA7, 0A81EC5A929777F145904AF38D5D509F66B5E2C58FCDB531058B0E17F3F0B41B, 70A73F7F376B60074248904534B11482D5BF0E698ECC498DF52577EBF2E93B9A, BD71FDF6DA97E4CF62D1647ADD2581B07D79ADF8397EB4ECBA9C5E8488821423 :sctnotafter=1714521599 Illustrative Command (on Windows): "C:\Users\User123\AppData\Local\Google\Chrome SxS\Application\chrome.exe" --test-crs-constraints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sctnotafter=1714521599 Illustrative Command (on macOS): "/Applications/Google Chrome Chrome Canary" --test-crs-constraints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sctnotafter=1714521599 Note: If copy and pasting the above commands, ensure no line-breaks are introduced. Learn more about command-line flags here. I use Entrust certificates for my internal enterprise network, do I need to do anything? Beginning in Chrome 127, enterprises can override Chrome Root Store constraints like those described for Entrust in this blog post by installing the corresponding root CA certificate as a locally-trusted root on the platform Chrome is running (e.g., installed in the Microsoft Certificate Store as a Trusted Root CA). How do enterprises add a CA as locally-trusted? Customer organizations should defer to platform provider guidance. What about other Google products? Other Google product team updates may be made available in the future.

Virtual Escape; Real Reward: Introducing Google’s kvmCTF

Thursday June 27th, 2024 05:14:02 PM
Marios Pomonis, Software EngineerGoogle is committed to enhancing the security of open-source technologies, especially those that make up the foundation for many of our products, like Linux and KVM. To this end we are excited to announce the launch of kvmCTF, a vulnerability reward program (VRP) for the Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) hypervisor first announced in October 2023.KVM is a robust hypervisor with over 15 years of open-source development and is widely used throughout the consumer and enterprise landscape, including platforms such as Android and Google Cloud. Google is an active contributor to the project and we designed kvmCTF as a collaborative way to help identify & remediate vulnerabilities and further harden this fundamental security boundary. Similar to kernelCTF, kvmCTF is a vulnerability reward program designed to help identify and address vulnerabilities in the Kernel-based Virtual Machine (KVM) hypervisor. It offers a lab environment where participants can log in and utilize their exploits to obtain flags. Significantly, in kvmCTF the focus is on zero day vulnerabilities and as a result, we will not be rewarding exploits that use n-days vulnerabilities. Details regarding the  zero day vulnerability will be shared with Google after an upstream patch is released to ensure that Google obtains them at the same time as the rest of the open-source community.  Additionally, kvmCTF uses the Google Bare Metal Solution (BMS) environment to host its infrastructure. Finally, given how critical a hypervisor is to overall system security, kvmCTF will reward various levels of vulnerabilities up to and including code execution and VM escape.How it worksThe environment consists of a bare metal host running a single guest VM. Participants will be able to reserve time slots to access the guest VM and attempt to perform a guest-to-host attack. The goal of the attack must be to exploit a zero day vulnerability in the KVM subsystem of the host kernel. If successful, the attacker will obtain a flag that proves their accomplishment in exploiting the vulnerability. The severity of the attack will determine the reward amount, which will be based on the reward tier system explained below. All reports will be thoroughly evaluated on a case-by-case basis.The rewards tiers are the following:Full VM escape: $250,000Arbitrary memory write: $100,000Arbitrary memory read: $50,000Relative memory write: $50,000Denial of service: $20,000Relative memory read: $10,000To facilitate the relative memory write/read tiers and partly the denial of service, kvmCTF offers the option of using a host with KASAN enabled. In that case, triggering a KASAN violation will allow the participant to obtain a flag as proof.How to participateTo begin, start by reading the rules of the program. There you will find information on how to reserve a time slot, connect to the guest and obtain the flags, the mapping of the various KASAN violations with the reward tiers and instructions on how to report a vulnerability, send us your submission, or contact us on Discord.

Hacking for Defenders: approaches to DARPA’s AI Cyber Challenge

Tuesday June 25th, 2024 12:57:38 PM
Oliver Chang, Jonathan Metzman, OSS-Fuzz and Alex Rebert, Security EngineeringThe US Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency, DARPA, recently kicked off a two-year AI Cyber Challenge (AIxCC), inviting top AI and cybersecurity experts to design new AI systems to help secure major open source projects which our critical infrastructure relies upon. As AI continues to grow, it’s crucial to invest in AI tools for Defenders, and this competition will help advance technology to do so. Google’s OSS-Fuzz and Security Engineering teams have been excited to assist AIxCC organizers in designing their challenges and competition framework. We also playtested the competition by building a Cyber Reasoning System (CRS) tackling DARPA’s exemplar challenge. This blog post will share our approach to the exemplar challenge using open source technology found in Google’s OSS-Fuzz,  highlighting opportunities where AI can supercharge the platform’s ability to find and patch vulnerabilities, which we hope will inspire innovative solutions from competitors.Leveraging OSS-FuzzAIxCC challenges focus on finding and fixing vulnerabilities in open source projects. OSS-Fuzz, our fuzz testing platform, has been finding vulnerabilities in open source projects as a public service for years, resulting in over 11,000 vulnerabilities found and fixed across 1200+ projects. OSS-Fuzz is free, open source, and its projects and infrastructure are shaped very similarly to AIxCC challenges. Competitors can easily reuse its existing toolchains, fuzzing engines, and sanitizers on AIxCC projects. Our baseline Cyber Reasoning System (CRS) mainly leverages non-AI techniques and has some limitations. We highlight these as opportunities for competitors to explore how AI can advance the state of the art in fuzz testing.Fuzzing the AIxCC challengesFor userspace Java and C/C++ challenges, fuzzing with engines such as libFuzzer, AFL(++), and Jazzer is straightforward because they use the same interface as OSS-Fuzz.Fuzzing the kernel is trickier, so we considered two options:Syzkaller, an unsupervised coverage guided kernel fuzzerA general purpose coverage guided fuzzer, such as AFLSyzkaller has been effective at finding Linux kernel vulnerabilities, but is not suitable for AIxCC because Syzkaller generates sequences of syscalls to fuzz the whole Linux kernel, while AIxCC kernel challenges (exemplar) come with a userspace harness to exercise specific parts of the kernel. Instead, we chose to use AFL, which is typically used to fuzz userspace programs. To enable kernel fuzzing, we followed a similar approach to an older blog post from Cloudflare. We compiled the kernel with KCOV and KSAN instrumentation and ran it virtualized under QEMU. Then, a userspace harness acts as a fake AFL forkserver, which executes the inputs by executing the sequence of syscalls to be fuzzed. After every input execution, the harness read the KCOV coverage and stored it in AFL’s coverage counters via shared memory to enable coverage-guided fuzzing. The harness also checked the kernel dmesg log after every run to discover whether or not the input caused a KASAN sanitizer to trigger.Some changes to Cloudflare’s harness were required in order for this to be pluggable with the provided kernel challenges. We needed to turn the harness into a library/wrapper that could be linked against arbitrary AIxCC kernel harnesses.AIxCC challenges come with their own main() which takes in a file path. The main() function opens and reads this file, and passes it to the harness() function, which takes in a buffer and size representing the input. We made our wrapper work by wrapping the main() during compilation via $CC -Wl,--wrap=main harness.c harness_wrapper.a  The wrapper starts by setting up KCOV, the AFL forkserver, and shared memory. The wrapper also reads the input from stdin (which is what AFL expects by default) and passes it to the harness() function in the challenge harness. Because AIxCC's harnesses aren't within our control and may misbehave, we had to be careful with memory or FD leaks within the challenge harness. Indeed, the provided harness has various FD leaks, which means that fuzzing it will very quickly become useless as the FD limit is reached.To address this, we could either:Forcibly close FDs created during the running of harness by checking for newly created FDs via /proc/self/fd before and after the execution of the harness, orJust fork the userspace harness by actually forking in the forkserver. The first approach worked for us. The latter is likely most reliable, but may worsen performance.All of these efforts enabled afl-fuzz to fuzz the Linux exemplar, but the vulnerability cannot be easily found even after hours of fuzzing, unless provided with seed inputs close to the solution.Improving fuzzing with AIThis limitation of fuzzing highlights a potential area for competitors to explore AI’s capabilities. The input format being complicated, combined with slow execution speeds make the exact reproducer hard to discover. Using AI could unlock the ability for fuzzing to find this vulnerability quickly—for example, by asking an LLM to generate seed inputs (or a script to generate them) close to expected input format based on the harness source code. Competitors might find inspiration in some interesting experiments done by Brendan Dolan-Gavitt from NYU, which show promise for this idea.Another approach: static analysisOne alternative to fuzzing to find vulnerabilities is to use static analysis. Static analysis traditionally has challenges with generating high amounts of false positives, as well as difficulties in proving exploitability and reachability of issues it points out. LLMs could help dramatically improve bug finding capabilities by augmenting traditional static analysis techniques with increased accuracy and analysis capabilities.Proof of understanding (PoU)Once fuzzing finds a reproducer, we can produce key evidence required for the PoU:The culprit commit, which can be found from git history bisection.The expected sanitizer, which can be found by running the reproducer to get the crash and parsing the resulting stacktrace.Next step: “patching” via delta debuggingOnce the culprit commit has been identified, one obvious way to “patch” the vulnerability is to just revert this commit. However, the commit may include legitimate changes that are necessary for functionality tests to pass. To ensure functionality doesn’t break, we could apply delta debugging: we progressively try to include/exclude different parts of the culprit commit until both the vulnerability no longer triggers, yet all functionality tests still pass.This is a rather brute force approach to “patching.” There is no comprehension of the code being patched and it will likely not work for more complicated patches that include subtle changes required to fix the vulnerability without breaking functionality. Improving patching with AIThese limitations highlight a second area for competitors to apply AI’s capabilities. One approach might be to use an LLM to suggest patches. A 2024 whitepaper from Google walks through one way to build an LLM-based automated patching pipeline.Competitors will need to address the following challenges:Validating the patches by running crashes and tests to ensure the crash was prevented and the functionality was not impactedNarrowing prompts to include only the functions present in the crashing stack trace, to fit prompt limitationsBuilding a validation step to filter out invalid patchesUsing an LLM agent is likely another promising approach, where competitors could combine an LLM’s generation capabilities with the ability to compile and receive debug test failures or stacktraces iteratively.Advancing security for everyoneCollaboration is essential to harness the power of AI as a widespread tool for defenders. As advancements emerge, we’ll integrate them into OSS-Fuzz, meaning that the outcomes from AIxCC will directly improve security for the open source ecosystem. We’re looking forward to the innovative solutions that result from this competition!

Staying Safe with Chrome Extensions

Thursday June 20th, 2024 04:20:37 PM
Posted by Benjamin Ackerman, Anunoy Ghosh and David Warren, Chrome Security Team .code { background-color: #f4f4f4; border: 1px solid #ccc; border-radius: 4px; padding: 13px; } .highlight { color: red; } Chrome extensions can boost your browsing, empowering you to do anything from customizing the look of sites to providing personalized advice when you’re planning a vacation. But as with any software, extensions can also introduce risk. That’s why we have a team whose only job is to focus on keeping you safe as you install and take advantage of Chrome extensions. Our team: Provides you with a personalized summary of the extensions you’ve installed Reviews extensions before they’re published on the Chrome Web Store Continuously monitors extensions after they’re published A summary of your extensions The top of the extensions page (chrome://extensions) warns you of any extensions you have installed that might pose a security risk. (If you don’t see a warning panel, you probably don’t have any extensions you need to worry about.) The panel includes: Extensions suspected of including malware Extensions that violate Chrome Web Store policies Extensions that have been unpublished by a developer, which might indicate that an extension is no longer supported Extensions that aren’t from the Chrome Web Store Extensions that haven’t published what they do with data they collect and other privacy practices You’ll get notified when Chrome’s Safety Check has recommendations for you or you can check on your own by running Safety Check. Just type “run safety check” in Chrome’s address bar and select the corresponding shortcut: “Go to Chrome safety check.” User flow of removing extensions highlighted by Safety Check. Besides the Safety Check, you can visit the extensions page directly in a number of ways: Navigate to chrome://extensions Click the puzzle icon and choose “Manage extensions” Click the More choices menu and choose menu > Extensions > Manage Extensions Reviewing extensions before they’re published Before an extension is even accessible to install from the Chrome Web Store, we have two levels of verification to ensure an extension is safe: An automated review: Each extension gets examined by our machine-learning systems to spot possible violations or suspicious behavior. A human review: Next, a team member examines the images, descriptions, and public policies of each extension. Depending on the results of both the automated and manual review, we may perform an even deeper and more thorough review of the code. This review process weeds out the overwhelming majority of bad extensions before they even get published. In 2024, less than 1% of all installs from the Chrome Web Store were found to include malware. We're proud of this record and yet some bad extensions still get through, which is why we also monitor published extensions. Monitoring published extensions The same Chrome team that reviews extensions before they get published also reviews extensions that are already on the Chrome Web Store. And just like the pre-check, this monitoring includes both human and machine reviews. We also work closely with trusted security researchers outside of Google, and even pay researchers who report possible threats to Chrome users through our Developer Data Protection Rewards Program. What about extensions that get updated over time, or are programmed to execute malicious code at a later date? Our systems monitor for that as well, by periodically reviewing what extensions are actually doing and comparing that to the stated objectives defined by each extension in the Chrome Web Store. If the team finds that an extension poses a severe risk to Chrome users, it’s immediately remove from the Chrome Web Store and the extension gets disabled on all browsers that have it installed.The extensions page highlights when you have a potentially unsafe extension downloaded Others steps you can take to stay safe Review new extensions before installing them The Chrome Web Store provides useful information about each extension and its developer. The following information should help you decide whether it’s safe to install an extension: Verified and featured badges are awarded by the Chrome team to extensions that follow our technical best practices and meet a high standard of user experience and design Ratings and reviews from our users Information about the developer Privacy practices, including information about how an extension handles your data Be careful of sites that try to quickly persuade you to install extensions, especially if the site has little in common with the extension. Review extensions you’ve already installed Even though Safety Check and your Extensions page (chrome://extensions) warn you of extensions that might pose a risk, it’s still a good idea to review your extensions from time to time. Uninstall extensions that you no longer use. Review the description of an extension in the Chrome Web Store, considering the extension’s ratings, reviews, and privacy practices — reviews can change over time. Compare an extension’s stated goals with 1) the permissions requested by an extension and 2) the privacy practices published by the extension. If requested permissions don’t align with stated goals, consider uninstalling the extension. Limit the sites an extension has permission to work on. Enable Enhanced Protection The Enhanced protection mode of Safe Browsing is Chrome’s highest level of protection that we offer. Not only does this mode provide you with the best protections against phishing and malware, but it also provides additional features targeted to keep you safe against potentially harmful extensions. Threats are constantly evolving and Safe Browsing’s Enhanced protection mode is the best way to ensure that you have the most advanced security features in Chrome. This can be enabled from the Safe Browsing settings page in Chrome (chrome://settings/security) and selecting “Enhanced”.

Time to challenge yourself in the 2024 Google CTF

Friday June 14th, 2024 06:08:27 PM
Hlynur Gudmundsson, Software EngineerIt’s Google CTF time! Install your tools, commit your scripts, and clear your schedule. The competition kicks off on June 21 2024 6:00 PM UTC and runs through June 23 2024 6:00 PM UTC. Registration is now open at the Google CTF (at, a thrilling arena to showcase your technical prowess. The Google CTF consists of a set of computer security puzzles (or challenges) involving reverse-engineering, memory corruption, cryptography, web technologies, and more. Participants can use obscure security knowledge to find exploits through bugs and creative misuse, and with each completed challenge your team will earn points and move up through the ranks. The top 8 teams of the Google CTF will qualify for our Hackceler8 competition taking place in Málaga, Spain later this year as a part of our larger Escal8 event. Hackceler8 is our experimental esport-style hacking game competition, custom-made to mix CTF and speedrunning. Screenshot from last year’s Hackceler8 gameIn the competition, teams need to find clever ways to abuse the game features to capture flags as quickly as possible.Last year, teams assumed the role of Bartholomew (Mew for short), the fuzzy and adorable protagonist of Hackceler8 2023, set to defeat and overcome the evil rA.Ibbit taking over Silicon Valley! What adventures will Mew encounter this year? See the 2023 grand final to get a sense of the story and gameplay. The prize pool for this year’s Google CTF and Hackceler8 stands at more than $32,000.Itching to get started early? Want to learn more, or get a leg up on the competition? Review challenges from previous years, including previous Hackceler8 matches, all open-sourced here. Or gain inspiration by binge watching hours of Hackceler8 2023 videos!If you are just starting out in this space, check out our documentary H4CK1NG GOOGLE, it’s a great way to get acquainted with security. We also recommend checking out this year’s Beginner’s Quest that’ll be launching later this summer which will teach you some of the tools and tricks with simpler gamified challenges. For example, last year we explored hacking through time – you can use this to prepare for what’s yet to come.Whether you’re a seasoned CTF player or just curious about cybersecurity and ethical hacking, we want to invite you to join us. Sign up for the Google CTF to expand your skill set, meet new friends in the security community, and even watch the pros in action. For the latest announcements, see, subscribe to our mailing list, or follow us on Twitter @GoogleVRP. Interested in bug hunting for Google? Check out See you there!

On Fire Drills and Phishing Tests

Wednesday May 22nd, 2024 05:15:23 PM
Matt Linton, Chaos SpecialistIn the late 19th and early 20th century, a series of catastrophic fires in short succession led an outraged public to demand action from the budding fire protection industry. Among the experts, one initial focus was on “Fire Evacuation Tests”. The earliest of these tests focused on individual performance and tested occupants on their evacuation speed, sometimes performing the tests “by surprise” as though the fire drill were a real fire. These early tests were more likely to result in injuries to the test-takers than any improvement in survivability. It wasn’t until introducing better protective engineering - wider doors, push bars at exits, firebreaks in construction, lighted exit signs, and so on - that survival rates from building fires began to improve. As protections evolved over the years and improvements like mandatory fire sprinklers became required in building code, survival rates have continued to improve steadily, and “tests” have evolved into announced, advanced training and posted evacuation plans.In this blog, we will analyze the modern practice of Phishing “Tests” as a cybersecurity control as it relates to industry-standard fire protection practices.Modern “Phishing tests” strongly resemble the early “Fire tests”Google currently operates under regulations (for example, FedRAMP in the USA) that require us to perform annual “Phishing Tests.” In these mandatory tests, the Security team creates and sends phishing emails to Googlers, counts how many interact with the email, and educates them on how to “not be fooled” by phishing. These exercises typically collect reporting metrics on sent emails and how many employees “failed” by clicking the decoy link. Usually, further education is required for employees who fail the exercise. Per the FedRAMP pen-testing guidance doc: “Users are the last line of defense and should be tested.”These tests resemble the first “evacuation tests” that building occupants were once subjected to. They require individuals to recognize the danger, react individually in an ‘appropriate’ way, and are told that any failure is an individual failure on their part rather than a systemic issue. Worse, FedRAMP guidance requires companies to bypass or eliminate all systematic controls during the tests to ensure the likelihood of a person clicking on a phishing link is artificially maximized.Among the harmful side effects of these tests:There is no evidence that the tests result in fewer incidences of successful phishing campaigns;Phishing (or more generically social engineering) remains a top vector for attackers establishing footholds at companies.Research shows that these tests do not effectively prevent people from being fooled. This study with 14,000 participants showed a counterproductive effect of phishing tests, showing that “repeat clickers” will consistently fail tests despite recent interventions.Some (e.g, FedRAMP) phishing tests require bypassing existing anti-phishing defenses. This creates an inaccurate perception of actual risks, allows penetration testing teams to avoid having to mimic actual modern attacker tactics, and creates a risk that the allowlists put in place to facilitate the test could be accidentally left in place and reused by attackers.There has been a significantly increased load on Detection and Incident Response (D&R) teams during these tests, as users saturate them with thousands of needless reports. Employees are upset by them and feel security is “tricking them”, which degrades the trust with our users that is necessary for security teams to make meaningful systemic improvements and when we need employees to take timely actions related to actual security events.At larger enterprises with multiple independent products, people can end up with numerous overlapping required phishing tests, causing repeated burdens.But are users the last line of defense?Training humans to avoid phishing or social engineering with a 100% success rate is a likely impossible task. There is value in teaching people how to spot phishing and social engineering so they can alert security to perform incident response. By ensuring that even a single user reports attacks in progress, companies can activate full-scope responses which are a worthwhile defensive control that can quickly mitigate even advanced attacks. But, much like the Fire Safety professional world has moved to regular pre-announced evacuation training instead of surprise drills, the information security industry should move toward training that de-emphasizes surprises and tricks and instead prioritizes accurate training of what we want staff to do the moment they spot a phishing email - with a particular focus on recognizing and reporting the phishing threat.In short - we need to stop doing phishing tests and start doing phishing fire drills.A “phishing fire drill” would aim to accomplish the following:Educate our users about how to spot phishing emailsInform the users on how to report phishing emailsAllow employees to practice reporting a phishing email in the manner that we would prefer, andCollect useful metrics for auditors, such as:The number of users who completed the practice exercise of reporting the email as a phishing emailThe time between the email opening and the first report of phishingTime of first escalation to the security team (and time delta)Number of reports at 1 hour, 4 hours, 8 hours, and 24 hours post-deliveryExample When performing a phishing drill, someone would send an email announcing itself as a phishing email and with relevant instructions or specific tasks to perform. An example text is provided below.Hello!  I am a Phishing Email. This is a drill - this is only a drill!If I were an actual phishing email, I might ask you to log into a malicious site with your actual username or password, or I might ask you to run a suspicious command like <example command>. I might try any number of tricks to get access to your Google Account or workstation.You can learn more about recognizing phishing emails at <LINK TO RESOURCE> and even test yourself to see how good you are at spotting them. Regardless of the form a phishing email takes, you can quickly report them to the security team when you notice they’re not what they seem.To complete the annual phishing drill, please report me. To do that, <company-specific instructions on where to report phishing>.Thanks for doing your part to keep <company> safe!Tricky. Phish, Ph.DYou can’t “fix” people, but you can fix the tools.Phishing and Social Engineering aren’t going away as attack techniques. As long as humans are fallible and social creatures, attackers will have ways to manipulate the human factor. The more effective approach to both risks is a focused pursuit of secure-by-default systems in the long term, and a focus on investment in engineering defenses such as unphishable credentials (like passkeys) and implementing multi-party approval for sensitive security contexts throughout production systems. It’s because of investments in architectural defenses like these that Google hasn’t had to seriously worry about password phishing in nearly a decade.Educating employees about alerting security teams of attacks in progress remains a valuable and essential addition to a holistic security posture. However, there’s no need to make this adversarial, and we don’t gain anything by “catching” people “failing” at the task. Let's stop engaging in the same old failed protections and follow the lead of more mature industries, such as Fire Protection, which has faced these problems before and already settled on a balanced approach. 

I/O 2024: What’s new in Android security and privacy

Wednesday May 15th, 2024 04:59:21 PM
Posted by Dave Kleidermacher, VP Engineering, Android Security and Privacy Our commitment to user safety is a top priority for Android. We’ve been consistently working to stay ahead of the world’s scammers, fraudsters and bad actors. And as their tactics evolve in sophistication and scale, we continually adapt and enhance our advanced security features and AI-powered protections to help keep Android users safe. In addition to our new suite of advanced theft protection features to help keep your device and data safe in the case of theft, we’re also focusing increasingly on providing additional protections against mobile financial fraud and scams. Today, we’re announcing more new fraud and scam protection features coming in Android 15 and Google Play services updates later this year to help better protect users around the world. We’re also sharing new tools and policies to help developers build safer apps and keep their users safe. Google Play Protect live threat detection Google Play Protect now scans 200 billion Android apps daily, helping keep more than 3 billion users safe from malware. We are expanding Play Protect’s on-device AI capabilities with Google Play Protect live threat detection to improve fraud and abuse detection against apps that try to cloak their actions. With live threat detection, Google Play Protect’s on-device AI will analyze additional behavioral signals related to the use of sensitive permissions and interactions with other apps and services. If suspicious behavior is discovered, Google Play Protect can send the app to Google for additional review and then warn users or disable the app if malicious behavior is confirmed. The detection of suspicious behavior is done on device in a privacy preserving way through Private Compute Core, which allows us to protect users without collecting data. Google Pixel, Honor, Lenovo, Nothing, OnePlus, Oppo, Sharp, Transsion, and other manufacturers are deploying live threat detection later this year. Stronger protections against fraud and scams We’re also bringing additional protections to fight fraud and scams in Android 15 with two key enhancements to safeguard your information and privacy from bad apps: Protecting One-time Passwords from Malware: With the exception of a few types of apps, such as wearable companion apps, one-time passwords are now hidden from notifications, closing a common attack vector for fraud and spyware. Expanded Restricted Settings: To help protect more sensitive permissions that are commonly abused by fraudsters, we’re expanding Android 13’s restricted settings, which require additional user approval to enable permissions when installing an app from an Internet-sideloading source (web browsers, messaging apps or file managers). We are continuing to develop new, AI-powered protections, like the scam call detection capability that we’re testing, which uses on-device Gemini-Nano AI to warn users in real-time when it detects conversation patterns commonly associated with fraud and scams. Protecting against screen-sharing social engineering attacksWe’re also tightening controls for screen sharing in Android 15 to limit social engineering attacks that try to view your screen and steal information, while introducing new safeguards to further shield your sensitive information: Automatically Hidden Notifications and One-time Passwords (OTPs): During screen sharing, private notification content will be hidden, preventing remote viewers from seeing details in a user's notifications. Apps that post OTPs in notifications will be automatically protected from remote viewers when you’re screen sharing, helping thwart attempts to steal sensitive data. Safer Logins: Your screen will be hidden when you enter credentials like usernames, passwords and credit card numbers during a screen-share session. Choose What You Share: Currently available on Pixel, other Android devices will also have the ability to share just one app's content rather than your whole screen to help preserve your screen privacy. Having clear content sharing indicators is important for users to understand when their data is visible. A new, more prominent screen indicator coming to Android devices later this year will always let you know when screen sharing is active, and you can stop sharing with a simple tap. Advanced cellular security to fight fraud and surveillance We’re adding new advanced cellular protections in Android 15 to defend against abuse by criminals using cell site simulators to snoop on users or send them SMS-based fraud messages. Cellular Cipher Transparency: We’ll notify you if your cellular network connection is unencrypted, potentially exposing voice and SMS traffic to radio interception, and potentially visible to others. This can help warn users if they’re being targeted by criminals who are trying to intercept their traffic or inject a fraud SMS message. Identifier Disclosure Transparency: We’ll help at risk-users like journalists or dissidents by alerting them if a potential false cellular base station or surveillance tool is recording their location using a device identifier. These features require device OEM integration and compatible hardware. We are working with the Android ecosystem to bring these features to users. We expect OEM adoption to progress over the next couple of years. More security tools for developers to fight fraud and scams Safeguarding apps from scams and fraud is an ongoing battle for developers. The Play Integrity API lets developers check that their apps are unmodified and running on a genuine Android device so that they can detect fraudulent or risky behavior and take actions to prevent attacks and abuse. We’ve updated the API with new in-app signals to help developers secure their apps against new threats: Risk From Screen Capturing or Remote Access: Developers can check if there are other apps running that could be capturing the screen, creating overlays, or controlling the device. This is helpful for apps that want to hide sensitive information from other apps and protect users from scams. Risk From Known Malware: Developers can check if Google Play Protect is active and the user device is free of known malware before performing sensitive actions or handling sensitive data. This is particularly valuable for financial and banking apps, adding another layer of security to protect user information. Risk From Anomalous Devices: Developers can also opt-in to receive recent device activity to check if a device is making too many integrity checks, which could be a sign of an attack. Developers can decide how their apps respond to these signals, such as prompting the user to close risky apps or turn on Google Play Protect before continuing. Upgraded policies and tools for developers to enhance user privacy We’re working to make photo permissions even more private for users. Starting this year, apps on Play must demonstrate that they require broad access to use the photo or video permissions. Google Play will start enforcing this policy in August. We’ve updated photo picker, Android’s preferred solution for granting individual access to photos and videos without requiring broad permissions. Photo picker now includes support for cloud storage services like Google Photos. It’s much easier to find the right photo by browsing albums and favorites. Coming later this year, photo picker will support local and cloud search as well.Always evolving our multi-layered protections Android's commitment to user safety is unwavering. We're constantly evolving our multi-layered user protections – combining the power of advanced AI with close partnerships across OEMs, the Android ecosystem, and the security research community. Building a truly secure Android experience is a collaborative effort, and we'll continue to work tirelessly to safeguard your device and data.

Google and Apple deliver support for unwanted tracking alerts in Android and iOS

Monday May 13th, 2024 05:03:52 PM
Google and Apple have worked together to create an industry specification – Detecting Unwanted Location Trackers – for Bluetooth tracking devices that makes it possible to alert users across both Android and iOS if such a device is unknowingly being used to track them. This will help mitigate the misuse of devices designed to help keep track of belongings. Google is now launching this capability on Android 6.0+ devices, and today Apple is implementing this capability in iOS 17.5. With this new capability, Android users will now get a “Tracker traveling with you” alert on their device if an unknown Bluetooth tracking device is seen moving with them over time, regardless of the platform the device is paired with. If a user gets such an alert on their Android device, it means that someone else’s AirTag, Find My Device network-compatible tracker tag, or other industry specification-compatible Bluetooth tracker is moving with them. Android users can view the tracker’s identifier, have the tracker play a sound to help locate it, and access instructions to disable it. Bluetooth tag manufacturers including Chipolo, eufy, Jio, Motorola, and Pebblebee have committed that future tags will be compatible. Google’s Find My Device is secure by default and private by design. Multi-layered user protections, including first of its kind safety-first protections, help mitigate potential risks to user privacy and safety while allowing users to effectively locate and recover lost devices. This cross-platform collaboration — an industry first, involving community and industry input — offers instructions and best practices for manufacturers, should they choose to build unwanted tracking alert capabilities into their products. Google and Apple will continue to work with the Internet Engineering Task Force via the Detecting Unwanted Location Trackers working group to develop the official standard for this technology.

Your Google Account allows you to create passkeys on your phone, computer and security keys

Thursday May 2nd, 2024 11:59:51 AM
Sriram Karra and Christiaan Brand, Google product managersLast year, Google launched passkey support for Google Accounts. Passkeys are a new industry standard that give users an easy, highly secure way to sign-in to apps and websites. Today, we announced that passkeys have been used to authenticate users more than 1 billion times across over 400 million Google Accounts.As more users encounter passkeys, we’re often asked questions about how they relate to security keys, how Google Workspace administrators can configure passkeys for the user accounts that they manage, and how they relate to the Advanced Protection Program (APP). This post will seek to clarify these topics.Passkeys and security keysPasskeys are an evolution of security keys, meaning users get the same security benefits, but with a much simplified experience. Passkeys can be used in the Google Account sign-in process in many of the same ways that security keys have been used in the past — in fact, you can now choose to store your passkey on your security key. This provides users with three key benefits:Stronger security. Users typically authenticate with passkeys by entering their device’s screen lock PIN, or using a biometric authentication method, like a fingerprint or a face scan. By storing the passkey on a security key, users can ensure that passkeys are only available when the security key is plugged into their device, creating a stronger security posture.Flexible portability. Today, users rely on password managers to make passkeys available across all of their devices. Security keys provide an alternate way to use your passkeys across your devices: by bringing your security keys with you.Simpler sign-in. Passkeys can act as a first- and second-factor, simultaneously. By creating a passkey on your security key, you can skip entering your password. This replaces your remotely stored password with the PIN you used to unlock your security key, which improves user security. (If you prefer to continue using your password in addition to using a passkey, you can turn off “Skip password when possible” in your Google Account security settings.)Passkeys bring strong and phishing-resistant authentication technology to a wider user base, and we’re excited to offer this new way for passkeys to meet more user needs.Google Workspace admins have additional controls and choiceGoogle Workspace accounts have a domain level “Allow users to skip passwords at sign-in by using passkeys” setting which is off by default, and overrides the corresponding user-level configuration. This retains the need for a user’s password in addition to presenting a passkey. Admins can also change that setting and allow users to sign-in with just a passkey.When the domain-level setting is off, end users will still see a “use a security key” button on their “passkeys and security keys” page, which will attempt to enroll any security key for use as a second factor only. This action will not require the user to set up a PIN for their security key during registration. This is designed to give enterprise customers who have deployed legacy security keys additional time to make the change to passkeys, with or without a password.Passkeys for Advanced Protection Program (APP) usersSince the introduction of passkeys in 2023, users enrolled in APP have been able to add any passkey to their account and use it to sign in. However users are still required to present two security keys when enrolling into the program. We will be updating the enrollment process soon to enable a user with any passkey to enroll in APP. By allowing any passkey to be used (rather than only hardware security keys) we expect to reach more high risk users who need advanced protection, while maintaining phishing-resistant authentication.

Detecting browser data theft using Windows Event Logs

Tuesday April 30th, 2024 04:14:48 PM
Posted by Will Harris, Chrome Security Team .code { font-family: "Courier New", Courier, monospace; font-size: 11.8px; font-weight: bold; background-color: #f4f4f4; padding: 2px; border: 1px solid #ccc; border-radius: 2px; white-space: pre-wrap; display: inline-block; line-height: 12px; } .highlight { color: red; } Chromium's sandboxed process model defends well from malicious web content, but there are limits to how well the application can protect itself from malware already on the computer. Cookies and other credentials remain a high value target for attackers, and we are trying to tackle this ongoing threat in multiple ways, including working on web standards like DBSC that will help disrupt the cookie theft industry since exfiltrating these cookies will no longer have any value. Where it is not possible to prevent the theft of credentials and cookies by malware, the next best thing is making the attack more observable by antivirus, endpoint detection agents, or enterprise administrators with basic log analysis tools. This blog describes one set of signals for use by system administrators or endpoint detection agents that should reliably flag any access to the browser’s protected data from another application on the system. By increasing the likelihood of an attack being detected, this changes the calculus for those attackers who might have a strong desire to remain stealthy, and might cause them to rethink carrying out these types of attacks against our users. Background Chromium based browsers on Windows use the DPAPI (Data Protection API) to secure local secrets such as cookies, password etc. against theft. DPAPI protection is based on a key derived from the user's login credential and is designed to protect against unauthorized access to secrets from other users on the system, or when the system is powered off. Because the DPAPI secret is bound to the logged in user, it cannot protect against local malware attacks — malware executing as the user or at a higher privilege level can just call the same APIs as the browser to obtain the DPAPI secret. Since 2013, Chromium has been applying the CRYPTPROTECT_AUDIT flag to DPAPI calls to request that an audit log be generated when decryption occurs, as well as tagging the data as being owned by the browser. Because all of Chromium's encrypted data storage is backed by a DPAPI-secured key, any application that wishes to decrypt this data, including malware, should always reliably generate a clearly observable event log, which can be used to detect these types of attacks. There are three main steps involved in taking advantage of this log: Enable logging on the computer running Google Chrome, or any other Chromium based browser. Export the event logs to your backend system. Create detection logic to detect theft. This blog will also show how the logging works in practice by testing it against a python password stealer. Step 1: Enable logging on the system DPAPI events are logged into two places in the system. Firstly, there is the 4693 event that can be logged into the Security Log. This event can be enabled by turning on "Audit DPAPI Activity" and the steps to do this are described here, the policy itself sits deep within Security Settings -> Advanced Audit Policy Configuration -> Detailed Tracking. Here is what the 4693 event looks like: <Event xmlns=""> <System> <Provider Name="Microsoft-Windows-Security-Auditing" Guid="{...}" /> <EventID>4693</EventID> <Version>0</Version> <Level>0</Level> <Task>13314</Task> <Opcode>0</Opcode> <Keywords>0x8020000000000000</Keywords> <TimeCreated SystemTime="2015-08-22T06:25:14.589407700Z" /> <EventRecordID>175809</EventRecordID> <Correlation /> <Execution ProcessID="520" ThreadID="1340" /> <Channel>Security</Channel> <Computer>DC01.contoso.local</Computer> <Security /> </System> <EventData> <Data Name="SubjectUserSid">S-1-5-21-3457937927-2839227994-823803824-1104</Data> <Data Name="SubjectUserName">dadmin</Data> <Data Name="SubjectDomainName">CONTOSO</Data> <Data Name="SubjectLogonId">0x30d7c</Data> <Data Name="MasterKeyId">0445c766-75f0-4de7-82ad-d9d97aad59f6</Data> <Data Name="RecoveryReason">0x5c005c</Data> <Data Name="RecoveryServer">DC01.contoso.local</Data> <Data Name="RecoveryKeyId" /> <Data Name="FailureId">0x380000</Data> </EventData> </Event> The issue with the 4693 event is that while it is generated if there is DPAPI activity on the system, it unfortunately does not contain information about which process was performing the DPAPI activity, nor does it contain information about which particular secret is being accessed. This is because the Execution ProcessID field in the event will always be the process id of lsass.exe because it is this process that manages the encryption keys for the system, and there is no entry for the description of the data. It was for this reason that, in recent versions of Windows a new event type was added to help identify the process making the DPAPI call directly. This event was added to the Microsoft-Windows-Crypto-DPAPI stream which manifests in the Event Log in the Applications and Services Logs > Microsoft > Windows > Crypto-DPAPI part of the Event Viewer tree. The new event is called DPAPIDefInformationEvent and has id 16385, but unfortunately is only emitted to the Debug channel and by default this is not persisted to an Event Log, unless Debug channel logging is enabled. This can be accomplished by enabling it directly in powershell: $log = ` New-Object System.Diagnostics.Eventing.Reader.EventLogConfiguration ` Microsoft-Windows-Crypto-DPAPI/Debug $log.IsEnabled = $True $log.SaveChanges() Once this log is enabled then you should start to see 16385 events generated, and these will contain the real process ids of applications performing DPAPI operations. Note that 16385 events are emitted by the operating system even for data not flagged with CRYPTPROTECT_AUDIT, but to identify the data as owned by the browser, the data description is essential. 16385 events are described later. You will also want to enable Audit Process Creation in order to be able to know a current mapping of process ids to process names — more details on that later. You might want to also consider enabling logging of full command lines. Step 2: Collect the events The events you want to collect are: From Security log: 4688: "A new process was created." From Microsoft-Windows-Crypto-DPAPI/Debug log: (enabled above) 16385: "DPAPIDefInformationEvent" These should be collected from all workstations, and persisted into your enterprise logging system for analysis. Step 3: Write detection logic to detect theft. With these two events is it now possible to detect when an unauthorized application calls into DPAPI to try and decrypt browser secrets. The general approach is to generate a map of process ids to active processes using the 4688 events, then every time a 16385 event is generated, it is possible to identify the currently running process, and alert if the process does not match an authorized application such as Google Chrome. You might find your enterprise logging software can already keep track of which process ids map to which process names, so feel free to just use that existing functionality. Let's dive deeper into the events. A 4688 event looks like this - e.g. here is Chrome browser launching from explorer: <Event xmlns=""> <System> <Provider Name="Microsoft-Windows-Security-Auditing" Guid="{...}" /> <EventID>4688</EventID> <Version>2</Version> <Level>0</Level> <Task>13312</Task> <Opcode>0</Opcode> <Keywords>0x8020000000000000</Keywords> <TimeCreated SystemTime="2024-03-28T20:06:41.9254105Z" /> <EventRecordID>78258343</EventRecordID> <Correlation /> <Execution ProcessID="4" ThreadID="54256" /> <Channel>Security</Channel> <Computer>WIN-GG82ULGC9GO.contoso.local</Computer> <Security /> </System> <EventData> <Data Name="SubjectUserSid">S-1-5-18</Data> <Data Name="SubjectUserName">WIN-GG82ULGC9GO$</Data> <Data Name="SubjectDomainName">CONTOSO</Data> <Data Name="SubjectLogonId">0xe8c85cc</Data> <Data Name="NewProcessId">0x17eac</Data> <Data Name="NewProcessName">C:\Program Files\Google\Chrome\Application\chrome.exe</Data> <Data Name="TokenElevationType">%%1938</Data> <Data Name="ProcessId">0x16d8</Data> <Data Name="CommandLine">"C:\Program Files\Google\Chrome\Application\chrome.exe" </Data> <Data Name="TargetUserSid">S-1-0-0</Data> <Data Name="TargetUserName">-</Data> <Data Name="TargetDomainName">-</Data> <Data Name="TargetLogonId">0x0</Data> <Data Name="ParentProcessName">C:\Windows\explorer.exe</Data> <Data Name="MandatoryLabel">S-1-16-8192</Data> </EventData> </Event> The important part here is the NewProcessId, in hex 0x17eac which is 97964. A 16385 event looks like this: <Event xmlns=""> <System> <Provider Name="Microsoft-Windows-Crypto-DPAPI" Guid="{...}" /> <EventID>16385</EventID> <Version>0</Version> <Level>4</Level> <Task>64</Task> <Opcode>0</Opcode> <Keywords>0x2000000000000040</Keywords> <TimeCreated SystemTime="2024-03-28T20:06:42.1772585Z" /> <EventRecordID>826993</EventRecordID> <Correlation ActivityID="{777bf68d-7757-0028-b5f6-7b775777da01}" /> <Execution ProcessID="1392" ThreadID="57108" /> <Channel>Microsoft-Windows-Crypto-DPAPI/Debug</Channel> <Computer>WIN-GG82ULGC9GO.contoso.local</Computer> <Security UserID="S-1-5-18" /> </System> <EventData> <Data Name="OperationType">SPCryptUnprotect</Data> <Data Name="DataDescription">Google Chrome</Data> <Data Name="MasterKeyGUID">{4df0861b-07ea-49f4-9a09-1d66fd1131c3}</Data> <Data Name="Flags">0</Data> <Data Name="ProtectionFlags">16</Data> <Data Name="ReturnValue">0</Data> <Data Name="CallerProcessStartKey">32651097299526713</Data> <Data Name="CallerProcessID">97964</Data> <Data Name="CallerProcessCreationTime">133561300019253302</Data> <Data Name="PlainTextDataSize">32</Data> </EventData> </Event> The important parts here are the OperationType, the DataDescription and the CallerProcessID. For DPAPI decrypts, the OperationType will be SPCryptUnprotect. Each Chromium based browser will tag its data with the product name, e.g. Google Chrome, or Microsoft Edge depending on the owner of the data. This will always appear in the DataDescription field, so it is possible to distinguish browser data from other DPAPI secured data. Finally, the CallerProcessID will map to the process performing the decryption. In this case, it is 97964 which matches the process ID seen in the 4688 event above, showing that this was likely Google Chrome decrypting its own data! Bear in mind that since these logs only contain the path to the executable, for a full assurance that this is actually Chrome (and not malware pretending to be Chrome, or malware injecting into Chrome), additional protections such as removing administrator access, and application allowlisting could also be used to give a higher assurance of this signal. In recent versions of Chrome or Edge, you might also see logs of decryptions happening in the elevation_service.exe process, which is another legitimate part of the browser's data storage. To detect unauthorized DPAPI access, you will want to generate a running map of all processes using 4688 events, then look for 16385 events that have a CallerProcessID that does not match a valid caller – Let's try that now. Testing with a python password stealer We can test that this works with a public script to decrypt passwords taken from a public blog. It generates two events, as expected: Here is the 16385 event, showing that a process is decrypting the "Google Chrome" key. <Event xmlns=""> <System> < ... > <EventID>16385</EventID> < ... > <TimeCreated SystemTime="2024-03-28T20:28:13.7891561Z" /> < ... > </System> <EventData> <Data Name="OperationType">SPCryptUnprotect</Data> <Data Name="DataDescription">Google Chrome</Data> < ... > <Data Name="CallerProcessID">68768</Data> <Data Name="CallerProcessCreationTime">133561312936527018</Data> <Data Name="PlainTextDataSize">32</Data> </EventData> </Event> Since the data description being decrypted was "Google Chrome" we know this is an attempt to read Chrome secrets, but to determine the process behind 68768 (0x10ca0), we need to correlate this with a 4688 event. Here is the corresponding 4688 event from the Security Log (a process start for python3.exe) with the matching process id: <Event xmlns=""> <System> < ... > <EventID>4688</EventID> < ... > <TimeCreated SystemTime="2024-03-28T20:28:13.6527871Z" /> < ... > </System> <EventData> < ... > <Data Name="NewProcessId">0x10ca0</Data> <Data Name="NewProcessName">C:\python3\bin\python3.exe</Data> <Data Name="TokenElevationType">%%1938</Data> <Data Name="ProcessId">0xca58</Data> <Data Name="CommandLine">"c:\python3\bin\python3.exe"</Data> < ... > <Data Name="ParentProcessName">C:\Windows\System32\cmd.exe</Data> </EventData> </Event> In this case, the process id matches the python3 executable running a potentially malicious script, so we know this is likely very suspicious behavior, and should trigger an alert immediately! Bear in mind process ids on Windows are not unique so you will want to make sure you use the 4688 event with the timestamp closest, but earlier than, the 16385 event. Summary This blog has described a technique for strong detection of cookie and credential theft. We hope that all defenders find this post useful. Thanks to Microsoft for adding the DPAPIDefInformationEvent log type, without which this would not be possible.

How we fought bad apps and bad actors in 2023

Monday April 29th, 2024 03:59:47 PM
Posted by Steve Kafka and Khawaja Shams (Android Security and Privacy Team), and Mohet Saxena (Play Trust and Safety) A safe and trusted Google Play experience is our top priority. We leverage our SAFE (see below) principles to provide the framework to create that experience for both users and developers. Here's what these principles mean in practice: (S)afeguard our Users. Help them discover quality apps that they can trust. (A)dvocate for Developer Protection. Build platform safeguards to enable developers to focus on growth. (F)oster Responsible Innovation. Thoughtfully unlock value for all without compromising on user safety. (E)volve Platform Defenses. Stay ahead of emerging threats by evolving our policies, tools and technology. With those principles in mind, we’ve made recent improvements and introduced new measures to continue to keep Google Play’s users safe, even as the threat landscape continues to evolve. In 2023, we prevented 2.28 million policy-violating apps from being published on Google Play1 in part thanks to our investment in new and improved security features, policy updates, and advanced machine learning and app review processes. We have also strengthened our developer onboarding and review processes, requiring more identity information when developers first establish their Play accounts. Together with investments in our review tooling and processes, we identified bad actors and fraud rings more effectively and banned 333K bad accounts from Play for violations like confirmed malware and repeated severe policy violations. Additionally, almost 200K app submissions were rejected or remediated to ensure proper use of sensitive permissions such as background location or SMS access. To help safeguard user privacy at scale, we partnered with SDK providers to limit sensitive data access and sharing, enhancing the privacy posture for over 31 SDKs impacting 790K+ apps. We also significantly expanded the Google Play SDK Index, which now covers the SDKs used in almost 6 million apps across the Android ecosystem. This valuable resource helps developers make better SDK choices, boosts app quality and minimizes integration risks. Protecting the Android Ecosystem Building on our success with the App Defense Alliance (ADA), we partnered with Microsoft and Meta as steering committee members in the newly restructured ADA under the Joint Development Foundation, part of the Linux Foundation family. The Alliance will support industry-wide adoption of app security best practices and guidelines, as well as countermeasures against emerging security risks. Additionally, we announced new Play Store transparency labeling to highlight VPN apps that have completed an independent security review through App Defense Alliance’s Mobile App Security Assessment (MASA). When a user searches for VPN apps, they will now see a banner at the top of Google Play that educates them about the “Independent security review” badge in the Data safety section. This helps users see at-a-glance that a developer has prioritized security and privacy best practices and is committed to user safety. To better protect our customers who install apps outside of the Play Store, we made Google Play Protect’s security capabilities even more powerful with real-time scanning at the code-level to combat novel malicious apps. Our security protections and machine learning algorithms learn from each app submitted to Google for review and we look at thousands of signals and compare app behavior. This new capability has already detected over 5 million new, malicious off-Play apps, which helps protect Android users worldwide. More Stringent Developer Requirements and Guidelines Last year we updated Play policies around Generative AI apps, disruptive notifications, and expanded privacy protections. We also are raising the bar for new personal developer accounts by requiring new testing requirements before developers can make their app available on Google Play. By testing their apps, getting feedback and ensuring everything is ready before they launch, developers are able to bring more high quality content to Play users. In order to increase trust and transparency, we’ve introduced expanded developer verification requirements, including D-U-N-S numbers for organizations and a new “About the developer” section. To give users more control over their personal data, apps that enable account creation now need to provide an option to initiate account and data deletion from within the app and online. This web requirement is especially important so that a user can request account and data deletion without having to reinstall an app. To simplify the user experience, we have also incorporated this as a feature within the Data safety section of the Play Store. With each iteration of the Android operating system (including its robust set of APIs), a myriad of enhancements are introduced, aiming to elevate the user experience, bolster security protocols, and optimize the overall performance of the Android platform. To further safeguard our customers, approximately 1.5 million applications that do not target the most recent APIs are no longer available in the Play Store to new users who have updated their devices to the latest Android version. Looking Ahead Protecting users and developers on Google Play is paramount and ever-evolving. We're launching new security initiatives in 2024, including removing apps from Play that are not transparent about their privacy practices. We also recently filed a lawsuit in federal court against two fraudsters who made multiple misrepresentations to upload fraudulent investment and crypto exchange apps on Play to scam users. This lawsuit is a critical step in holding these bad actors accountable and sending a clear message that we will aggressively pursue those who seek to take advantage of our users. We're constantly working on new ways to protect your experience on Google Play and across the entire Android ecosystem, and we look forward to sharing more. Notes In accordance with the EU's Digital Services Act (DSA) reporting requirements, Google Play now calculates policy violations based on developer communications sent. ↩

Accelerating incident response using generative AI

Friday April 26th, 2024 10:33:10 PM
Lambert Rosique and Jan Keller, Security Workflow Automation, and Diana Kramer, Alexandra Bowen and Andrew Cho, Privacy and Security Incident ResponseIntroductionAs security professionals, we're constantly looking for ways to reduce risk and improve our workflow's efficiency. We've made great strides in using AI to identify malicious content, block threats, and discover and fix vulnerabilities. We also published the Secure AI Framework (SAIF), a conceptual framework for secure AI systems to ensure we are deploying AI in a responsible manner. Today we are highlighting another way we use generative AI to help the defenders gain the advantage: Leveraging LLMs (Large Language Model) to speed-up our security and privacy incidents workflows.Incident management is a team sport. We have to summarize security and privacy incidents for different audiences including executives, leads, and partner teams. This can be a tedious and time-consuming process that heavily depends on the target group and the complexity of the incident. We estimate that writing a thorough summary can take nearly an hour and more complex communications can take multiple hours. But we hypothesized that we could use generative AI to digest information much faster, freeing up our incident responders to focus on other more critical tasks - and it proved true. Using generative AI we could write summaries 51% faster while also improving the quality of them. Our incident response approachWhen suspecting a potential data incident, for example,we follow a rigorous process to manage it. From the identification of the problem, the coordination of experts and tools, to its resolution and then closure. At Google, when an incident is reported, our Detection & Response teams work to restore normal service as quickly as possible, while meeting both regulatory and contractual compliance requirements. They do this by following the five main steps in the Google incident response program:Identification: Monitoring security events to detect and report on potential data incidents using advanced detection tools, signals, and alert mechanisms to provide early indication of potential incidents.Coordination: Triaging the reports by gathering facts and assessing the severity of the incident based on factors such as potential harm to customers, nature of the incident, type of data that might be affected, and the impact of the incident on customers. A communication plan with appropriate leads is then determined.Resolution: Gathering key facts about the incident such as root cause and impact, and integrating additional resources as needed to implement necessary fixes as part of remediation.Closure: After the remediation efforts conclude, and after a data incident is resolved, reviewing the incident and response to identify key areas for improvement.Continuous improvement: Is crucial for the development and maintenance of incident response programs. Teams work to improve the program based on lessons learned, ensuring that necessary teams, training, processes, resources, and tools are maintained.Google’s Incident Response Process diagram flowLeveraging generative AI Our detection and response processes are critical in protecting our billions of global users from the growing threat landscape, which is why we’re continuously looking for ways to improve them with the latest technologies and techniques. The growth of generative AI has brought with it incredible potential in this area, and we were eager to explore how it could help us improve parts of the incident response process. We started by leveraging LLMs to not only pioneer modern approaches to incident response, but also to ensure that our processes are efficient and effective at scale. Managing incidents can be a complex process and an additional factor is effective internal communication to leads, executives and stakeholders on the threats and status of incidents. Effective communication is critical as it properly informs executives so that they can take any necessary actions, as well as to meet regulatory requirements. Leveraging LLMs for this type of communication can save significant time for the incident commanders while improving quality at the same time.Humans vs. LLMsGiven that LLMs have summarization capabilities, we wanted to explore if they are able to generate summaries on par, or as well as humans can. We ran an experiment that took 50 human-written summaries from native and non-native English speakers, and 50 LLM-written ones with our finest (and final) prompt, and presented them to security teams without revealing the author.We learned that the LLM-written summaries covered all of the key points, they were rated 10% higher than their human-written equivalents, and cut the time necessary to draft a summary in half. Comparison of human vs LLM content completenessComparison of human vs LLM writing stylesManaging risks and protecting privacyLeveraging generative AI is not without risks. In order to mitigate the risks around potential hallucinations and errors, any LLM generated draft must be reviewed by a human. But not all risks are from the LLM -  human misinterpretation of a fact or statement generated by the LLM can also happen. That is why it’s important to ensure there is human accountability, as well as to monitor quality and feedback over time. Given that our incidents can contain a mixture of confidential, sensitive, and privileged data, we had to ensure we built an infrastructure that does not store any data. Every component of this pipeline - from the user interface to the LLM to output processing - has logging turned off. And, the LLM itself does not use any input or output for re-training. Instead, we use metrics and indicators to ensure it is working properly. Input processingThe type of data we process during incidents can be messy and often unstructured: Free-form text, logs, images, links, impact stats, timelines, and code snippets. We needed to structure all of that data so the LLM “knew” which part of the information serves what purpose. For that, we first replaced long and noisy sections of codes/logs by self-closing tags (<Code Section/> and <Logs/>) both to keep the structure while saving tokens for more important facts and to reduce risk of hallucinations.During prompt engineering, we refined this approach and added additional tags such as <Title>, <Actions Taken>, <Impact>, <Mitigation History>, <Comment> so the input’s structure becomes closely mirrored to our incident communication templates. The use of self-explanatory tags allowed us to convey implicit information to the model and provide us with aliases in the prompt for the guidelines or tasks, for example by stating “Summarize the <Security Incident>”.Sample {incident} inputPrompt engineeringOnce we added structure to the input, it was time to engineer the prompt. We started simple by exploring how LLMs can view and summarize all of the current incident facts with a short task:Caption: First prompt versionLimits of this prompt:The summary was too long, especially for executives trying to understand the risk and impact of the incidentSome important facts were not covered, such as the incident’s impact and its mitigationThe writing was inconsistent and not following our best practices such as “passive voice”, “tense”, “terminology” or “format”Some irrelevant incident data was being integrated into the summary from email threadsThe model struggled to understand what the most relevant and up-to-date information wasFor version 2, we tried a more elaborate prompt that would address the problems above: We told the model to be concise and we explained what a well-written summary should be: About the main incident response steps (coordination and resolution).Second prompt versionLimits of this prompt:The summaries still did not always succinctly and accurately address the incident in the format we were expectingAt times, the model lost sight of the task or did not take all the guidelines into accountThe model still struggled to stick to the latest updatesWe noticed a tendency to draw conclusions on hypotheses with some minor hallucinationsFor the final prompt, we inserted 2 human-crafted summary examples and introduced a <Good Summary> tag to highlight high quality summaries but also to tell the model to immediately start with the summary without first repeating the task at hand (as LLMs usually do).Final promptThis produced outstanding summaries, in the structure we wanted, with all key points covered, and almost without any hallucinations.Workflow integrationIn integrating the prompt into our workflow, we wanted to ensure it was complementing the work of our teams, vs. solely writing communications. We designed the tooling in a way that the UI had a ‘Generate Summary’ button, which would pre-populate a text field with the summary that the LLM proposed. A human user can then either accept the summary and have it added to the incident, do manual changes to the summary and accept it, or discard the draft and start again. UI showing the ‘generate draft’ button and LLM proposed summary around a fake incident Quantitative winsOur newly-built tool produced well-written and accurate summaries, resulting in 51% time saved, per incident summary drafted by an LLM, versus a human.Time savings using LLM-generated summaries (sample size: 300)The only edge cases we have seen were around hallucinations when the input size was small in relation to the prompt size. In these cases, the LLM made up most of the summary and key points were incorrect. We fixed this programmatically: If the input size is smaller than 200 tokens, we won’t call the LLM for a summary and let the humans write it. Evolving to more complex use cases: Executive updatesGiven these results, we explored other ways to apply and build upon the summarization success and apply it to more complex communications. We improved upon the initial summary prompt and ran an experiment to draft executive communications on behalf of the Incident Commander (IC). The goal of this experiment was to ensure executives and stakeholders quickly understand the incident facts, as well as allow ICs to relay important information around incidents. These communications are complex because they go beyond just a summary - they include different sections (such as summary, root cause, impact, and mitigation), follow a specific structure and format, as well as adhere to writing best practices (such as neutral tone, active voice instead of passive voice, minimize acronyms).This experiment showed that generative AI can evolve beyond high level summarization and help draft complex communications. Moreover, LLM-generated drafts, reduced time ICs spent writing executive summaries by 53% of time, while delivering at least on-par content quality in terms of factual accuracy and adherence to writing best practices. What’s nextWe're constantly exploring new ways to use generative AI to protect our users more efficiently and look forward to tapping into its potential as cyber defenders. For example, we are exploring using generative AI as an enabler of ambitious memory safety projects like teaching an LLM to rewrite C++ code to memory-safe Rust, as well as more incremental improvements to everyday security workflows, such as getting generative AI to read design documents and issue security recommendations based on their content.

Uncovering potential threats to your web application by leveraging security reports

Tuesday April 23rd, 2024 05:15:47 PM
Posted by Yoshi Yamaguchi, Santiago Díaz, Maud Nalpas, Eiji Kitamura, DevRel team The Reporting API is an emerging web standard that provides a generic reporting mechanism for issues occurring on the browsers visiting your production website. The reports you receive detail issues such as security violations or soon-to-be-deprecated APIs, from users’ browsers from all over the world. Collecting reports is often as simple as specifying an endpoint URL in the HTTP header; the browser will automatically start forwarding reports covering the issues you are interested in to those endpoints. However, processing and analyzing these reports is not that simple. For example, you may receive a massive number of reports on your endpoint, and it is possible that not all of them will be helpful in identifying the underlying problem. In such circumstances, distilling and fixing issues can be quite a challenge. In this blog post, we'll share how the Google security team uses the Reporting API to detect potential issues and identify the actual problems causing them. We'll also introduce an open source solution, so you can easily replicate Google's approach to processing reports and acting on them. How does the Reporting API work? Some errors only occur in production, on users’ browsers to which you have no access. You won't see these errors locally or during development because there could be unexpected conditions real users, real networks, and real devices are in. With the Reporting API, you directly leverage the browser to monitor these errors: the browser catches these errors for you, generates an error report, and sends this report to an endpoint you've specified. How reports are generated and sent. Errors you can monitor with the Reporting API include: Security violations: Content-Security-Policy (CSP), Cross-Origin-Opener-Policy (COOP), Cross-Origin-Embedder-Policy (COEP) Deprecated and soon-to-be-deprecated API calls Browser interventions Permissions policy And more For a full list of error types you can monitor, see use cases and report types. The Reporting API is activated and configured using HTTP response headers: you need to declare the endpoint(s) you want the browser to send reports to, and which error types you want to monitor. The browser then sends reports to your endpoint in POST requests whose payload is a list of reports. Example setup:#  Example setup to receive CSP violations reports, Document-Policy violations reports, and Deprecation reports  Reporting-Endpoints: main-endpoint="https://reports.example/main", default="https://reports.example/default"# CSP violations and Document-Policy violations will be sent to `main-endpoint`Content-Security-Policy: script-src 'self'; object-src 'none'; report-to main-endpoint;Document-Policy: document-write=?0; report-to=main-endpoint;# Deprecation reports are generated automatically and don't need an explicit endpoint; they're always sent to the `default` endpoint Note: Some policies support "report-only" mode. This means the policy sends a report, but doesn't actually enforce the restriction. This can help you gauge if the policy is working effectively. Chrome users whose browsers generate reports can see them in DevTools in the Application panel: Example of viewing reports in the Application panel of DevTools. You can generate various violations and see how they are received on a server in the reporting endpoint demo: Example violation reports The Reporting API is supported by Chrome, and partially by Safari as of March 2024. For details, see the browser support table. Google's approach Google benefits from being able to uplift security at scale. Web platform mitigations like Content Security Policy, Trusted Types, Fetch Metadata, and the Cross-Origin Opener Policy help us engineer away entire classes of vulnerabilities across hundreds of Google products and thousands of individual services, as described in this blogpost. One of the engineering challenges of deploying security policies at scale is identifying code locations that are incompatible with new restrictions and that would break if those restrictions were enforced. There is a common 4-step process to solve this problem: Roll out policies in report-only mode (CSP report-only mode example). This instructs browsers to execute client-side code as usual, but gather information on any events where the policy would be violated if it were enforced. This information is packaged in violation reports that are sent to a reporting endpoint. The violation reports must be triaged to link them to locations in code that are incompatible with the policy. For example, some code bases may be incompatible with security policies because they use a dangerous API or use patterns that mix user data and code. The identified code locations are refactored to make them compatible, for example by using safe versions of dangerous APIs or changing the way user input is mixed with code. These refactorings uplift the security posture of the code base by helping reduce the usage of dangerous coding patterns. When all code locations have been identified and refactored, the policy can be removed from report-only mode and fully enforced. Note that in a typical roll out, we iterate steps 1 through 3 to ensure that we have triaged all violation reports. With the Reporting API, we have the ability to run this cycle using a unified reporting endpoint and a single schema for several security features. This allows us to gather reports for a variety of features across different browsers, code paths, and types of users in a centralized way. Note: A violation report is generated when an entity is attempting an action that one of your policies forbids. For example, you've set CSP on one of your pages, but the page is trying to load a script that's not allowed by your CSP. Most reports generated via the Reporting API are violation reports, but not all — other types include deprecation reports and crash reports. For details, see Use cases and report types. Unfortunately, it is common for noise to creep into streams of violation reports, which can make finding incompatible code locations difficult. For example, many browser extensions, malware, antivirus software, and devtools users inject third-party code into the DOM or use forbidden APIs. If the injected code is incompatible with the policy, this can lead to violation reports that cannot be linked to our code base and are therefore not actionable. This makes triaging reports difficult and makes it hard to be confident that all code locations have been addressed before enforcing new policies. Over the years, Google has developed a number of techniques to collect, digest, and summarize violation reports into root causes. Here is a summary of the most useful techniques we believe developers can use to filter out noise in reported violations: Focus on root causes It is often the case that a piece of code that is incompatible with the policy executes several times throughout the lifetime of a browser tab. Each time this happens, a new violation report is created and queued to be sent to the reporting endpoint. This can quickly lead to a large volume of individual reports, many of which contain redundant information. Because of this, grouping violation reports into clusters enables developers to abstract away individual violations and think in terms of root causes. Root causes are simpler to understand and can speed up the process of identifying useful refactorings. Let's take a look at an example to understand how violations may be grouped. For instance, a report-only CSP that forbids the use of inline JavaScript event handlers is deployed. Violation reports are created on every instance of those handlers and have the following fields set: The blockedURL field is set to inline, which describes the type of violation. The scriptSample field is set to the first few bytes of the contents of the event handler in the field. The documentURL field is set to the URL of the current browser tab. Most of the time, these three fields uniquely identify the inline handlers in a given URL, even if the values of other fields differ. This is common when there are tokens, timestamps, or other random values across page loads. Depending on your application or framework, the values of these fields can differ in subtle ways, so being able to do fuzzy matches on reporting values can go a long way in grouping violations into actionable clusters. In some cases, we can group violations whose URL fields have known prefixes, for example all violations with URLs that start with chrome-extension, moz-extension, or safari-extension can be grouped together to set root causes in browser extensions aside from those in our codebase with a high degree of confidence. Developing your own grouping strategies helps you stay focused on root causes and can significantly reduce the number of violation reports you need to triage. In general, it should always be possible to select fields that uniquely identify interesting types of violations and use those fields to prioritize the most important root causes. Leverage ambient information Another way of distinguishing non-actionable from actionable violation reports is ambient information. This is data that is contained in requests to our reporting endpoint, but that is not included in the violation reports themselves. Ambient information can hint at sources of noise in a client's set up that can help with triage: User Agent or User Agent client hints: User agents are a great tell-tale sign of non-actionable violations. For example, crawlers, bots, and some mobile applications use custom user agents whose behavior differs from well-supported browser engines and that can trigger unique violations. In other cases, some violations may only trigger in a specific browser or be caused by changes in nightly builds or newer versions of browsers. Without user agent information, these violations would be significantly more difficult to investigate. Trusted users: Browsers will attach any available cookies to requests made to a reporting endpoint by the Reporting API, if the endpoint is same-site with the document where the violation occurs. Capturing cookies is useful for identifying the type of user that caused a violation. Often, the most actionable violations come from trusted users that are not likely to have invasive extensions or malware, like company employees or website administrators. If you are not able to capture authentication information through your reporting endpoint, consider rolling out report-only policies to trusted users first. Doing so allows you to build a baseline of actionable violations before rolling out your policies to the general public. Number of unique users: As a general principle, users of typical features or code paths should generate roughly the same violations. This allows us to flag violations seen by a small number of users as potentially suspicious, since they suggest that a user's particular setup might be at fault, rather than our application code. One way of 'counting users' is to keep note of the number of unique IP addresses that reported a violation. Approximate counting algorithms are simple to use and can help gather this information without tracking specific IP addresses. For example, the HyperLogLog algorithm requires just a few bytes to approximate the number of unique elements in a set with a high degree of confidence. Map violations to source code (advanced) Some types of violations have a source_file field or equivalent. This field represents the JavaScript file that triggered the violation and is usually accompanied by a line and column number. These three bits of data are a high-quality signal that can point directly to lines of code that need to be refactored. Nevertheless, it is often the case that source files fetched by browsers are compiled or minimized and don't map directly to your code base. In this case, we recommend you use JavaScript source maps to map line and column numbers between deployed and authored files. This allows you to translate directly from violation reports to lines of source code, yielding highly actionable report groups and root causes. Establish your own solution The Reporting API sends browser-side events, such as security violations, deprecated API calls, and browser interventions, to the specified endpoint on a per-event basis. However, as explained in the previous section, to distill the real issues out of those reports, you need a data processing system on your end. Fortunately, there are plenty of options in the industry to set up the required architecture, including open source products. The fundamental pieces of the required system are the following: API endpoint: A web server that accepts HTTP requests and handles reports in a JSON format Storage: A storage server that stores received reports and reports processed by the pipeline Data pipeline: A pipeline that filters out noise and extracts and aggregates required metadata into constellations Data visualizer: A tool that provides insights on the processed reports Solutions for each of the components listed above are made available by public cloud platforms, SaaS services, and as open source software. See the Alternative solutions section for details, and the following section outlining a sample application. Sample application: Reporting API Processor To help you understand how to receive reports from browsers and how to handle these received reports, we created a small sample application that demonstrates the following processes that are required for distilling web application security issues from reports sent by browsers: Report ingestion to the storage Noise reduction and data aggregation Processed report data visualization Although this sample is relying on Google Cloud, you can replace each of the components with your preferred technologies. An overview of the sample application is illustrated in the following diagram: Components described as green boxes are components that you need to implement by yourself. Forwarder is a simple web server that receives reports in the JSON format and converts them to the schema for Bigtable. Beam-collector is a simple Apache Beam pipeline that filters noisy reports, aggregates relevant reports into the shape of constellations, and saves them as CSV files. These two components are the key parts to make better use of reports from the Reporting API. Try it yourself Because this is a runnable sample application, you are able to deploy all components to a Google Cloud project and see how it works by yourself. The detailed prerequisites and the instructions to set up the sample system are documented in the file. Alternative solutions Aside from the open source solution we shared, there are a number of tools available to assist in your usage of the Reporting API. Some of them include: Report-collecting services like report-uri and uriports. Application error monitoring platforms like Sentry, Datadog, etc. Besides pricing, consider the following points when selecting alternatives: Are you comfortable sharing any of your application's URLs with a third-party report collector? Even if the browser strips sensitive information from these URLs, sensitive information may get leaked this way. If this sounds too risky for your application, operate your own reporting endpoint. Does this collector support all report types you need? For example, not all reporting endpoint solutions support COOP/COEP violation reports. Summary In this article, we explained how web developers can collect client-side issues by using the Reporting API, and the challenges of distilling the real problems out of the collected reports. We also introduced how Google solves those challenges by filtering and processing reports, and shared an open source project that you can use to replicate a similar solution. We hope this information will motivate more developers to take advantage of the Reporting API and, in consequence, make their website more secure and sustainable. Learning resources Monitor your web application with the Reporting API | Capabilities | Chrome for Developers A Recipe for Scaling Security – Google Bug Hunters

Prevent Generative AI Data Leaks with Chrome Enterprise DLP

Thursday April 18th, 2024 05:40:42 PM
Posted Kaleigh Rosenblat, Chrome Enterprise Senior Staff Software Engineer, Security Lead Generative AI has emerged as a powerful and popular tool to automate content creation and simple tasks. From customized content creation to source code generation, it can increase both our productivity and creative potential. Businesses want to leverage the power of LLMs, like Gemini, but many may have security concerns and want more control around how employees make sure of these new tools. For example, companies may want to ensure that various forms of sensitive data, such as Personally Identifiable Information (PII), financial records and internal intellectual property, is not to be shared publicly on Generative AI platforms. Security leaders face the challenge of finding the right balance — enabling employees to leverage AI to boost efficiency, while also safeguarding corporate data. In this blog post, we'll explore reporting and enforcement policies that enterprise security teams can implement within Chrome Enterprise Premium for data loss prevention (DLP).1. View login events* to understand usage of Generative AI services within the organization. With Chrome Enterprise's Reporting Connector, security and IT teams can see when a user successfully signs into a specific domain, including Generative AI websites. Security Operations teams can further leverage this telemetry to detect anomalies and threats by streaming the data into Chronicle or other third-party SIEMs at no additional cost.2. Enable URL Filtering to warn users about sensitive data policies and let them decide whether or not they want to navigate to the URL, or to block users from navigating to certain groups of sites altogether.For example, with Chrome Enterprise URL Filtering, IT admins can create rules that warn developers not to submit source code to specific Generative AI apps or tools, or block them.3. Warn, block or monitor sensitive data actions within Generative AI websites with dynamic content-based rules for actions like paste, file uploads/downloads, and print. Chrome Enterprise DLP rules give IT admins granular control over browser activities, such as entering financial information in Gen AI websites. Admins can customize DLP rules to restrict the type and amount of data entered into these websites from managed browsers.For most organizations, safely leveraging Generative AI requires a certain amount of control. As enterprises work through their policies and processes involving GenAI, Chrome Enterprise Premium empowers them to strike the balance that works best. Hear directly from security leaders at Snap on their use of DLP for Gen AI in this recording here.Learn more about how Chrome Enterprise can secure businesses just like yours here.*Available at no additional cost in Chrome Enterprise Core

How we built the new Find My Device network with user security and privacy in mind

Monday April 8th, 2024 06:12:48 PM
Posted by Dave Kleidermacher, VP Engineering, Android Security and Privacy Keeping people safe and their data secure and private is a top priority for Android. That is why we took our time when designing the new Find My Device, which uses a crowdsourced device-locating network to help you find your lost or misplaced devices and belongings quickly – even when they’re offline. We gave careful consideration to the potential user security and privacy challenges that come with device finding services. During development, it was important for us to ensure the new Find My Device was secure by default and private by design. To build a private, crowdsourced device-locating network, we first conducted user research and gathered feedback from privacy and advocacy groups. Next, we developed multi-layered protections across three main areas: data safeguards, safety-first protections, and user controls. This approach provides defense-in-depth for Find My Device users. How location crowdsourcing works on the Find My Device network The Find My Device network locates devices by harnessing the Bluetooth proximity of surrounding Android devices. Imagine you drop your keys at a cafe. The keys themselves have no location capabilities, but they may have a Bluetooth tag attached. Nearby Android devices participating in the Find My Device network report the location of the Bluetooth tag. When the owner realizes they have lost their keys and logs into the Find My Device mobile app, they will be able to see the aggregated location contributed by nearby Android devices and locate their keys. Find My Device network protections Let’s dive into key details of the multi-layered protections for the Find My Device network: Data Safeguards: We’ve implemented protections that help ensure the privacy of everyone participating in the network and the crowdsourced location data that powers it. Location data is end-to-end encrypted. When Android devices participating in the network report the location of a Bluetooth tag, the location is end-to-end encrypted using a key that is only accessible to the Bluetooth tag owner and anyone the owner has shared the tag with in the Find My Device app. Only the Bluetooth tag owner (and those they’ve chosen to share access with) can decrypt and view the tag’s location. With end-to-end encrypted location data, Google cannot decrypt, see, or otherwise use the location data. Private, crowdsourced location reports. These end-to-end encrypted locations are contributed to the Find My Device network in a manner that does not allow Google to identify the owners of the nearby Android devices that provided the location data. And when the Find My Device network shows the location and timestamp to the Bluetooth tag’s owner to help them find their belongings, no other information about the nearby Android devices that contributed the data is included. Minimizing network data. End-to-end encrypted location data is minimally buffered and frequently overwritten. In addition, if the network can help find a Bluetooth tag using the owner’s nearby devices (e.g., if their own phone detects the tag), the network will discard crowdsourced reports for the tag. Safety-first Protections: The Find My Device network protects against risks such as use of an unknown Bluetooth tag to stalk or identify another user, including: Aggregation by default. This is a first-of-its-kind safety protection that makes unwanted tracking to a private location, like your home, more difficult. By default, the Find My Device network requires multiple nearby Android devices to detect a tag before reporting its location to the tag's owner. Our research found that the Find My Device network is most valuable in public settings like cafes and airports, where there are likely many devices nearby. By implementing aggregation before showing a tag’s location to its owner, the network can take advantage of its biggest strength – over a billion Android devices that can participate. This helps tag owners find their lost devices in these busier locations while prioritizing safety from unwanted tracking near private locations. In less busy areas, last known location and Nest finding are reliable ways to locate items. At home protection. If a user has chosen to save their home address in their Google Account, their Android device will also ensure that it does not contribute crowdsourced location reports to the Find My Device network when it is near the user’s home. This provides additional protection on top of aggregation by default against unwanted tracking near private locations. Rate limiting and throttling. The Find My Device network limits the number of times that a nearby Android device can contribute a location report for a particular Bluetooth tag. The network also throttles how frequently the owner of a Bluetooth tag can request an updated location for the tag. We've found that lost items are typically left behind in stationary spots. For example, you lose your keys at the cafe, and they stay at the table where you had your morning coffee. Meanwhile, a malicious user is often trying to engage in real-time tracking of a person. By applying rate limiting and throttling to reduce how often the location of a device is updated, the network continues to be helpful for finding items, like your lost checked baggage on a trip, while helping mitigate the risk of real-time tracking. Unknown tracker alerts. The Find My Device network is also compliant with the integration version of the joint industry standard for unwanted tracking. Being compliant with the integration version of the standard means that both Android and iOS users will receive unknown tracker alerts if the on-device algorithm detects that someone may be using a Find My Device network-compatible tag to track them without their knowledge, proactively alerting the user through a notification on their phone. User Controls: Android users always have full control over which of their devices participate in the Find My Device network and how those devices participate. Users can either stick with the default and contribute to aggregated location reporting, opt into contributing non-aggregated locations, or turn the network off altogether. Find My Device also provides the ability to secure or erase data from a lost device. In addition to careful security architectural design, the new Find My Device network has undergone internal Android red team testing. The Find My Device network has also been added to the Android security vulnerability rewards program to take advantage of Android’s global ecosystem of security researchers. We’re also engaging with select researchers through our private grant program to encourage more targeted research. Prioritizing user safety on Find My Device Together, these multi-layered user protections help mitigate potential risks to user privacy and safety while allowing users to effectively locate and recover lost devices. As bad actors continue to look for new ways to exploit users, our work to help keep users safe on Android is never over. We have an unwavering commitment to continue to improve user protections on Find My Device and prioritize user safety. For more information about Find My Device on Android, please visit our help center. You can read the Find My Device Network Accessory specification here.

Google Public DNS’s approach to fight against cache poisoning attacks

Thursday March 28th, 2024 06:29:57 PM
Tianhao Chi and Puneet Sood, Google Public DNSThe Domain Name System (DNS) is a fundamental protocol used on the Internet to translate human-readable domain names (e.g., into numeric IP addresses (e.g., so that devices and servers can find and communicate with each other. When a user enters a domain name in their browser, the DNS resolver (e.g. Google Public DNS) locates the authoritative DNS nameservers for the requested name, and queries one or more of them to obtain the IP address(es) to return to the browser.When DNS was launched in the early 1980s as a trusted, content-neutral infrastructure, security was not yet a pressing concern, however, as the Internet grew DNS became vulnerable to various attacks. In this post, we will look at DNS cache poisoning attacks and how Google Public DNS addresses the risks associated with them.DNS Cache Poisoning AttacksDNS lookups in most applications are forwarded to a caching resolver (which could be local or an open resolver like. Google Public DNS). The path from a client to the resolver is usually on a local network or can be protected using encrypted transports like DoH, DoT. The resolver queries authoritative DNS servers to obtain answers for user queries. This communication primarily occurs over UDP, an insecure connectionless protocol, in which messages can be easily spoofed including the source IP address. The content of DNS queries may be sufficiently predictable that even an off-path attacker can, with enough effort, forge responses that appear to be from the queried authoritative server. This response will be cached if it matches the necessary fields and arrives before the authentic response. This type of attack is called a cache poisoning attack, which can cause great harm once successful. According to RFC 5452, the probability of success is very high without protection. Forged DNS responses can lead to denial of service, or may even compromise application security. For an excellent introduction to cache poisoning attacks, please see “An Illustrated Guide to the Kaminsky DNS Vulnerability”.Cache poisoning mitigations in Google Public DNSImproving DNS security has been a goal of Google Public DNS since our launch in 2009. We take a multi-pronged approach to protect users against DNS cache-poisoning attacks. There is no silver bullet or countermeasure that entirely solves the problem, but in combination they make successful attacks substantially more difficult.RFC 5452 And DNS CookiesWe have implemented the basic countermeasures outlined in RFC 5452 namely randomizing query source ports and query IDs. But these measures alone are not sufficient (see page 8 of our OARC 38 presentation).We have therefore also implemented support for RFC 7873 (DNS Cookies) which can make spoofing impractical if it’s supported by the authoritative server. Measurements indicate that the DNS Cookies do not provide sufficient coverage, even though around 40% of nameservers by IP support DNS Cookies, these account for less than 10% of overall query volume. In addition, many non-compliant nameservers return incorrect or ambiguous responses for queries with DNS Cookies, which creates further deployment obstacles. For now, we’ve enabled DNS Cookies through manual configuration, primarily for selected TLD zones.Case Randomization (0x20)The query name case randomization mechanism, originally proposed in a March 2008 draft “Use of Bit 0x20 in DNS Labels to Improve Transaction Identity”, however, is highly effective, because all but a small minority of nameservers are compatible with query name case randomization. We have been performing case randomization of query names since 2009 to a small set of chosen nameservers that handle only a minority of our query volume. In 2022 we started work on enabling case randomization by default, which when used, the query name in the question section is randomized and the DNS server’s response is expected to match the case-randomized query name exactly in the request. For example, if “ExaMplE.CoM” is the name sent in the request, the name in the question section of the response must also be “ExaMplE.CoM” rather than, e.g., “” Responses that fail to preserve the case of the query name may be dropped as potential cache poisoning attacks (and retried over TCP).We are happy to announce that we’ve already enabled and deployed this feature globally by default. It covers over 90% of our UDP traffic to nameservers, significantly reducing the risk of cache poisoning attacks.Meanwhile, we maintain an exception list and implement fallback mechanisms to prevent potential issues with non-conformant nameservers. However we strongly recommend that nameserver implementations preserve the query case in the response.DNS-over-TLSIn addition to case randomization, we’ve deployed DNS-over-TLS to authoritative nameservers (ADoT), following procedures described in RFC 9539 (Unilateral Opportunistic Deployment of Encrypted Recursive-to-Authoritative DNS). Real world measurements show that ADoT has a higher success rate and comparable latency to UDP. And ADoT is in use for around 6% of egress traffic. At the cost of some CPU and memory, we get both security and privacy for nameserver queries without DNS compliance issues.SummaryGoogle Public DNS takes security of our users seriously. Through multiple countermeasures to cache poisoning attacks, we aim to provide a more secure and reliable DNS resolution service, enhancing the overall Internet experience for users worldwide. With the measures described above we are able to provide protection against passive attacks for over 90% of authoritative queries. To enhance DNS security, we recommend that DNS server operators support one or more of the  security mechanisms described here. We are also working with the DNS community to improve DNS security. Please see our presentations at DNS-OARC 38 and 40 for more technical details.

Address Sanitizer for Bare-metal Firmware

Thursday March 28th, 2024 10:16:18 PM
Posted by Eugene Rodionov and Ivan Lozano, Android Team With steady improvements to Android userspace and kernel security, we have noticed an increasing interest from security researchers directed towards lower level firmware. This area has traditionally received less scrutiny, but is critical to device security. We have previously discussed how we have been prioritizing firmware security, and how to apply mitigations in a firmware environment to mitigate unknown vulnerabilities. In this post we will show how the Kernel Address Sanitizer (KASan) can be used to proactively discover vulnerabilities earlier in the development lifecycle. Despite the narrow application implied by its name, KASan is applicable to a wide-range of firmware targets. Using KASan enabled builds during testing and/or fuzzing can help catch memory corruption vulnerabilities and stability issues before they land on user devices. We've already used KASan in some firmware targets to proactively find and fix 40+ memory safety bugs and vulnerabilities, including some of critical severity. Along with this blog post we are releasing a small project which demonstrates an implementation of KASan for bare-metal targets leveraging the QEMU system emulator. Readers can refer to this implementation for technical details while following the blog post. Address Sanitizer (ASan) overview Address sanitizer is a compiler-based instrumentation tool used to identify invalid memory access operations during runtime. It is capable of detecting the following classes of temporal and spatial memory safety bugs: out-of-bounds memory access use-after-free double/invalid free use-after-return ASan relies on the compiler to instrument code with dynamic checks for virtual addresses used in load/store operations. A separate runtime library defines the instrumentation hooks for the heap memory and error reporting. For most user-space targets (such as aarch64-linux-android) ASan can be enabled as simply as using the -fsanitize=address compiler option for Clang due to existing support of this target both in the toolchain and in the libclang_rt runtime. However, the situation is rather different for bare-metal code which is frequently built with the none system targets, such as arm-none-eabi. Unlike traditional user-space programs, bare-metal code running inside an embedded system often doesn’t have a common runtime implementation. As such, LLVM can’t provide a default runtime for these environments. To provide custom implementations for the necessary runtime routines, the Clang toolchain exposes an interface for address sanitization through the -fsanitize=kernel-address compiler option. The KASan runtime routines implemented in the Linux kernel serve as a great example of how to define a KASan runtime for targets which aren’t supported by default with -fsanitize=address. We'll demonstrate how to use the version of address sanitizer originally built for the kernel on other bare-metal targets. KASan 101 Let’s take a look at the KASan major building blocks from a high-level perspective (a thorough explanation of how ASan works under-the-hood is provided in this whitepaper). The main idea behind KASan is that every memory access operation, such as load/store instructions and memory copy functions (for example, memmove and memcpy), are instrumented with code which performs verification of the destination/source memory regions. KASan only allows the memory access operations which use valid memory regions. When KASan detects memory access to a memory region which is invalid (that is, the memory has been already freed or access is out-of-bounds) then it reports this violation to the system. The state of memory regions covered by KASan is maintained in a dedicated area called shadow memory. Every byte in the shadow memory corresponds to a single fixed-size memory region covered by KASan (typically 8-bytes) and encodes its state: whether the corresponding memory region has been allocated or freed and how many bytes in the memory region are accessible. Therefore, to enable KASan for a bare-metal target we would need to implement the instrumentation routines which verify validity of memory regions in memory access operations and report KASan violations to the system. In addition we would also need to implement shadow memory management to track the state of memory regions which we want to be covered with KASan. Enabling KASan for bare-metal firmware KASan shadow memory The very first step in enabling KASan for firmware is to reserve a sufficient amount of DRAM for shadow memory. This is a memory region where each byte is used by KASan to track the state of an 8-byte region. This means accommodating the shadow memory requires a dedicated memory region equal to 1/8th the size of the address space covered by KASan. KASan maps every 8-byte aligned address from the DRAM region into the shadow memory using the following formula: shadow_address = (target_address >> 3 ) + shadow_memory_base where target_address is the address of a 8-byte memory region which we want to cover with KASan and shadow_memory_base is the base address of the shadow memory area. Implement a KASan runtime Once we have the shadow memory tracking the state of every single 8-byte memory region of DRAM we need to implement the necessary runtime routines which KASan instrumentation depends on. For reference, a comprehensive list of runtime routines needed for KASan can be found in the linux/mm/kasan/kasan.h Linux kernel header. However, it might not be necessary to implement all of them and in the following text we focus on the ones which were needed to enable KASan for our target firmware as an example. Memory access check The routines __asan_loadXX_noabort, __asan_storeXX_noabort perform verification of memory access at runtime. The symbol XX denotes size of memory access and goes as a power of 2 starting from 1 up to 16. The toolchain instruments every memory load and store operations with these functions so that they are invoked before the memory access operation happens. These routines take as input a pointer to the target memory region to check it against the shadow memory. If the region state provided by shadow memory doesn’t reveal a violation, then these functions return to the caller. But if any violations (for example, the memory region is accessed after it has been deallocated or there is an out-of-bounds access) are revealed, then these functions report the KASan violation by: Generating a call-stack. Capturing context around the memory regions. Logging the error. Aborting/crashing the system (optional) Shadow memory management The routine __asan_set_shadow_YY is used to poison shadow memory for a given address. This routine is used by the toolchain instrumentation to update the state of memory regions. For example, the KASan runtime would use this function to mark memory for local variables on the stack as accessible/poisoned in the epilogue/prologue of the function respectively. This routine takes as input a target memory address and sets the corresponding byte in shadow memory to the value of YY. Here is an example of some YY values for shadow memory to encode state of 8-byte memory regions: 0x00 -- the entire 8-byte region is accessible 0x01-0x07 -- only the first bytes in the memory region are accessible 0xf1 -- not accessible: stack left red zone 0xf2 -- not accessible: stack mid red zone 0xf3 -- not accessible: stack right red zone 0xfa -- not accessible: globals red zone 0xff -- not accessible Covering global variables The routines __asan_register_globals, __asan_unregister_globals are used to poison/unpoison memory for global variables. The KASan runtime calls these functions while processing global constructors/destructors. For instance, the routine __asan_register_globals is invoked for every global variable. It takes as an argument a pointer to a data structure which describes the target global variable: the structure provides the starting address of the variable, its size not including the red zone and size of the global variable with the red zone. The red zone is extra padding the compiler inserts after the variable to increase the likelihood of detecting an out-of-bounds memory access. Red zones ensure there is extra space between adjacent global variables. It is the responsibility of __asan_register_globals routine to mark the corresponding shadow memory as accessible for the variable and as poisoned for the red zone. As the readers could infer from its name, the routine __asan_unregister_globals is invoked while processing global destructors and is intended to poison shadow memory for the target global variable. As a result, any memory access to such a global will cause a KASan violation. Memory copy functions The KASan compiler instrumentation routines __asan_loadXX_noabort, __asan_storeXX_noabort discussed above are used to verify individual memory load and store operations such as, reading or writing an array element or dereferencing a pointer. However, these routines don't cover memory access in bulk-memory copy functions such as memcpy, memmove, and memset. In many cases these functions are provided by the runtime library or implemented in assembly to optimize for performance. Therefore, in order to be able to catch invalid memory access in these functions, we would need to provide sanitized versions of memcpy, memmove, and memset functions in our KASan implementation which would verify memory buffers to be valid memory regions. Avoiding false positives for noreturn functions Another routine required by KASan is __asan_handle_no_return, to perform cleanup before a noreturn function and avoid false positives on the stack. KASan adds red zones around stack variables at the start of each function, and removes them at the end. If a function does not return normally (for example, in case of longjmp-like functions and exception handling), red zones must be removed explicitly with __asan_handle_no_return. Hook heap memory allocation routines Bare-metal code in the vast majority of cases provides its own heap implementation. It is our responsibility to implement an instrumented version of heap memory allocation and freeing routines which enable KASan to detect memory corruption bugs on the heap. Essentially, we would need to instrument the memory allocator with the code which unpoisons KASan shadow memory corresponding to the allocated memory buffer. Additionally, we may want to insert an extra poisoned red zone memory (which accessing would then generate a KASan violation) to the end of the allocated buffer to increase the likelihood of catching out-of-bounds memory reads/writes. Similarly, in the memory deallocation routine (such as free) we would need to poison the shadow memory corresponding to the free buffer so that any subsequent access (such as, use-after-free) would generate a KASan violation. We can go even further by placing the freed memory buffer into a quarantine instead of immediately returning the free memory back to the allocator. This way, the freed memory buffer is suspended in quarantine for some time and will have its KASan shadow bytes poisoned for a longer period of time, increasing the probability of catching a use-after-free access to this buffer. Enable KASan for heap, stack and global variables With all the necessary building blocks implemented we are ready to enable KASan for our bare-metal code by applying the following compiler options while building the target with the LLVM toolchain. The -fsanitize=kernel-address Clang option instructs the compiler to instrument memory load/store operations with the KASan verification routines. We use the -asan-mapping-offset LLVM option to indicate where we want our shadow memory to be located. For instance, let’s assume that we would like to cover address range 0x40000000 - 0x4fffffff and we want to keep shadow memory at address 0x4A700000. So, we would use -mllvm -asan-mapping-offset=0x42700000 as 0x40000000 >> 3 + 0x42700000 == 0x4A700000. To cover globals and stack variables with KASan we would need to pass additional options to the compiler: -mllvm -asan-stack=1 -mllvm -asan-globals=1. It’s worth mentioning that instrumenting both globals and stack variables will likely result in an increase in size of the corresponding memory which might need to be accounted for in the linker script. Finally, to prevent significant increase in size of the code section due to KASan instrumentation we instruct the compiler to always outline KASan checks using the -mllvm -asan-instrumentation-with-call-threshold=0 option. Otherwise, the compiler might inline __asan_loadXX_noabort, __asan_storeXX_noabort routines for load/store operations resulting in bloating the generated object code. LLVM has traditionally only supported sanitizers with runtimes for specific targets with predefined runtimes, however we have upstreamed LLVM sanitizer support for bare-metal targets under the assumption that the runtime can be defined for the particular target. You’ll need the latest version of Clang to benefit from this. Conclusion Following these steps we managed to enable KASan for a firmware target and use it in pre-production test builds. This led to early discovery of memory corruption issues that were easily remediated due to the actionable reports produced by KASan. These builds can be used with fuzzers to detect edge case bugs that normal testing fails to trigger, yet which can have significant security implications. Our work with KASan is just one example of the multiple techniques the Android team is exploring to further secure bare-metal firmware in the Android Platform. Ideally we want to avoid introducing memory safety vulnerabilities in the first place so we are working to address this problem through adoption of memory-safe Rust in bare-metal environments. The Android team has developed Rust training which covers bare-metal Rust extensively. We highly encourage others to explore Rust (or other memory-safe languages) as an alternative to C/C++ in their firmware. If you have any questions, please reach out – we’re here to help! Acknowledgements: Thank you to Roger Piqueras Jover for contributions to this post, and to Evgenii Stepanov for upstreaming LLVM support for bare-metal sanitizers. Special thanks also to our colleagues who contribute and support our firmware security efforts: Sami Tolvanen, Stephan Somogyi, Stephan Chen, Dominik Maier, Xuan Xing, Farzan Karimi, Pirama Arumuga Nainar, Stephen Hines.

Real-time, privacy-preserving URL protection

Thursday March 14th, 2024 04:01:32 PM
Posted by Jasika Bawa, Xinghui Lu, Google Chrome Security & Jonathan Li, Alex Wozniak, Google Safe Browsing For more than 15 years, Google Safe Browsing has been protecting users from phishing, malware, unwanted software and more, by identifying and warning users about potentially abusive sites on more than 5 billion devices around the world. As attackers grow more sophisticated, we've seen the need for protections that can adapt as quickly as the threats they defend against. That’s why we're excited to announce a new version of Safe Browsing that will provide real-time, privacy-preserving URL protection for people using the Standard protection mode of Safe Browsing in Chrome. Current landscape Chrome automatically protects you by flagging potentially dangerous sites and files, hand in hand with Safe Browsing which discovers thousands of unsafe sites every day and adds them to its lists of harmful sites and files. So far, for privacy and performance reasons, Chrome has first checked sites you visit against a locally-stored list of known unsafe sites which is updated every 30 to 60 minutes – this is done using hash-based checks. Hash-based check overview But unsafe sites have adapted — today, the majority of them exist for less than 10 minutes, meaning that by the time the locally-stored list of known unsafe sites is updated, many have slipped through and had the chance to do damage if users happened to visit them during this window of opportunity. Further, Safe Browsing’s list of harmful websites continues to grow at a rapid pace. Not all devices have the resources necessary to maintain this growing list, nor are they always able to receive and apply updates to the list at the frequency necessary to benefit from full protection. Safe Browsing’s Enhanced protection mode already stays ahead of such threats with technologies such as real-time list checks and AI-based classification of malicious URLs and web pages. We built this mode as an opt-in to give users the choice of sharing more security-related data in order to get stronger security. This mode has shown that checking lists in real time brings significant value, so we decided to bring that to the default Standard protection mode through a new API – one that doesn't share the URLs of sites you visit with Google. Introducing real-time, privacy-preserving Safe Browsing How it works In order to transition to real-time protection, checks now need to be performed against a list that is maintained on the Safe Browsing server. The server-side list can include unsafe sites as soon as they are discovered, so it is able to capture sites that switch quickly. It can also grow as large as needed because the Safe Browsing server is not constrained in the same way that user devices are. Behind the scenes, here's what is happening in Chrome: When you visit a site, Chrome first checks its cache to see if the address (URL) of the site is already known to be safe (see the “Staying speedy and reliable” section for details). If the visited URL is not in the cache, it may be unsafe, so a real-time check is necessary. Chrome obfuscates the URL by following the URL hashing guidance to convert the URL into 32-byte full hashes. Chrome truncates the full hashes into 4-byte long hash prefixes. Chrome encrypts the hash prefixes and sends them to a privacy server (see the “Keeping your data private” section for details). The privacy server removes potential user identifiers and forwards the encrypted hash prefixes to the Safe Browsing server via a TLS connection that mixes requests with many other Chrome users. The Safe Browsing server decrypts the hash prefixes and matches them against the server-side database, returning full hashes of all unsafe URLs that match one of the hash prefixes sent by Chrome. After receiving the unsafe full hashes, Chrome checks them against the full hashes of the visited URL. If any match is found, Chrome will show a warning. Keeping your data private In order to preserve user privacy, we have partnered with Fastly, an edge cloud platform that provides content delivery, edge compute, security, and observability services, to operate an Oblivious HTTP (OHTTP) privacy server between Chrome and Safe Browsing – you can learn more about Fastly's commitment to user privacy on their Customer Trust page. With OHTTP, Safe Browsing does not see your IP address, and your Safe Browsing checks are mixed amongst those sent by other Chrome users. This means Safe Browsing cannot correlate the URL checks you send as you browse the web. Before hash prefixes leave your device, Chrome encrypts them using a public key from Safe Browsing. These encrypted hash prefixes are then sent to the privacy server. Since the privacy server doesn’t know the private key, it cannot decrypt the hash prefixes, which offers privacy from the privacy server itself. The privacy server then removes potential user identifiers such as your IP address and forwards the encrypted hash prefixes to the Safe Browsing server. The privacy server is operated independently by Fastly, meaning that Google doesn’t have access to potential user identifiers (including IP address and User Agent) from the original request. Once the Safe Browsing server receives the encrypted hash prefixes from the privacy server, it decrypts the hash prefixes with its private key and then continues to check the server-side list. Ultimately, Safe Browsing sees the hash prefixes of your URL but not your IP address, and the privacy server sees your IP address but not the hash prefixes. No single party has access to both your identity and the hash prefixes. As such, your browsing activity remains private. Real-time check overview Staying speedy and reliable Compared with the hash-based check, the real-time check requires sending a request to a server, which adds additional latency. We have employed a few techniques to make sure your browsing experience continues to be smooth and responsive. First, before performing the real-time check, Chrome checks against a global and local cache on your device to avoid unnecessary delay. The global cache is a list of hashes of known-safe URLs that is served by Safe Browsing. Chrome fetches it in the background. If any full hash of the URL is found in the global cache, Chrome will consider it less risky and perform a hash-based check instead. The local cache, on the other hand, is a list of full hashes that are saved from previous Safe Browsing checks. If there is a match in the local cache, and the cache has not yet expired, Chrome will not send a real-time request to the Safe Browsing server. Both caches are stored in memory, so it is much faster to check them than sending a real-time request over the network. In addition, Chrome follows a fallback mechanism in case of unsuccessful or slow requests. If the real-time request fails consecutively, Chrome will enter a back-off mode and downgrade the checks to hash-based checks for a certain period. We are also in the process of introducing an asynchronous mechanism, which will allow the site to load while the real-time check is in progress. This will improve the user experience, as the real-time check won’t block page load. What real-time, privacy-preserving URL protection means for you Chrome users With the latest release of Chrome for desktop, Android, and iOS, we’re upgrading the Standard protection mode of Safe Browsing so it will now check sites using Safe Browsing’s real-time protection protocol, without sharing your browsing history with Google. You don't need to take any action to benefit from this improved functionality. If you want more protection, we still encourage you to turn on the Enhanced protection mode of Safe Browsing. You might wonder why you need enhanced protection when you'll be getting real-time URL protection in Standard protection – this is because in Standard protection mode, the real-time feature can only protect you from sites that Safe Browsing has already confirmed to be unsafe. On the other hand, Enhanced protection mode is able to use additional information together with advanced machine learning models to protect you from sites that Safe Browsing may not yet have confirmed to be unsafe, for example because the site was only very recently created or is cloaking its true behavior to Safe Browsing’s detection systems. Enhanced protection also continues to offer protection beyond real-time URL checks, for example by providing deep scans for suspicious files and extra protection from suspicious Chrome extensions. Enterprises The real-time feature of the Standard protection mode of Safe Browsing is on by default for Chrome. If needed, it may be configured using the policy SafeBrowsingProxiedRealTimeChecksAllowed. It is also worth noting that in order for this feature to work in Chrome, enterprises may need to explicitly allow traffic to the Fastly privacy server. If the server is not reachable, Chrome will downgrade the checks to hash-based checks. Developers While Chrome is the first surface where these protections are available, we plan to make them available to eligible developers for non-commercial use cases via the Safe Browsing API. Using the API, developers and privacy server operators can partner to better protect their products’ users from fast-moving malicious actors in a privacy-preserving manner. To learn more, keep an eye out for our upcoming developer documentation to be published on the Google for Developers site.

Vulnerability Reward Program: 2023 Year in Review

Tuesday March 12th, 2024 03:59:14 PM
Posted by Sarah Jacobus, Vulnerability Rewards Team Last year, we again witnessed the power of community-driven security efforts as researchers from around the world contributed to help us identify and address thousands of vulnerabilities in our products and services. Working with our dedicated bug hunter community, we awarded $10 million to our 600+ researchers based in 68 countries. New Resources and Improvements Just like every year, 2023 brought a series of changes and improvements to our vulnerability reward programs: Through our new Bonus Awards program, we now periodically offer time-limited, extra rewards for reports to specific VRP targets. We expanded our exploit reward program to Chrome and Cloud through the launch of v8CTF, a CTF focused on V8, the JavaScript engine that powers Chrome. We launched Mobile VRP which focuses on first-party Android applications. Our new Bughunters blog shared ways in which we make the internet, as a whole, safer, and what that journey entails. Take a look at our ever-growing repository of posts! To further our engagement with top security researchers, we also hosted our yearly security conference ESCAL8 in Tokyo. It included live hacking events and competitions, student training with our init.g workshops, and talks from researchers and Googlers. Stay tuned for details on ESCAL8 2024. As in past years, we are sharing our 2023 Year in Review statistics across all of our programs. We would like to give a special thank you to all of our dedicated researchers for their continued work with our programs - we look forward to more collaboration in the future! Android and Google Devices In 2023, the Android VRP achieved significant milestones, reflecting our dedication to securing the Android ecosystem. We awarded over $3.4 million in rewards to researchers who uncovered remarkable vulnerabilities within Android and increased our maximum reward amount to $15,000 for critical vulnerabilities. We also saw a sharpened focus on higher severity issues as a result of our changes to incentivize report quality and increasing rewards for high and critical severity issues. Expanding our program’s scope, Wear OS has been added to the program to further incentivize research in new wearable technology to ensure users’ safety. Working closely with top researchers at the ESCAL8 conference, we also hosted a live hacking event for Wear OS and Android Automotive OS which resulted in $70,000 rewarded to researchers for finding over 20 critical vulnerabilities! We would also like to spotlight the security conferences. gave us a platform to engage with top hardware security researchers who uncovered over 50 vulnerabilities in Nest, Fitbit, and Wearables, and received a total of $116,000 last year! The Google Play Security Reward Program continued to foster security research across popular Android apps on Google Play. A huge thank you to the researchers who made our program such a success. A special shout out to Zinuo Han (@ele7enxxh) of OPPO Amber Security Lab and Yu-Cheng Lin (林禹成) (@AndroBugs) for your hard work and continuing to be some of the top researchers contributing to Android VRPs! Chrome 2023 was a year of changes and experimentation for the Chrome VRP. In Chrome Milestone 116, MiraclePtr was launched across all Chrome platforms. This resulted in raising the difficulty of discovery of fully exploitable non-renderer UAFs in Chrome and resulted in lower reward amounts for MiraclePtr-protected UAFs, as highly mitigated security bugs. While code and issues protected by MiraclePtr are expected to be resilient to the exploitation of non-renderer UAFs, the Chrome VRP launched the MiraclePtr Bypass Reward to incentivize research toward discovering potential bypasses of this protection. The Chrome VRP also launched the Full Chain Exploit Bonus, offering triple the standard full reward amount for the first Chrome full-chain exploit reported and double the standard full reward amount for any follow-up reports. While both of these large incentives have gone unclaimed, we are leaving the door open in 2024 for any researchers looking to take on these challenges. In 2023, Chrome VRP also introduced increased rewards for V8 bugs in older channels of Chrome, with an additional bonus for bugs existing before M105. This resulted in a few very impactful reports of long-existing V8 bugs, including one report of a V8 JIT optimization bug in Chrome since at least M91, which resulted in a $30,000 reward for that researcher. All of this resulted in $2.1M in rewards to security researchers for 359 unique reports of Chrome Browser security bugs. We were also able to meet some of our top researchers from previous years who were invited to participate in bugSWAT as part of Google’s ESCAL8 event in Tokyo in October. We capped off the year by publicly announcing our 2023 Top 20 Chrome VRP reporters who received a bonus reward for their contributions. Thank you to the Chrome VRP security researcher community for your contributions and efforts to help us make Chrome more secure for everyone! Generative AI Last year, we also ran a bugSWAT live-hacking event targeting LLM products. Apart from fun, sun, and a lot to do, we also got 35 reports, totaling more than $87,000 - and discovered issues like Johann, Joseph, and Kai’s “Hacking Google Bard - From Prompt Injection to Data Exfiltration” and Roni, Justin, and Joseph’s “We Hacked Google A.I. for $50,000”. To help AI-focused bughunters know what’s in scope and what’s not, we recently published our criteria for bugs in AI products. This criteria aims to facilitate testing for traditional security vulnerabilities as well as risks specific to AI systems, and is one way that we are implementing the voluntary AI commitments that Google made at the White House in July. Looking Forward We remain committed to fostering collaboration, innovation, and transparency with the security community. Our ongoing mission is to stay ahead of emerging threats, adapt to evolving technologies, and continue to strengthen the security posture of Google’s products and services. We look forward to continuing to drive greater advancements in the world of cybersecurity. A huge thank you to our bug hunter community for helping to make Google products and platforms more safe and secure for our users around the world! Thank you to Adam Bacchus, Dirk Göhmann, Eduardo Vela, Sarah Jacobus, Amy Ressler, Martin Straka, Jan Keller, Tony Mendez.

Secure by Design: Google’s Perspective on Memory Safety

Friday March 8th, 2024 10:12:51 AM
Alex Rebert, Software Engineer, Christoph Kern, Principal Engineer, Security FoundationsGoogle’s Project Zero reports that memory safety vulnerabilities—security defects caused by subtle coding errors related to how a program accesses memory—have been "the standard for attacking software for the last few decades and it’s still how attackers are having success". Their analysis shows two thirds of 0-day exploits detected in the wild used memory corruption vulnerabilities. Despite substantial investments to improve memory-unsafe languages, those vulnerabilities continue to top the most commonly exploited vulnerability classes.In this post, we share our perspective on memory safety in a comprehensive whitepaper. This paper delves into the data, challenges of tackling memory unsafety, and discusses possible approaches for achieving memory safety and their tradeoffs. We'll also highlight our commitments towards implementing several of the solutions outlined in the whitepaper, most recently with a $1,000,000 grant to the Rust Foundation, thereby advancing the development of a robust memory-safe ecosystem. Why we’re publishing this now2022 marked the 50th anniversary of memory safety vulnerabilities. Since then, memory safety risks have grown more obvious. Like others', Google's internal vulnerability data and research show that memory safety bugs are widespread and one of the leading causes of vulnerabilities in memory-unsafe codebases. Those vulnerabilities endanger end users, our industry, and the broader society. We're encouraged to see governments also taking this issue seriously, as with the U.S. Office of the National Cyber Director publication of a paper on the topic last week.By sharing our insights and experiences, we hope to inspire the broader community and industry to adopt memory-safe practices and technologies, ultimately making technology safer. Our perspectiveAt Google, we have decades of experience addressing, at scale, large classes of vulnerabilities that were once similarly prevalent as memory safety issues. Our approach, which we call “Safe Coding”, treats vulnerability-prone coding constructs  themselves as hazards (i.e., independently of, and in addition to, the vulnerability they might cause), and is centered around ensuring developers do not encounter such hazards during regular coding practice.Based on this experience, we expect that high assurance memory safety can only be achieved via a Secure-by-Design approach centered around comprehensive adoption of languages with rigorous memory safety guarantees. As a consequence, we are considering a gradual transition towards memory-safe languages like Java, Go, and Rust.Over the past decades, in addition to large Java and Go memory-safe codebases, Google has developed and accumulated hundreds of millions of lines of C++ code that is in active use and under active, ongoing development. This very large existing codebase results in significant challenges for a transition to memory safety: We see no realistic path for an evolution of C++ into a language with rigorous memory safety guarantees that include temporal safety. A large-scale rewrite of all existing C++ code into a different, memory-safe language appears very difficult and will likely remain impractical. We consider it important to complement a transition to memory safe languages for new code and particularly at-risk components with safety improvements for existing C++ code, to the extent practicable. We believe that substantial improvements can be achieved through an incremental transition to a partially-memory-safe C++ language subset, augmented with hardware security features when available. For instance, see our work improving spatial safety in GCP's networking stack. Our investments in memory-safe languagesWe are actively investing in many of the solutions outlined in our whitepaper and in our response to the US Federal Government’s RFI on Open Source Software Security. Android has written several components in Rust over the last few years, leading to compelling security improvements. In Android’s Ultra-wideband (UWB) module, this has improved the security of the module while also reducing the memory usage and inter-procedural calls.  Chrome has started shipping some features in Rust; in one case, Chrome was able to move its QR code generator out of a sandbox by adopting a new memory-safe library written in Rust, leading to both better security and better performance. Google recently announced a $1,000,000 grant to the Rust foundation to enhance interoperability with C++ code. This will facilitate incremental adoption of Rust in existing memory-unsafe code bases, which will be key to enabling even more new development to occur in a memory-safe language. Relatedly, we are also working on addressing cross-language attacks that can occur when mixing Rust and C++ in the same binary. Google is investing in building the memory-safe open-source ecosystem through ISRG Prossimo and OpenSSF’s Alpha-Omega project. Back in 2021, we funded efforts to bring Rust to the Linux Kernel, which is now enabling us to write memory-safe drivers. This funding is also going towards providing alternatives or upgrades to key open-source libraries in a memory-safe language, such as providing a memory safe TLS implementation. We know that memory safe languages will not address every security bug, but just as our efforts to eliminate XSS attacks through tooling showed, removing large classes of exploits both directly benefits consumers of software and allows us to move our focus to addressing further classes of security vulnerabilities. To access the full whitepaper and learn more about Google's perspective on memory safety, visit

Piloting new ways of protecting Android users from financial fraud

Wednesday April 3rd, 2024 08:19:31 PM
Posted by Eugene Liderman, Director of Mobile Security Strategy, Google From its founding, Android has been guided by principles of openness, transparency, safety, and choice. Android gives you the freedom to choose which device best fits your needs, while also providing the flexibility to download apps from a variety of sources, including preloaded app stores such as the Google Play Store or the Galaxy Store; third-party app stores; and direct downloads from the Internet.Keeping users safe in an open ecosystem takes sophisticated defenses. That’s why Android provides multiple layers of protections, powered by AI and backed by a large dedicated security & privacy team, to help to protect our users from security threats while continually making the platform more resilient. We also provide our users with numerous built-in protections like Google Play Protect, the world’s most widely deployed threat detection service, which actively scans over 125 billion apps on devices every day to monitor for harmful behavior. That said, our data shows that a disproportionate amount of bad actors take advantage of select APIs and distribution channels in this open ecosystem. Elevating app security in an open ecosystem While users have the flexibility to download apps from many sources, the safety of an app can vary depending on the download source. Google Play, for example, carries out rigorous operational reviews to ensure app safety, including proper high-risk API use and permissions handling. Other app stores may also follow established policies and procedures that help reduce risks to users and their data. These protections often include requirements for developers to declare which permissions their apps use and how developers plan to use app data. Conversely, standalone app distribution sources like web browsers, messaging apps or file managers – which we commonly refer to as Internet-sideloading – do not offer the same rigorous requirements and operational reviews. Our data demonstrates that users who download from these sources today face unusually high security risks due to these missing protections. We recently launched enhanced Google Play Protect real-time scanning to help better protect users against novel malicious Internet-sideloaded apps. This enhancement is designed to address malicious apps that leverage various methods, such as AI, to avoid detection. This feature, now deployed on Android devices with Google Play Services in India, Thailand, Singapore and Brazil, has already made a significant impact on user safety. As a result of the real-time scanning enhancement, Play Protect has identified 515,000 new malicious apps and issued more than 3.1 million warnings or blocks of those apps. Play Protect is constantly improving its detection capabilities with each identified app, allowing us to strengthen our protections for the entire Android ecosystem. A new pilot to combat financial fraud Cybercriminals continue to invest in advanced financial fraud scams, costing consumers more than $1 trillion in losses. According to the 2023 Global State of Scams Report by the Global Anti-Scam Alliance, 78 percent of mobile users surveyed experienced at least one scam in the last year. Of those surveyed, 45 percent said they’re experiencing more scams in the last 12 months. The Global Scam Report also found that scams were most often initiated by sending scam links via various messaging platforms to get users to install malicious apps and very often paired with a phone call posing to be from a valid entity. Scammers frequently employ social engineering tactics to deceive mobile users. Using urgent pretenses that often involve a risk to a user’s finances or an opportunity for quick wealth, cybercriminals convince users to disable security safeguards and ignore proactive warnings for potential malware, scams, and phishing. We’ve seen a large percentage of users ignore, or are tricked into dismissing, these proactive Android platform warnings and proceed with installing malicious apps. This can lead to users ultimately disclosing their security codes, passwords, financial information and/or transferring funds unknowingly to a fraudster. To help better protect Android users from these financial fraud attacks, we are piloting enhanced fraud protection with Google Play Protect. As part of a continued strategic partnership with the Cyber Security Agency of Singapore (CSA), we will launch this first pilot in Singapore in the coming weeks to help keep Android users safe from mobile financial fraud. This enhanced fraud protection will analyze and automatically block the installation of apps that may use sensitive permissions frequently abused for financial fraud when the user attempts to install the app from an Internet-sideloading source (web browsers, messaging apps or file managers). This enhancement will inspect the permissions the app declared in real-time and specifically look for four permission requests: RECEIVE_SMS, READ_SMS, BIND_Notifications, and Accessibility. These permissions are frequently abused by fraudsters to intercept one-time passwords via SMS or notifications, as well as spy on screen content. Based on our analysis of major fraud malware families that exploit these sensitive permissions, we found that over 95 percent of installations came from Internet-sideloading sources. During the upcoming pilot, when a user in Singapore attempts to install an application from an Internet-sideloading source and any of these four permissions are declared, Play Protect will automatically block the installation with an explanation to the user. Collaborating to combat mobile fraud This enhanced fraud protection has undergone testing by the Singapore government and will be rolling out to Android devices with Google Play services. “The fight against online scams is a dynamic one. As cybercriminals refine their methods, we must collaborate and innovate to stay ahead, “ said Mr Chua Kuan Seah, Deputy Chief Executive of CSA. “Through such partnerships with technology players like Google, we are constantly improving our anti-scam defenses to protect Singaporeans online and safeguard their digital assets.” Together with CSA, we will be closely monitoring the results of the pilot program to assess its impact and make adjustments as needed. We will also support CSA by continuing to assist with malware detection and analysis, sharing malware insights and techniques, and creating user and developer education resources. How developers can prepareFor developers distributing apps that may be affected by this pilot, please take the time to review the device permissions your app is requesting and ensure you’re following developer best practices. Your app should only request permissions that the app needs to complete an action and ensure it does not violate the Mobile Unwanted Software principles. Always ensure that your app does not engage in behavior that could be considered potentially harmful or malware. If you find that your app is affected by the app protection pilot you can refer to our updated developer guidance for Play Protect warnings for tips on how to help fix potential issues with your app and instructions for filing an appeal if needed. Check out the video below to learn more.Our commitment to protecting Android users We believe industry collaboration is essential to protect users from mobile security threats and fraud. Piloting these new protections will help us stay ahead of new attacks and evolve our solutions to defeat scammers and their expanding fraud attempt. We have an unwavering commitment to protecting our users around the world and look forward to continuing to partner with governments, ecosystem partners and other stakeholders to improve user protections.

Improving Interoperability Between Rust and C++

Wednesday February 7th, 2024 02:30:31 AM
Posted by Lars Bergstrom – Director, Android Platform Tools & Libraries and Chair of the Rust Foundation Board Back in 2021, we announced that Google was joining the Rust Foundation. At the time, Rust was already in wide use across Android and other Google products. Our announcement emphasized our commitment to improving the security reviews of Rust code and its interoperability with C++ code. Rust is one of the strongest tools we have to address memory safety security issues. Since that announcement, industry leaders and government agencies have echoed our sentiment. We are delighted to announce that Google has provided a grant of $1 million to the Rust Foundation to support efforts that will improve the ability of Rust code to interoperate with existing legacy C++ codebases. We’re also furthering our existing commitment to the open-source Rust community by aggregating and publishing audits for Rust crates that we use in open-source Google projects. These contributions, along with our previous interoperability contributions, have us excited about the future of Rust. “Based on historical vulnerability density statistics, Rust has proactively prevented hundreds of vulnerabilities from impacting the Android ecosystem. This investment aims to expand the adoption of Rust across various components of the platform.” – Dave Kleidermacher, Google Vice President of Engineering, Android Security & Privacy While Google has seen the most significant growth in the use of Rust in Android, we’re continuing to grow its use across more applications, including clients and server hardware. “While Rust may not be suitable for all product applications, prioritizing seamless interoperability with C++ will accelerate wider community adoption, thereby aligning with the industry goals of improving memory safety.” – Royal Hansen, Google Vice President of Safety & Security The Rust tooling and ecosystem already support interoperability with Android and with continued investment in tools like cxx, autocxx, bindgen, cbindgen, diplomat, and crubit, we are seeing regular improvements in the state of Rust interoperability with C++. As these improvements have continued, we’ve seen a reduction in the barriers to adoption and accelerated adoption of Rust. While that progress across the many tools continues, it is often only expanded incrementally to support the particular needs of a given project or company. In order to accelerate both Rust adoption at Google as well as more broadly across the industry, we are eager to invest in and collaborate on any needed ABI changes, tooling and build system support, wrapper libraries, or other areas identified. We are excited to support this work through the Rust Foundation’s Interop Initiative and in collaboration with the Rust project to ensure that any additions made are suitable and address the challenges of Rust adoption that projects using C++ face. Improving memory safety across the software industry is one of the key technology challenges of our time, and we invite others across the community and industry to join us in working together to secure the open source ecosystem for everyone. Learn more about the Rust Foundation’s Interop Initiative by reading their recent announcement.

UN Cybercrime Treaty Could Endanger Web Security

Thursday February 1st, 2024 06:40:22 PM
Royal Hansen, Vice President of Privacy, Safety and Security EngineeringThis week, the United Nations convened member states to continue its years-long negotiations on the UN Cybercrime Treaty, titled “Countering the Use of Information and Communications Technologies for Criminal Purposes.” As more aspects of our lives intersect with the digital sphere, law enforcement around the world has increasingly turned to electronic evidence to investigate and disrupt criminal activity. Google takes the threat of cybercrime very seriously, and dedicates significant resources to combating it. When governments send Google legal orders to disclose user data in connection with their investigations, we carefully review those orders to make sure they satisfy applicable laws, international norms, and Google’s policies. We also regularly report the number of these orders in our Transparency Report. To ensure that transnational legal demands are issued consistent with rule of law, we have long called for an international framework for digital evidence that includes robust due process protections, respects human rights (including the right to free expression), and aligns with existing international norms. This is particularly important in the case of transnational criminal investigations, where the legal protections  in one jurisdiction may not align with those in others. Such safeguards aren’t just important to ensuring free expression and human rights, they are also critical to protecting web security. Too often, as we know well from helping stand up the Security Researcher Legal Defense Fund, individuals working to advance cybersecurity for the public good end up facing criminal charges. The Cybercrime Treaty should not criminalize the work of legitimate cybersecurity researchers and penetration testers, which is designed to protect individual systems and  the web as a whole.  UN Member States have an opportunity to strengthen global cybersecurity by adopting a treaty that encourages the criminalization of the most egregious and systemic activities — on which all parties can agree — while adopting a framework for sharing digital evidence that is transparent, grounded in the rule of law, based on pre-existing international frameworks like the Universal Declaration on Human Rights, and aligned with principles of necessity and proportionality. At the same time, Member States should avoid attempts to criminalize activities that raise significant freedom of expression issues, or that actually undercut the treaty’s goal of reducing cybercrime. That will require strengthening critical guardrails and protections.  We urge Member States to heed calls from civil society groups to address critical gaps in the Treaty and revise the text to protect users and security professionals — not endanger the security of the web.  

Scaling security with AI: from detection to solution

Tuesday February 13th, 2024 06:59:43 PM
Dongge Liu and Oliver Chang, Google Open Source Security Team, Jan Nowakowski and Jan Keller, Machine Learning for Security TeamThe AI world moves fast, so we’ve been hard at work keeping security apace with recent advancements. One of our approaches, in alignment with Google’s Secure AI Framework (SAIF), is using AI itself to automate and streamline routine and manual security tasks, including fixing security bugs. Last year we wrote about our experiences using LLMs to expand vulnerability testing coverage, and we’re excited to share some updates. Today, we’re releasing our fuzzing framework as a free, open source resource that researchers and developers can use to improve fuzzing’s bug-finding abilities. We’ll also show you how we’re using AI to speed up the bug patching process. By sharing these experiences, we hope to spark new ideas and drive innovation for a stronger ecosystem security.Update: AI-powered vulnerability discoveryLast August, we announced our framework to automate manual aspects of fuzz testing (“fuzzing”) that often hindered open source maintainers from fuzzing their projects effectively. We used LLMs to write project-specific code to boost fuzzing coverage and find more vulnerabilities. Our initial results on a subset of projects in our free OSS-Fuzz service were very promising, with code coverage increased by 30% in one example. Since then, we’ve expanded our experiments to more than 300 OSS-Fuzz C/C++ projects, resulting in significant coverage gains across many of the project codebases. We’ve also improved our prompt generation and build pipelines, which has increased code line coverage by up to 29% in 160 projects. How does that translate to tangible security improvements? So far, the expanded fuzzing coverage offered by LLM-generated improvements allowed OSS-Fuzz to discover two new vulnerabilities in cJSON and libplist, two widely used projects that had already been fuzzed for years. As always, we reported the vulnerabilities to the project maintainers for patching. Without the completely LLM-generated code, these two vulnerabilities could have remained undiscovered and unfixed indefinitely. And more: AI-powered vulnerability fixingFuzzing is fantastic for finding bugs, but for security to improve, those bugs also need to be patched. It’s long been an industry-wide struggle to find the engineering hours needed to patch open bugs at the pace that they are uncovered, and triaging and fixing bugs is a significant manual toll on project maintainers. With continued improvements in using LLMs to find more bugs, we need to keep pace in creating similarly automated solutions to help fix those bugs. We recently announced an experiment doing exactly that: building an automated pipeline that intakes vulnerabilities (such as those caught by fuzzing), and prompts LLMs to generate fixes and test them before selecting the best for human review.This AI-powered patching approach resolved 15% of the targeted bugs, leading to significant time savings for engineers. The potential of this technology should apply to most or all categories throughout the software development process. We’re optimistic that this research marks a promising step towards harnessing AI to help ensure more secure and reliable software.Try it outSince we’ve now open sourced our framework to automate manual aspects of fuzzing, any researcher or developer can experiment with their own prompts to test the effectiveness of fuzz targets generated by LLMs (including Google’s VertexAI or their own fine-tuned models) and measure the results against OSS-Fuzz C/C++ projects. We also hope to encourage research collaborations and to continue seeing other work inspired by our approach, such as Rust fuzz target generation. If you’re interested in using LLMs to patch bugs, be sure to read our paper on building an AI-powered patching pipeline. You’ll find a summary of our own experiences, some unexpected data about LLM’s abilities to patch different types of bugs, and guidance for building pipelines in your own organizations. 

Effortlessly upgrade to Passkeys on Pixel phones with Google Password Manager

Wednesday January 31st, 2024 01:08:49 AM
Posted by Sherif Hanna, Group Product Manager, Pixel Security Helping Pixel owners upgrade to the easier, safer way to sign in Your phone contains a lot of your personal information, from financial data to photos. Pixel phones are designed to help protect you and your data, and make security and privacy as easy as possible. This is why the Pixel team has been especially excited about passkeys—the easier, safer alternative to passwords. Passkeys are safer because they’re unique to each account, and are more resistant against online attacks such as phishing. They’re easier to use because there’s nothing for you to remember: when it’s time to sign in, using a passkey is as simple as unlocking your device with your face or fingerprint, or your PIN/pattern/password. Google is working to accelerate passkey adoption. We’ve launched support for passkeys on Google platforms such as Android and Chrome, and recently we announced that we’re making passkeys a default option across personal Google Accounts. We’re also working with our partners across the industry to make passkeys available on more websites and apps. Recently, we took things a step further. As part of last December’s Pixel Feature Drop, we introduced a new feature to Google Password Manager: passkey upgrades. With this new feature, Google Password Manager will let you discover which of your accounts support passkeys, and help you upgrade with just a few taps. This new passkey upgrade experience is now available on Pixel phones (starting from Pixel 5a) as well as Pixel Tablet. Google Password manager will incorporate these updates for other platforms in the future. Best of all, today we’re happy to announce that we’ve teamed up with Adobe, Best Buy, DocuSign, eBay, Kayak, Money Forward, Nintendo, PayPal, Uber, Yahoo! Japan—and soon, TikTok as well, to help bring you this easy passkey upgrade experience and usher you into the passwordless future. If you have an account with one of these early launch partners, Google Password Manager on Pixel will helpfully guide you to the exact location on the partner’s website or app where you can upgrade to a passkey. There’s no need to manually hunt for the option in account settings. And because the technology that makes this possible is open, any website or app, as well as any other password manager, can leverage it to help their users upgrade to passkeys for supporting accounts. It’s all part of Google’s commitment to help make signing in easier and safer.

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Malware don't need Coffee

Last feed update: Tuesday March 6th, 2018 11:07:51 PM

CoalaBot : http Ddos Bot

Monday October 16th, 2017 04:30:39 PM
CoalaBot appears to be build on August Stealer code (Panel and Traffic are really alike)I found it spread as a tasks in a Betabot and in an Andromeda spread via RIG fed by at least one HilltopAds malvertising. 2017-09-11: a witnessed infection chain to CoalaBotA look inside :CoalaBot: Login Screen(August Stealer alike) CoalaBot: StatisticsCoalaBot: BotsCoalaBot: TasksCoalaBot: TasksCoalaBot: New Taks (list)CoalaBot: https get task detailsCoalaBot: http post task detailsCoalaBot: SettingsHere is the translated associated advert published on 2017-08-23 by a user going with nick : Discomrade.(Thanks to Andrew Komarov and others who provided help here).------------------------------------------Coala Http Ddos Bot The software focuses on L7 attacks (HTTP). Lower levels have more primitive attacks.Attack types:• ICMP (PING) FLOOD• UDP FLOOD• TCP FLOOD• HTTP ARME• HTTP GET *• HTTP POST *• HTTP SLOWLORIS *• HTTP PULSE WAVE ** - Supports SMART mode, i.e. bypasses Cloudflare/Blazingfast and similar services (but doesn’t bypass CAPTCHA). All types except ICMP/UDP have support for using SSL.Binary:• .NET 2.0 x86 (100% working capacity WIN XP - WIN 7, on later versions ОС .NET 2.0 disabled by default)• ~100kb after obfuscation• Auto Backup (optional)• Low CPU load for efficient use• Encryption of incoming/outgoing traffic• No installation on machines from former CIS countries(RU/UA/BL/KZ/...)• Scan time non-FUD. Contact us if you need a recommendation for a good crypting service.• Ability to link a build to more than one gate.Panel:• Detailed statistics on time online/architecture/etc. • List of bots, detailed information• Number count of requests per second (total/for each bot)• Creation of groups for attacks• Auto sorting of bots by groups • Creation of tasks, the ability to choose by group/country• Setting an optional time for bots success rate Other:• Providing macros for randomization of sent data • Support of .onion gate• Ability to install an additional layer (BOT => LAYER => MAIN GATE) Requirements:• PHP 5.6 or higher• MySQL• Мodule for MySQLi(mysqli_nd); php-mbstring, php-json, php-mcrypt extensionsScreenshots:• Statistics-• Bots -• Created tasks -• Task List -• Settings -• $300 - build and panel. Up to 3 gates for one build.• $20 - rebuildThe price can vary depending on updates.Escrow service is welcome.Help with installation is no charge.------------------------------------------Sample:VT linkMD5 f3862c311c67cb027a06d4272b680a3bSHA1 0ff1584eec4fc5c72439d94e8cee922703c44049SHA256 fd07ad13dbf9da3f7841bc0dbfd303dc18153ad36259d9c6db127b49fa01d08fEmerging Threats rules :2024531 || ET TROJAN MSIL/CoalaBot CnC ActivityRead More:August in November: New Information Stealer Hits the Scene - 2016-12-07 - Proofpoint

Bye Empire, Hello Nebula Exploit Kit.

Thursday March 9th, 2017 08:20:31 AM
Nebula LogoWhile Empire (RIG-E) disappeared at the end of December after 4 months of activityIllustration of  the last month of witnessed Activity for Empireon 2017-02-17 an advert for a new exploit kit dubbed Nebula appeared underground.------Selling EK Nebula------Nebula Exploit kitFeatures:-Automatic domain scanning and generating (99% FUD)-API rotator domains-Exploit rate tested in different traffic go up 8/19%-knock rate tested whit popular botnet go 30/70%-Clean and modern user interface-Custom domains & server ( add & point your own domains coming soon...)-Unlimited flows & files-Scan file & domains-Multiple payload file types supported (exe , dll , js, vbs)-Multi. geo flow (split loads by country & file)-Remote file support ( check every 1 minute if file hash change ; if changed replace ) for automatic crypting-Public stats by file & flow-latest CVE-2016 CVE-2017-custom features just ask supportSubscriptions:24h - 100$7d - 600$31d - 2000$Jabber - nebula-support@xmpp.jpOffering free tests to trusted users ------In same thread some screenshots were shared by a customer.Earlier that same day, colleagues at Trendmicro told me they were seeing activity from a group we are following under the name "GamiNook" (illustration coming later) in Japan redirecting traffic to a variation of Sundown."GamiNook" redirecting to a Sundown Variation in Japan - 2017-02-17Payload : Pitou (6f9d71eebe319468927f74b93c820ce4 ) This Sundown variation was not so much different from the mainstream one.No "index.php?" in the landing URI, different domain pattern but same landing, exploits, etc... Some payload sent in clear (01.php) other RC4 encoded (00.php) as for Sundown.Digging more it appeared it was featuring an Internal TDS (as Empire). The same exact call would give you a different payload in France or in United Kingdom/Japan."GamiNook" traffic with geo in France - 2017-02-17Identicall payload call gives you Gootkit instead of PitouPayload : Gootkit (48ae9a5d10085e5f6a1221cd1eedade6)Note: to be sure that the payload difference is tied to Geo and not time based (rotation or operator changing it ) you need to make at least a third pass with first Geo and ensure dropped sample is identical as in first pass.At that point you can only suspect this Sundown variant might be Nebula (even if clues are multiple, a funny one being that the traffic illustrated in the advert thread is quite inline with the one captured in France).So I was naming that variation: Sundown-N. Intel shared by Frank Ruiz (FoxIT) on the 21st allowed me to know for sure this traffic was indeed Nebula.The following days i saw other actor sending traffic to this EK.Taxonomy tied to Nebula Activity in MISP - 2017-03-02Taxonomy tied to GamiNook traffic activity, EK and resulting payloadToday URI pattern changed from this morning :/?yWnuAH-XgstCZ3E=tCi6ZGr10KUDHiaOgKVNolmBgpc3rkRp-weok1A2JV-gkpS0luBwQDdM/?yXy3HX2F=tCu_Mj322aEBSXjYhatLoVmBgZJh_0Fg_wX_zQYxIg6nksDowOciFzNB/?yXzbGV2jkcB_eU8=4ya6MDz31KdQTi7ahapLolnWjJdj_EJt-VT4mwQxIQ6gksTllrB3EGRM/?ykjaKniEk6ZhH1-P=si-8YGj_1aANTynfh6Ye81mHhZE0_RNs_gn5nAExcV6okpTknOQgEmNN/?z0vDa0iBu-Q=tHnqNT_-1KcGGCzfhqVKoVmB08dm_BJt-QKumQEwJA2nksGyk-QhQDRA/?z13qMVqqoKRvTw=5S--Y2uk0apQGiyOhvdI81nQhZMwqxVo9FSsmVAyIgiokpPnl-V0QDIf/?z1fECTiT=sy7tYmz206FUGCvagKpK9VmGhMAxrxZq_1CungQwdF71ksDowOciFzNB/?zVnra0OCs9k=syjqMjel06ADFHuP0qNKolmGgsdh9BZq_geizlFkcQ2gksTllrB3EGRM/?zVnra0OCs9k=syjqMjel06ADFHuP0qNKolmGgsdh9BZq_geizlFkcQ2gksW2w7QsRTIf/?zWnBFniM=4Ca9Zjej0PRTGC3e06FJp1nVjJA1rBRpqleumABkJF2hksTllrB3EGRM/?zn3iKU_xjeNxWw=sHu7MTry2aoAFCyKgKUY8FmF0ZZi_kFg9ASimVQ2cl-lksTllrB3EGRM/?zy3jN0Gvi9RjY02F2g=4H27Yjn-0_EBHSrc26MfoVnV15Yx-hJqrwWrnwJjcVqnkpTknOQgEmNN(which is Sundown/Beps without the index.php) to/86fb7c1b/showpost.php?s=af75b6af5d0f08cf675149da13b1d3e4&p=13&postcount=8/641222267738845/thumb/6456dac5bc39ec7/comment_post.php?ice=bDaE06lCQU/507728217866857/9ecc534d/bug_report/media/pr.php?id=b38cb0526f8cd52d878009d9f27be8f4/gu/Strategy/qNXL8WmQ6G/rss.php?cat=MSFT/moddata/a9/showpost.php?s=0d2d722e1a2a625b3ceb042daf966593&p=13&postcount=1/2003/01/27/exchange-monday-wilderness/46198923243328031687/applications/blockStyle.php?last-name=6419f08706689953783a59fa4faeb75c/5wtYymZeVy/LKYcSFhKOi/showpost.php?s=2e3e8a3c3b6b00cd3033f8e20d174bf5&p=8&postcount=7/2006/08/05/fur-copper-shark/48396170957391254103/XD25OYwON1/showpost.php?s=abf72cd40a08463fad0b3d153da66cae&p=27&postcount=7/tV9FnNwo4h/b303debe9a6305791b9cd16b1f10b91e/promotion.php?catid=h/ef131fb2025525a/QLGWEFwfdh/550991586389812/core.write_file.php?lawyer=9H6UhvusOi/aPKr0Oe5GV/23861001482170285181/showpost.php?s=e74b32ba071772d5b55f97159db2e998&p=2&postcount=1/2/eb799e65a412b412ee63150944c7826d61cd7a544f7aa57029a9069698b4925b2068ed77dea8dc6210b933e3ecf1f35b/showthread.php?t=18024&page=14/js/archives/3f635a090e73f9b/showthread.php?t=6636&page=18/59cdf39001a623620bd7976a42dde55f190382060a264e21809fc51f/ff0a503d59ddb4d5e1fb663b6475dfe0ba08f0b84ce8692d/viewtopic.php?f=84&t=48361/615147354246727/339824645925013/nqHgct4sEE/showthread.php?t=51299&page=20/2012/04/22/present-measure-physical-examination(for those who would like to build their regexp, more pattern available here : )2017-03-02 Nebula with its new pattern used here to drop Ramnit via Malvertising in NA - 2017-03-02This landing pattern change triggered the publication of this post. Nebula might end up not being a "vapor" EK but let's wait and see. The only difference with Sundown till today was its internal TDS.Exploits: CVE-2014-6332 + CVE-2015-0016CVE-2013-2551CVE-2016-0189 godmodeCVE-2015-8651CVE-2015-7645CVE-2016-4117Files:  Nebula_2017-03-02 (2 fiddler - password is malware)Acknowledgement :Thanks Joseph C Chen and Brooks Li (Trendmicro),  Frank Ruiz (Fox-IT InTELL) and Andrew Komarov ( InfoArmor Inc. ) for the help on different aspect of this post.Edit:2017-03-03 Corrected some CVE id + not all payload are in clear---Some IOCsDateSha256Comment2017/02/17f4627005c018071f8ec6b084eef3936e3a267660b0df99ffa0d27a8d943d1af5Flash Exploit (CVE-2016-4117)2017/02/27be86dc88e6337f09999991c206f890e0d52959d41f2bb4c6515b5442b23f2eccFlash Exploit (CVE-2016-4117)2017/02/1767d598c6acbd6545ab24bbd44cedcb825657746923f47473dc40d0d1f122abb6Flash Exploit (CVE-2015-7645 Sample seen previously in Sundown)2017/02/1704fb00bdd3d2c0667b18402323fe7cf495ace5e35a4562e1a30e14b26384f41cFlash Exploit (CVE-2015-8651 Sample seen previously in Sundown)2017/02/17b976cf6fd583b349e51cb34b73de6ef3a5ee72f86849f847b9158b4a7fb2315cPitou2017/02/176fe13d913f4d3f2286f67fbde08ab17418ba8370410e52354ffa12a0aaf498f8Gootkit2017/02/221a22211d01d2e8746efe0d14ab7e1e547c3e30863a83e0884a9d90325bd7b64bRamnit2017/03/026764f98ba6509b3351ad2f960dcc47c27d0dc00d53d7e0ae132a7c1d15067f4aDiamondFoxDateDomainIPComment2017/02/17tci.nhnph.com188.209.49.135Nebula Payload Domain2017/02/22gnd.lplwp.com188.209.49.135Nebula Payload Domain2017/02/24qcl.ylk8.xyz188.209.49.23Nebula Payload Domain2017/02/28hmn.losssubwayquilt.pw93.190.141.166Nebula Payload Domain2017/03/02qgg.losssubwayquilt.pw93.190.141.166Nebula Payload Domain2017/02/17agendawedge.shoemakerzippersuccess.stream188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/17clausmessage.nationweekretailer.club217.23.7.15Nebula2017/02/17equipmentparticle.shockadvantagewilderness.club217.23.7.15Nebula2017/02/17salaryfang.shockadvantagewilderness.club217.23.7.15Nebula2017/02/22deficitshoulder.lossicedeficit.pw188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/22distributionjaw.hockeyopiniondust.club188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/22explanationlier.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/23cowchange.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/23instructionscomposition.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/23paymentceramic.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/23soldierprice.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/23swissfacilities.gumimprovementitalian.stream188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/23transportdrill.facilitiesturkishdipstick.info188.209.49.135Nebula2017/02/24authorisationmessage.casdfble.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24cowchange.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24departmentant.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24disadvantageproduction.brassreductionquill.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24disadvantageproduction.casdfble.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24europin.pedestrianpathexplanation.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24hygienicreduction.brassreductionquill.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24hygienicreduction.casdfble.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24instructionscomposition.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24jobhate.pedestrianpathexplanation.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24limitsphere.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24paymentceramic.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24penaltyinternet.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24phonefall.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24printeroutput.pheasantmillisecondenvironment.stream188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24redrepairs.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24soldierprice.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/24suggestionburn.distributionstatementdiploma.site188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25advertiselaura.bubblecomparisonwar.top188.209.49.49Nebula2017/02/25apologycattle.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25apologycattle.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.49Nebula2017/02/25apologycattle.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/25apologycold.shearssuccessberry.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25authorizationmale.foundationspadeinventory.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25birthdayexperience.foundationspadeinventory.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25confirmationaustralian.retaileraugustplier.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25dancerretailer.shearssuccessberry.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25employergoods.deliverycutadvantage.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25fallhippopotamus.deliverycutadvantage.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25goallicense.shearssuccessberry.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25goalpanda.retaileraugustplier.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25holidayagenda.retaileraugustplier.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25marketsunday.deliverycutadvantage.info188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25penaltyinternet.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25phonefall.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25purposeguarantee.shearssuccessberry.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.49Nebula2017/02/25rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/25rollinterest.asiadeliveryarmenian.pro188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25startguarantee.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.151Nebula2017/02/25startguarantee.gramsunshinesupply.club188.209.49.49Nebula2017/02/26advantagelamp.numberdeficitc-clamp.site93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26apologycattle.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26budgetdegree.maskobjectivebiplane.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/26competitionseason.numberdeficitc-clamp.site93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26customergazelle.cyclonesoybeanpossibility.bid93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26decembercommission.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/26distributionfile.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/26equipmentwitness.maskobjectivebiplane.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/26invoiceburst.cyclonesoybeanpossibility.bid93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26invoicegosling.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/26jailreduction.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/26rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/26startguarantee.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/27afforddrill.xzv4rzuctndfo.club93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27approveriver.jsffu2zkt5va.trade93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27burglarsatin.jsffu2zkt5va.trade93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27distributionfile.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27invoicegosling.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27jailreduction.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27lipprice.edgetaxprice.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/27marginswiss.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/27outputfruit.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/27rainstormpromotion.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/27reindeerprofit.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/27reminderdonna.divingfuelsalary.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/02/27startguarantee.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/27supplyheaven.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/27transportbomb.gramsunshinesupply.club93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/28afforddrill.xzv4rzuctndfo.club93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28agesword.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/02/28authorparticle.390a20778a68d056c40908025df2fc4e.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28bakermagician.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/02/28bombclick.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/02/28burglarsatin.jsffu2zkt5va.trade93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28certificationplanet.87692f31beea22522f1488df044e1dad.top93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28chooseravioli.87692f31beea22522f1488df044e1dad.top93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28coachadvantage.reportattackconifer.site93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/28databasesilver.reportattackconifer.site93.190.141.39Nebula2017/02/28date-of-birthtrout.87692f31beea22522f1488df044e1dad.top93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28dependentswhorl.jsffu2zkt5va.trade93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28derpenquiry.87692f31beea22522f1488df044e1dad.top93.190.141.45Nebula2017/02/28domainconsider.mxkznekruoays.trade93.190.141.200Nebula2017/03/01agesword.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/01authorparticle.390a20778a68d056c40908025df2fc4e.site93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/01bakermagician.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/01bombclick.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/02actressheight.knowledgedrugsaturday.club93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02agesword.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/02applywholesaler.tboapfmsyu.stream93.190.141.200Nebula2017/03/02approvepeak.knowledgedrugsaturday.club93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02bakermagician.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/02bombclick.alvdxq1l6n0o.stream93.190.141.166Nebula2017/03/02borrowfield.77e1084e.pro93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02boydescription.356020817786fb76e9361441800132c9.win93.190.141.39Nebula2017/03/02buglecommand.textfatherfont.info93.190.141.39Nebula2017/03/02buysummer.77e1084e.pro93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02captaincertification.77e1084e.pro93.190.141.45Nebula2017/03/02chargerule.textfatherfont.info93.190.141.39Nebula2017/03/02cityacoustic.textfatherfont.info93.190.141.39Nebula2017/03/02clickbarber.356020817786fb76e9361441800132c9.win93.190.141.39Nebula

CVE-2016-7200 & CVE-2016-7201 (Edge) and Exploit Kits

Wednesday March 8th, 2017 11:34:37 AM
CVE-2016-7200 & CVE-2016-7201 are vulnerabilities in the Chakra JavaScript scripting engine in Microsoft Edge. Reported by Natalie Silvanovich of Google Project Zero, those have been fixed  in november 2016 (MS16-129) by Microsoft.Note : No successful exploitation seen despite integration tries.On 2017-01-04 @theori_io released a POCProof-of-Concept exploit for Edge bugs (CVE-2016-7200 & CVE-2016-7201) —— Theori (@theori_io) 4 janvier 2017providing again (cf CVE-2016-0189) ready-to-use code to Exploit Kit maintainer.After not far from 6 months without new exploit integrated in an EK ecosystem which has lost its innovation locomotive (Angler) , the drive-by landscape is struggling to stay in shape. Low infection rate means more difficulties to properly convert bought traffic.The exploits are spotted first in Sundown, but integration in RIG/Empire/Neutrino/Magnitude/Kaixin should be a matter of hours/days.[edit : 2017-01-10]​I have been told that with Win10 1607, Microsoft Edge has some quite strong mitigation: no WinExec, no CreateProcess, no ShellExecute, meaning every child process creation is blocked. The PoC might need a little more "magic powder" to work there.[/edit]Sundown:2017-01-06Sundown EK firing CVE-2016-7200/7201 to Edge 2017-01-06No exploitation here thoughFiddler: (password is malware)Out of topic: expected payload in that infection chain was zloader. (other payload seen in past weeks dropped via Sundown : Zeus Panda, Neutrino Bot, Dreambot, Chthonic, Andromeda, Smokebot, Betabot, Remcos, IAP, RTM, Kronos, Bitcoin Miner)Neutrino:2017-01-14--Thanks to Trendmicro for the multiple inputs that allowed me to keep plugged to this infection chain.--So as explained previously Neutrino is now in full private mode and fueled via Malvertising bought to several ad agencies (e.g. ZeroPark, ClickAdu, PropellerAds, HillTopAds) by a Traffer actor which I tag as NeutrAds. Their infection chain is now accepting/redirecting Microsoft Edge Browser as well.Without big surprise a new exploit is included in the Flash bundle : nw27 >  CVE-2016-7200/7201.NeutrAds redirect is now  accepting Edge traffic - 2017-01-14Neutrino Embedding CVE-2016-7200/7201 - 2017-01-14(Neutrino-v flash ran into Maciej ‘s Neutrino decoder )Extracted CVE-2016-7200/7201  elements - 2017-01-14Note: i did not get infection with- Edge 25.10586.0.0 / EdgeHTML 13.10586- Edge 20.10240.16384.0Fiddler&Pcap :  (Password is malware)Extracted exploits: (Password is malware)reveiled[.space| - NeutrAds Filtering Redirectorvfwdgpx.amentionq[.win| - Neutrino Payload in that pass : Gootkit - b5567655caabb75af68f6ea33c7a22dbc1a6006ca427da6be0066c093f592610Associated C2 :buyyou[.org |[.comfastfuriedts[.org monobrosexeld[.orgSo those days, in Asia you'll most probably get Cerber and in EU/NA you'll most probably get GootkitMISP : taxonomy illustrating some NeutrAds into Neutrino-v recorded activity (and post infection)Kaixin:2017-01-15 Finding by Simon ChoiCVE-2016-7200/7201 code fired by Kaixin - 2017-01-16Fiddler : (Password is malware)Out of topic: payload in another pass (not fired by this exploit) was Blackmoon/Banbra 6c919213b5318cdb60d67a4b4ace709dfb7e544982c0e101c8526eff067c8332Callback:http://r.pengyou[.com/fcg-bin/cgi_get_portrait.fcg?uins=1145265195http://67.198.186[.254/ca.php?m=525441744D5441744D6A63744E3055744D554D745130493D&h=437Edits:2016-11-10 - Adding information about mitigation on Edge2016-11-14 - Adding Neutrino2016-11-16 - Fixed the screenshot for Neutrino. Was stating CVE-2016-4117 was there. It's not2016-11-16 - Adding KaixinRead More:Three roads lead to Rome - Qihoo360 - 2016-11-29Proof-of-Concept exploit for Edge bugs (CVE-2016-7200 & CVE-2016-7201) - Theori-io - 2017-01-04

RIG evolves, Neutrino waves goodbye, Empire Pack appears

Monday December 5th, 2016 03:32:30 PM
  Around the middle of August many infection chains transitioned to RIG with more geo-focused bankers and less CryptXXX (CryptMic) Ransomware. Picture 1: Select Drive-by landscape - Middle of August 2016 vs Middle of July 2016RIG += internal TDS :Trying to understand that move, I suspected and confirmed the presence of an internal TDS (Traffic Distribution System) inside RIG Exploit Kit [Edit 2016-10-08 : It seems this functionality is limited to Empire Pack version of RIG]I believe this feature appeared in the EK market with Blackhole (if you are aware of a TDS integrated earlier directly in an EK please tell me) Picture2: Blackhole - 2012 - Internal TDS illustrationbut disappeared from the market with the end of Nuclear Pack Picture3: Nuclear Pack - 2016-03-09 - Internal TDS illustrationand Angler EK Picture 4 : Angler EK - Internal TDS illustrationThis is a key feature for load seller. It is making their day to day work with traffic provider far easier . It allows Exploit Kit operator to attach multiple payloads to a unique thread. The drop will be conditioned by Geo (and/or OS settings) of the victim.Obviously you can achieve the same result with any other exploit kit…but things are a little more difficult. You have to create one Exploit Kit thread per payload, use an external TDS (like Keitaro/Sutra/BlackHat TDS/SimpleTDS/BossTDS, etc…) and from that TDS, point the traffic to the correct Exploit Kit thread (or, if you buy traffic, tell your traffic provider where to send traffic for each targeted country). Picture 5: A Sutra TDS in action in 2012 - cf The path to infection RIG += RC4 encryption, dll drop and CVE-2016-0189:Around 2016-09-12 a variation of RIG (which i flag as RIG-v in my systems) appeared.A slightly different landing obfuscation, RC4 encoding, Neutrino-ish behavioral and added CVE-2016-0189 Picture 6: RIG-v Neutrino-ish behavioral captured by Brad Spengler’s modified cuckoo Picture 7: CVE-2016-0189 from RIG-v after 3 step de-obfuscation pass.Neutrino waves goodbye ?On 2016-09-09 on underground it has been reported a message on Jabber from the Neutrino seller account :“we are closed. no new rents, no extends more”This explains a lot. Here are some of my last Neutrino pass for past month. Picture 8: Some Neutrino passes for past month and associated taxonomy tags in MispAs you can see several actors were still using it…Now here is what i get for the past days : Picture 9: Past days in DriveBy land Not shown here, Magnitude is still around, mostly striking in AsiaDay after day, each of them transitioned to RIG or “RIG-v”. Around the 22nd of September 2016 the Neutrino advert and banner disappeared from underground. Picture 10: Last banner for Neutrino as of 2016-09-16Are we witnessing the end of Neutrino Exploit Kit ? To some degree. In fact it looks more like Neutrino is going in full “Private” mode “a la” Magnitude.Side reminder : Neutrino disappeared from march 2014 till november 2014A Neutrino VariantSeveral weeks ago, Trendmicro (Thanks!!) made me aware of a malvertising chain they spotted in Korea and Taiwan involving Neutrino. Picture 11: Neutrino-v pass on the 2016-09-21Upon replay I noticed that this Neutrino was somewhat different. Smoother CVE-2016-4117, more randomization in the landing, slightly modified flash bundle of exploits Picture 12: Neutrino-v flash ran into Maciej ‘s Neutrino decoder Note the pnw26 with no associated binary data, the rubbish and additionalInfoA Sample : 607f6c3795f6e0dedaa93a2df73e7e1192dcc7d73992cff337b895da3cba5523 Picture 13: Neutrino-v behavioral is a little different : drops name are not generated via the GetTempName api function k2(k) { var y = a(e + "." + e + "Request.5.1"); y.setProxy(n);"GET", k(1), n); y.Option(n) = k(2); y.send(); if (200 == y.status) return Rf(y.responseText, k(n)) };Neutrino-v ensuring Wscript will use the default proxy (most often when a proxy is configured it’s only for WinINet , WinHTTP proxy is not set and Wscript will try to connect directly and fail)I believe this Neutrino variant is in action in only one infection chain (If you think this is inaccurate, i’d love to hear about it) Picture 14: Neutrino-v seems to be used by only one actor to spread Cerber 0079xThe actor behind this chain is the same as the one featured in the Malwarebytes Neutrino EK: more Flash trickery post.Empire Pack:Coincidentally a new Exploit Kit is being talked about underground : Empire Pack. Private, not advertised. Picture 15: King of Loads - Empire Pack PanelSome might feel this interface quite familiar…A look a the favicon will give you a hint Picture 16: RIG EK favicon on Empire Pack panel Picture 17: RIG PanelIt seems Empire Pack project was thought upon Angler EK disappearance and launched around the 14th of August 2016.[Speculation] I think this launch could be related to the first wave of switch to RIG that occurred around that time. I think, Empire Pack is a RIG instance managed by a Reseller/Load Seller with strong underground connections. [/Speculation]RIG-v is a “vip” version of RIG. Now how exactly those three elements (RIG, RIG-v, Empire Pack) are overlapping, I don’t know. I am aware of 3 variants of the API to RIGapi.php : historical RIG api3.php : RIG with internal TDS [ 2016-10-08 :  This is Empire Pack. Appears to be using also remote_api after this post went live. I flag it as RIG-E ]remote_api.php : RIG-vBut Empire Pack might be api3, remote_api, or a bit of both of them.By the way RIG has also (as Nuclear and Angler endup doing) added IP Whitelisting on API calls to avoid easy EK tracking from there.   :-" (Only whitelisted IP - from declared redirector or external TDS - can query the API to get the current landing) ConclusionLet’s just conclude this post with statistics pages of two Neutrino threads Picture 18: Neutrino stats - Aus focused thread - 2016-07-15Picture 19: Neutrino stats on 1 Million traffic - 2016-06-09“We will be known forever by the tracks we leave”Santee Sioux TribeSome IOCsDateDomainIPComment2016-10-01szsiul.bluekill[.]top137.74.55.6Neutrino-v2016-10-01twqivrisa.pinkargue[.]top137.74.55.7Neutrino-v2016-10-01u0e1.wzpub4q7q[.]top185.117.73.80RIG-E (Empire Pack)2016-10-01adspixel[.]site45.63.100.224NeutrAds Redirector2016-09-30re.flighteducationfinancecompany[.]com109.234.37.218RIG-v2016-09-28add.alislameyah[.]org193.124.117.13RIG-v2016-09-28lovesdeals[.]ml198.199.124.116RIG-v2016-09-27dns.helicopterdog[.]com195.133.201.23RIG2016-09-26sv.flickscoop[.]net195.133.201.41RIG2016-09-26red.truewestcarpetcare[.]com195.133.201.11RIG-v2016-09-26oitutn.yellowcarry[.]top78.46.167.130NeutrinoAcknowledgementsThanks Malc0de, Joseph C Chen (Trendmicro), Will Metcalf ( EmergingThreat/Proofpoint) for their inputs and help on multiple aspect of this post.Edits2016-10-03 :Removed limitation to KOR and TWN for Neutrino-v use by NeutrAds as Trendmicro informed me they are now seeing them in other Geos.Added explanation about the IP whitelisting on RIG API (it was not clear)2016-10-08 :Updated with gained information on Empire Pack2016-11-01 :RIG standard is now also using the pattern introduces past week by RIG-v. It's now in version 4. panelThe only instance of RIG using old pattern is Empire Pack (which previously could be guessed by domains pattern)2016-11-18 : Empire (RIG-E) is now using RC4 encoding as well. (still on old pattern and landing)RIG-E Behavioral2016-12-03RIG-v has increased filtering on IP ranges and added a pre-landing to filter out non IE traffic.2016-12-03 RIG-v Pre-landingRead MoreRIG’s Facelift - 2016-09-30 - SpiderLabs Is it the End of Angler ? - 2016-06-11 Neutrino : The come back ! (or Job314 the Alter EK) - 2014-11-01 Hello Neutrino ! - 2013-06-07The path to infection - Eye glance at the first line of “Russian Underground” - 2012-12-05

Fox stealer: another Pony Fork

Tuesday November 29th, 2016 02:25:59 PM
Gift for SweetTail-Fox-mlp by Mad-N-MonstrousSmall data drop about another Pony fork : Fox stealer.First sample of this malware I saw was at beginning of September 2016 thanks to Malc0de. After figuring out the panel name and to which advert it was tied we were referring to it as PonyForx.Advert :2016-08-11 - Sold underground by a user going with nickname "Cronbot"--------Стилер паролей и нетолько - Fox v1.0Мы выпускаем продукт на продажу. Уже проходит финальная стадия тестирования данного продукта.О продукте : 1. Умеет все что умеет пони. + добавлен новый софт.2. Актуален на 2016 год.3. Написан на С++ без дополнительных библиотек.4. Админка от пони.Условия : 1. Только аренда.2. Распространяется в виде EXE и DLL.3. Исходники продавать не будем.Аренда 250$ в месяц.Исходники 2000$ разово.----Translated by Jack Urban : ----Password stealer and more - Fox v.1.0We are releasing the product for general sale. Final stage of testing for this product is already underway.About the product:1. Is able to do everything that pony does. + new software has been added.2. Relevant for 2016.3. Written in C++ without additional libraries.4. Admin from pony.Conditions:1. For rent only.2. Distributed as an EXE and DLL.3. We will not be selling the source.Rent is $250 a month.Originals are a 2000$ one time fee. --------It's being loaded (with Locky Affid 13) by the Godzilla from ScriptJS (aka AfraidGate) group .MISP taxonomy tags reflecting ScriptJS activity in the last months(note : it's not the first time this group is pushing a stealer, they were dropping Pony with their Necurs between August and December 2015 [1] )2016-09-26 - ScriptJS infection chain into Neutrino into Godzilla loader into PonyForx and Locky Affid 13Here we can see the browsing history of the VM being sent to PonyForx (Fox stealer) C2Fox stealer (PonyForx) fingerprint in CuckooSample :cca1f8ba0be872ec86755e3defbb23c8fe4a272a6b4f7ec651302c5cddc5e183Associated C2:blognetoo[.]com/find.php/helloblognetoo[.]com/find.php/datablognetoo[.]com|[.]com| by ET rule :2821590 || ETPRO TROJAN Win32.Pony Variant Checkin[1] ScriptJS's Pony :master.districtpomade[.]com| - 2015-08-15 Pony C2 from ScriptJS​js.travelany[.]com[.]ve| - 2015-12-10 Pony C2 from ScriptJSRead More : few bits about ScriptJSInside Pony 1.7 / Fareit C&C - Botnet Control Panel - 2012-06-27Pony 1.9 (Win32/Fareit) - 2013-05-23 - Xylitol

CVE-2016-0189 (Internet Explorer) and Exploit Kit

Wednesday January 31st, 2018 01:59:11 PM
Spotted by Symantec in the wild  patched with MS16-051 in may 2016, CVE-2016-0189 is now being integrated in Exploit Kit.Neutrino Exploit Kit :Here 2016-07-13 but i am being told that i am late to the party.It's already [CN] documented hereNeutrino after ScriptJS redirector dropping Locky Affid 13- 2016-07-13Flash sample in that pass : 85b707cf63abc0f8cfe027153031e853fe452ed02034b792323eecd3bc0f7fd(Out of topic payload : 300a51b8f6ad362b3e32a5d6afd2759a910f1b6608a5565ddee0cad4e249ce18 - Locky Affid 13 ) Thanks to Malc0de for invaluable help here :)Files Here: Neutrino_CVE-2016-0189_160714 (Password is malware - VT Link)Sundown :Some evidence of CVE-2016-0189 being integrated in Sundown were spotted on jul 15 by @criznashOn the 16th I recorded a pass where the CVE-2016-0189 had his own calls :Sundown exploiting CVE-2016-0189 to drop Smokebot on the 2016-07-16(Out of topic payload :  61f9a4270c9deed0be5e0ff3b988d35cdb7f9054bc619d0dc1a65f7de812a3a1 beaconing to : | )Files : Sundown_CVE-2016-0189_160716 (password is malware)RIG:I saw it on 2016-09-12 but might have appeared before.RIG successfully exploiting CVE-2016-0189 - 2016-09-12CVE-2016-0189 from RIG after 3 step decoding passFiles : RIG_2016-0189_2016-09-12 (password is malware)Magnitude:Here pass from 2016-09-16 but is inside since at least 2016-09-04 (Source : Trendmicro - Thanks)CVE-2016-0189 in Magnitude on 2016-09-16Sorry i can't share fiddler publicly in that case (Those specific one would give to attack side too much information about some of the technics that can be used - You know how to contact me)Out of topic Payload:  Cerbera0d9ad48459933348fc301d8479580f85298ca5e9933bd20e051b81371942b2cGrandSoft:Spotted first on 2017-09-22 here is traffic from 2018-01-30 on : Win10 Build 10240 - IE11.0.10240.16431 - KB3078071CVE-2016-0189 in GrandSoft on 2018-01-30Out of topic Payload:  GandCrab Ransomwarea15c48c74a47e81c1c8b26073be58c64f7ff58717694d60b0b5498274e5d9243Fiddler here : (pass is malware) Edits :2016-07-15 a previous version was stating CVE-2015-5122 for nw23. Fixed thanks to @dnpushme2016-07-20 Adding Sundown.2016-09-17 Adding RIG2016-09-19 Adding Magnitude2018-01-30 Adding GrandSoft (but appeared there on 2017-09-22)Read More :[CN] NeutrinoEK来袭:爱拍网遭敲诈者病毒挂马 2016-07-14 - Qihoo360Patch Analysis of CVE-2016-0189 - 2016-06-22 - TheoriInternet Explorer zero-day exploit used in targeted attacks in South Korea - 2016-05-10 - SymantecNeutrino EK: fingerprinting in a Flash - 2016-06-28 - MalwarebytesPost publication Reading :Exploit Kits Quickly Adopt Exploit Thanks to Open Source Release - 2016-07-14 - FireEye

Is it the End of Angler ?

Tuesday August 30th, 2016 02:05:23 PM
Everyone looking at the DriveBy landscape is seeing the same : as Nuclear disappeared around April 30th,  Angler EK has totally vanished on June 7th. We were first thinking about Vacation as in January 2016 or maybe Infrastructure move. But something else is going on.---On the Week-End of the 4-5th of June I noticed that the ongoing malvertising from SadClowns was redirecting to Neutrino Exploit Kit (dropping Cerber)EngageBDR malvertising redirecting to SadClowns infra pushing traffic to Neutrino to Drop Cerber RansomwareOn the 6th I noticed several group migrating to RIG, Neutrino or even Sundown.But I got speechless when I noticed that GooNky had switched to Neutrino to spread their CryptXXX U000001 and U000006.They were sticking exclusively to Angler EK since years and their vacation were synchronized with Angler's in January.Checking all known to me infection path I could hardly find some Angler....last one were behind the EItest infection chain on the night of the 6th to 7th of June.Last Angler pass I captured on 2016-06-07EITest into Angler dropping CryptXXX 3.200 U000017On June 7th around 5:30 AM GMT my tracker recorded its last Angler hit :Last Hit in my Angler tracker.After that...RIG, Neutrino instead of Angler almost everywhere.[Side note: Magnitude is still around...But as mentioned earlier it's a One Actor operation since some time]Aside SadClowns and GooNky here are two other big (cf traffic volume) group which transition has not been covered already"WordsJS"  (named NTL/NTLR by RiskIQ) into Neutrino > CryptXXX U0000102016-06-10"ScriptJS" (Named DoublePar by RiskIQ and AfraidGate by PaloAlto) into Neutrino > CryptXXX U000011This gang  was historically dropping Necurs, then Locky Affid13 before going to CryptXXXIllustrating with a picture of words and some arrows:MISP : select documented EK pass with associated tags.1 arrow where you would have find Angler several days before.(+ SadClowns + GooNky not featured in that selection)With the recent 50 arrests tied to Lurk in mind and knowing the infection vector for Lurk was the "Indexm" variant of Angler between 2012 and beginning of 2016...we might think there is a connection and that some actors are stepping back.Another hint that this is probably not vacation "only" for Angler is that Neutrino changed its conditions on June 9th. From 880$ per week on shared server and 3.5k$ per month on dedicated, Neutrino doubled the price to 7k$ on dedicated only (no more per week work). Such move were seen in reaction to Blackhole's coder (Paunch) arrest in October 2013.So is this the End of Angler ? The pages to be written will tell us.“If a book is well written, I always find it too short.” ― Jane Austen, Sense and SensibilityPost publication notes:[2016-06-12]RIG : mentioned they were sill alive and would not change their Price.Maybe unrelated to RIG mention, Neutrino updated his thread as announced previously on underground but conditions are revisited :------Google translate:-----Tarif week on a shared server:Rent: $ 1500Limit: 100k hosts per dayOne-time daily discharge limits: $ 200Rate per month on a dedicated server:Rent: $ 4000Limits: 500k hosts per day, and more - on an individual basis.One-time daily discharge limits: $ 200----------------So now only price per week is doubled and month rate + ~20%[2016-06-13]Our exploit kit stats for the last two weeks… Angler dives, Neutrino soars.— News from the Lab (@FSLabs) June 13, 2016Acknowledgement:Thanks to Will Metcalf (Emerging Threats/Proofpoint) who made the replay of SadClowns' malvertising possible. Thanks to EKWatcher and Malc0de for their help on several points.Read More :XXX is Angler EK - 2015-12-21Russian hacker gang arrested over $25m theft - 2016-06-02 - BBC NewsNeutrino EK and CryptXXX - 2016-06-08 - ISCSansLurk Banker Trojan: Exclusively for Russia - 2016-06-10 - Securelist - KasperskyHow we helped to catch one of the most dangerous gangs of financial cybercriminals - 2016-08-30 - SecureList

CVE-2016-4117 (Flash up to and Exploit Kits

Saturday September 3rd, 2016 09:19:31 AM
Discovered being exploited in the wild by FireEye [1] on May 8, 2016, patched 4 days later with Flash, CVE-2016-4117 is making its way to Exploit Kits.Magnitude :CVE confirmed by FireEye - Thanks !On 2016-05-21 Magnitude is firing an exploit to Flash up to firing exploit to Flash - 2016-05-21For now i did not get exploitation in the different pass i tried but in the Flash exploit we can see some quite explicit imports : import com.adobe.tvsdk.mediacore.timeline.operations.DeleteRangeTimelineOperation;Magnitude Flash Exploit showing import of the DeleteRangeTimelineOperationSpotted sample :  f5cea58952ff30e9bd2a935f5843d15952b4cf85cdd1ad5d01c8de2000c48b0aFiddler sent here.Updates to come as it appears to be a work in progress.Neutrino :2016-05-23Spotted by Eset.2016-05-23 Neutrino successfully exploit CVE-2016-4117 on Flash and drop here CryptXXXSample in that pass : 30984accbf40f0920675f6ba0b6daf2a3b6d32c751fd6d673bddead2413170e8Fiddler sent here (Password is malware)Out of topic payload: 110891e2b7b992e238d4afbaa31e165a6e9c25de2aed442574d3993734fb5220 CryptXXXAngler EK:2016-05-23CVE identification by Henri Nurmi from F-Secure. Thanks !Angler EK successfully exploit Flash on 2016-05-23 dropping DridexSample in that pass : 310528e97a26f3fee05baea69230f8b619481ac53c2325da90345ae7713dcee2Fiddler sent hereOut of topic payload  : 99a6f5674b738591588416390f22dedd8dac9cf5aa14d0959208b0087b718902Most likely Dridex 123 targeting Germany based on distribution path.Sundown :  [3]2016-08-27Sample in that pass : cf6be39135d8663be5241229e0f6651f9195a7434202067616ae00712a4e34e6 Fiddler sent here  (password : malware)Read More:[1] CVE-2016-4117: Flash Zero-Day Exploited in the Wild - 2016-05-13 - Genwei Jiang - FireEye[2] New Flash Vulnerability CVE-2016-4117 Shares Similarities With Older Pawn Storm Exploit - 2016-05-13 - Moony Li - TrendMicro[3] Sundown EK – Stealing Its Way to the Top - 2016-09-02 - Spiderlabs

U-Admin (Universal Admin): A Phishing(Web&Android)/Grabber/ATS/Token kit

Tuesday May 17th, 2016 09:43:21 AM
Fallout Vault Boy maskThe goal of the post is to open-source data on a kit that has been seen live impersonating bank portal. This is mostly Raw data, few part only will be "google translated".On September 2015 the 16th,  an advert about a multipurpose kit appeared underground :------------------------------------------By: [Redacted]Subject : Инжекты | Админки | Фейки, -50% от рыночных цен -Доброе время суток всем.Рад предоставить свои услуги по разработке следующих проектов:Инжекты;Grabers 80-150$*;Pasive ATS 500-800$*;Active ATS 800-1500$*;Tooken Panels 400-800$*;Replacers 200-400$*;И многое другое...Фейки;Простые клоны 70-150$*;Продвинутые с перехватом 200-500$*;Админки на пхп;Под любые нужды ...*данные цены служат ориентиром. Реальная цена будет зависеть от каждого техзадания индивидуальноJabber( [Redacted] )ICQ( 6[Redacted]8 )------------------------------------------Google Translated as :------------------------------------------By: [Redacted]Subject: Inject | admin area | Fakes, -50% of the market price -Good time of day to all.I am glad to provide services for the development of the following projects:Inject;Grabers 80-150 $ *;Pasive ATS 500-800 $ *;Active ATS 800-1500 $ *;Tooken Panels 400-800 $ *;Replacers 200-400 $ *;And much more...fakes;Simple clones 70-150 $ *;Advanced interception $ 200-500 *;Admin Center on php;Under any needs ...* These prices are a guide. The actual price will depend on each individual ToRsJabber ([Redacted] @ (6[Redacted]8)------------------------------------------NB : The Subject became later :--Инжекты | Админки | Фейки | Android Инжекты, -50% от рыночных цен --Inject | admin area | fakes | Inject Android, 50% of the market price ---Seller later added :------------------------------------------Последее время очень мнoго вопросов по поводу как работает перехват на скам странице. Решил детально описать процес чтобы изначально не вводить клиентов в заблуждение.В самом начале надо понять что такое "СКАМ СТАНИЦА"."СКАМ СТРАНИЦА"- это копия реальной странички логина в банк ,которая находится на нашем сервере с похожем на банк доменом. Все детали вводимые на ней будут лететь к нам.Далее уже на выбор, или дание идут на емайл, или на специально сделанную админку.Тоесть суть замута такова:жертва попадает на нашу страницу ->вводит данные->потом наша страница кидает жертву обратно на оригинал ->и мы поже ипользуем данные сами чтобы войти..| Это самый примитивный пример , на самом деле все чуток сложнее и зависит от фантазии заказа .Дальше надо понять что такое "ПЕРЕХВАТ"."ПЕРЕХВАТ" - eто вид обмана, очень часто ипользуетса в инжектах. Само название говорит за себя.Инжект перехватывает дание в рельном времени и присылает нам . В это время жертва как обычно ждет с гиф на экране,а вы заходите вместо него.| Зачем это надо?Затем что если для перевода вам требуется дополнительно второй пароль/смс/тукен то можно это запросить ,пока жертва ждёт, через специально сделанные команды в админке.Основной бенефит что это можно делать повторно ,много раз.|| Перехват на скам страничке работать точно также . Жертвa вводить дание и ждет пока мы его спросим то что нам надо.|Поэтапно:Преставим себе что есть банк где на вход надо UserName и Password . На активацию перевода по IBAN надо нoмер с тукен-прибора (Pin1) и для переводa надо ввести номер в тукен-прибор и тукен-прибор даст нам номер обратно (Pin2)Теперь преставим себе что у нас есть скам странница на этот банк , которая будет отсылать нам получение даные для входа и потом покажет заставку жертве с просьбой подождать. Мы находимся на другом конце в админке и наблюдаем такую катину .Краткое пособие по админке."I'am Online"- показывает находится ли оператор в админке , если "Off-line" то все жертвы будут перенаправлены обратно на оригинал страницу.Колонка "Keys" это есть полученные детали для входа.Колонка "Pin" это для получених тукенов/пинов .Колонка "Task" для добавленья операции по запросу тукена/пинов .Колонка "Redirect" показывает релле редиректа конкретной жертвы . Если поставить "On" то жертва будет перенапрвлена на оригинал сразу.| *Если жертва мегает красним то это значит что жертва какраз ждет от вас комадуИ так , на даном этапе у нас есть логины для входа , и ждущий человвек на нашей странице .Входим, идем на активацию IBAN . Там нас спрашивает Pin1/Tooken1 .Мы идем обратно на админку и нажимаем запрос операции. У нас откроется окно с выбором операций .Нажимаем на "ask Pin1" и жертва видит вот это:Дальше все просто. Жертва вводить "pin1" и он приходит к нам на админку . А жертва в это время снова видит пред собой заставку "подождите" .Если пин подошол, идем на перевод и такимже способом просим "pin2". Важно понимать что это все можно повторять много раз и после неверного пина можно снова его запросить .Если залив ушол , ставим "Redirect" на "On" и юсер уходит на оригинал. Или в продвинутых системах можно показать ему техроботы и попросить зайти попоже.Вот и все!**Все тексты на английском по админке написаны с ошибками , я это знаю ).Делал очень быстро . Никак не дойдут руки сделать до конца ------------------------------------------On march 2016 the 9th :------------------------------------------доброе время суток всем.С великой радостью рад предложить свои услуги по разработке инжектов под мобильные устройства для многих публичных андроид ботов .Цены зависят от тех заданий .Пример роботы на один из UK линков можно посмотреть тут [REDACTED]pass:demoWith great joy, I am pleased to offer its services on developing injects for mobile devices for many public android bots.The prices depend on those jobs.An example of one of the injects on the UK link can be found here [REDACTED]pass:demo------------------------------------------Files mirrored here. (pass: demo)On march 2016 the 16th:------------------------------------------Ladie's and Gentlemen's.Don't miss out some fresh and well-designed mobile injects for UK.9 common links.Hight % success task.------------------------------------------On march 2016 the 31st:------------------------------------------Доброе время суток всем.Последним временем много клиентов задают одни и те же вопросы связаны с видео o работе перехвата на Нидерланды.Я решил более детально описать систему работы и поставить ее где-то в общедоступном месте.Прежде всего пару строчек хотел бы написать o админ панели. Oна называется Universal Admin. называется она не просто так Универсал,у нее реализована возможность поддерживать много разных проектов таких как: Tooken intercept,Text manager,Log parser,Drop manager и многое другое.[2 images here...not available at dump time]Не обращайте внимания на разные цвета и стили на Скринах ,стили меняются тоже прямо с админки.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Tо есть админ панель одна а плагинов под нее может быть много.Hа видео Вы видели эту админку с плагином Tooken intercept + Text manager.Text manager-это менеджер текстовых блоков и название кнопок, которые будут автоматически вставляется в вашы страницы,инжекты и фишинг сраницы.[1 images here...not available at dump time]Все что надо сделать для работы это создать текстовый блок с определенным ID ,потом на вашей странице создать элемент с этим же ID ивставить одну функцию в конец документа.Для примера: У вас есть инжект в котором есть определенная Легенда запроса дополнительной информации.Чтобы изменить эту Легенду вам как минимум надо разбираться в HTML и как максимум пересобирать конфигурацию бота.С помощью текстового менеджера в моей админке все что вам надо это поменять текст в определенном блоке и нажать сохранить.Tooken intercept- это собственно то о чем мы будем сейчас говорить.Не важно каким способом Вы стараетесь обмануть жертву (Injec ,phishing page) цель является добытие определенного пакета информации .Для примера скажем у вас есть Paypal Phishing page с помощью которой вы добывайте username и пароль. эти данные отсылаются куда-то наадминку в нашем случае это Universal Admin.Username и пароль это и есть тот самый пакет информации который после отправки формы сохраняются у вас ,а кокретно вот тут[1 image here...not available at dump time]Использовать эту информацию можно по-разному в зависимости от вашего проекта.Одним из методов использования этой информации является перехват(intercept) ,то есть использовать информацию в реальном времени прямо сейчас.Вы перехватили username и пароль и вместо жертвы попадаете на ак ,пока жертва ждет думая что страница грузится.В случае с PayPal использования перехвата не совсем обязательно, так как полученные пакет информации а именно username и пароль Выможете использовать и через неделю. Но в связи с тем что последнее время много контор используют One Time password(Tooken),которые действительны только 30 секунд, обойтись без Tooken interstep нереально. Tooken intercept дает вам возможность использовать тот самый пароль(tooken) на протяжении 30 секунд пока жертва ждет загрузки следующей страницы. Возьмем тот же PayPal. Скажем вы получили только что username и пароль, зашли внутрь, и на главной странице вам выскочила рамочка гдеговорится что для подтверждения вашей личности на ваш мобильный телефон был отправлен SMS с коротким кодом(Tooken) код который надо вести тam же в рамочкe.Код который был отправлен на мобильный телефон жертвы!!! жертва которая на данный момент находится на вашей странице(Phishing Inject)!!!там где только что она(жертва) ввела username и пароль, username и пароль те что пришли к вам на админку и те что вы использовали для тогочтобы зайти на тот самый аккаунт где вам выскочила рамочка!! В стандартных методах это называется запал и етот пакет информации можно выбросить. можно сделать такую же рамочку после логин этападля всех юзеров на нашей пишем фишинг или инжекте, но проблема в том что это рамочка показывается не всем и не всегда и если жертвена телефон ничего не приходило то он туда ничего никогда не ведет.Я думаю всем понятно что здесь нужна динамическая страница с дистанционным управлением. То есть вы должны принимать решения показыватьрамочку данной жертве или не показывать.Именно это и есть основа.Страница которая присоединена к нашей админке может меняться исходя из команд которые вы задаете в админке.Команд может быть много, но для этого в определенном месте в админке для каждой жертвы eсть список команд, которые можнозадать для данной страницы на которой он(жертвa) находится.[1 image here...not available at dump time]в нашем примитивном пример из PayPal в списке операции должнa присутствовать кнопка "показать рамочку".Если вы зашли на аккаунт с только что полученными данными и у вас выкидывает эту рамочку вы нажимаете кнопку "показать рамочку" для данной жертвой.И у нее на экране покажет такую же рамочку.Tooken, который будет введён в эту рамочку прилетит к вам на админ туда же где лежат username и пароль от этой жертвы.Думаю здесь все понятно.Единственное что хотел бы подчеркнуть то что жертва в любой момент может закрыть страницу закрыть компьютер вырубить сеть.В таком случае связь страницы с админкой теряется и задавать команды для данной страницы не имеет смысла.Для этого в нашей админке есть Tracker онлайн статуса который позволяет нам следить находится ли жертва онлайн или нет. [1 image here...not available at dump time]Теперь структура Tooken intercept админки.Первая страница это главная страница где показана текучка всех посетителей(жертв) ваших инжектов и фишингов.Напротив каждого посетителя есть кнопка O-Panel при нажатии на которую вы попадаете уже на индивидуальную панель операций для данного посетителя.[1 image here...not available at dump time] Именно здесь и находится список операций.Именно здесь крупным планом видно онлайн статус. Прошу заметить что онлайн статусов бывает 3(ONLINE, OFFLINE и WAITING).WAITING статус светится красным и светится только тогда когда жертва ждет операции от вас ,то есть только что вам был отправленпакет информации и страница ждет дальнейших инструкций!.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Также жертва с этим статусом мигает красным и на главной странице что поднимает их в таблице вверх. Окей давайте теперь возьмем реальный пример Phishing страницы скажем одного из нидерландских банков. тут реализованные как PCтак и мобильная версия.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Вы делаете рассылку на email и линки могут открываться на мобильном. в основном 50% так и происходит.Скажем кто-то(жертвa) переходит на Линк в вашем email и попадает на нашу страницу. Вы об этом узнаете сразу через Jabber Alert,в котором будет говориться про нового посетителя.Самое время открыть Universal панель. там вы увидите Новую колонку с информацией про посетителя а Конкретно его айпи ширина экрана и многое другое[1 image here...not available at dump time]с минуты на минуту к нам прилетят логины, их можно ждать как на главной так и на O-Panel.после того как Вы получили логины, Посетитель уходит в режим ожидания. об этом Вам будут говорить красные мигающие панели, она экранe у жертвы будет примерно такое[1 image here...not available at dump time]Что делать вам с полученным пакетом Логинов Решать только Вам. Но если у вас, находясь внутри в аккаунте, попросят ввести tooken, пароль, SMS пароль то самое время вернуться на O-Panel и нажать соответствующую команду. Команда которая приведет к тому что страница на которой находится жертва покажет ему запрос того что вам надо.[1 image here...not available at dump time]После того как жертва ввела в форму Tooken ,она снова уходит в режим ожидания, и Вы снова должны определиться что делать и какую команду ему дать. И так до бесконечности или пока жертва не Закроет страницу. Но если все-таки это надоест вам то у васесть два варианта распрощаться жертвой. это поставить блок [1 image here...not available at dump time]или перенаправить его на оригинал страницу.[1 image here...not available at dump time]При работе с одним посетителем могут стучать другие новые.Это будет отвлекать и все новые посетители будут ждать. чтобы этого избежать на главной странице есть ричашки которые контролируютрегистрацию новых посетителей и переадресацию старых поголовно. Если поставить регистрацию OFF ,то в админке только будут работать Те кто уже Там есть, все новые будут попадать на оригинал страницы контор.A если поставить редирект всех ,то все посетители(жертвы) кто есть в админке будут перенаправлены на свои оригинальные страницы поголовно.Это надо делать когда вы собрались к примеру уходить.------------------------------------------On april 2016 the 4th:------------------------------------------увжаемые друзьяновые инжекты под Андроид------------------------------------------On april 2016 the 11th:------------------------------------------Продается Пак инжектов под андроид для сбора карт.WhatsUpFacebookInstagramViberSkaypGooglePlayPrice:450$user posted imageОбезательно посмотрите видео. В инжектах реализованы Responsive & animations приемы.[Redacted]pass:1qaz------------------------------------------File mirrored here (pass : 1qaz)On april 2016 the 12th:------------------------------------------Pack of Injects for Columbia banks for sale.Credit cards colectors with admin panel on https domen.bancofalabellarbmcolombiacolpatriabancolombiabbvanetbancodeoccidentebancodebogotabancopichinchaPrice:800$[3 images here...not available at dump time]Video: [Redacted]Pass:columbia ------------------------------------------File mirrored here  (pass: columbia)On april 2016 the 14th:------------------------------------------Pack of Injects for Canada banks for sale.Credit cards colectors with admin panel on https domen.TdCibcBmoDesjRbcPrice:500$[3 images here...not available at dump time]Video: [Redacted]Pass:canada ------------------------------------------File mirrored here (pass: canada)On april 2016 the 18th:------------------------------------------Недавно вышел апдейт на U-admin(Universal Admin).Теперь все более соответствует написанному выше описанием.Админ панель теперь имеют специальную директорию под plugins, и все плагины в этой директории автоматически прописывается в админке.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Например, вы приобрели U-admin а потом "Log parser Plugin". Для этого вам просто надо поставить папку Log parser в плагин директорию в админке.Также был разработан VNC плагин который дает возможность коннектится к вашему botnet API с запросом на соединение по VNC/SOCKS для определенного бота.Этот плагин является дополнением к "Tooken Intercept" плагина про который я писал вам выше. Если вы используете "Tooken Intercept" с инжектороми в вашем боте есть в VNC, и в админке вашего Бота есть API управление VNC то при наличии VLC plugin в U-admin возможно сделать запрос на соединение по vnc или socks с ботом.Как правило это делается автоматически при самом первом соединение с инжектоm,то есть когда жертва заходит на страницу перехвата.В связи с этим была слегка переделана O-Panel где в команды была добавлена новая опция проверки статуса VNC/SOCKS соединение.[1 image here...not available at dump time]Куда ,как вы видите, при успешном соединении выводятся данные на VNC/SOCKS------------------------------------------File Tree from some components :Folder PATH listingUADMIN_|   cp.php|   head.php|   index.php|   login.php|   session.php|  +---files|   |   animate.css|   |   bootbox.min.js|   |   bootstrap-notify.min.js|   |   bootstrap-social.css|   |   hover-min.css|   |   index.php|   |   jquery-ui.css|   |   jquery-ui.min.js|   |   jquery.js|   |   my.css|   |  |   +---bootstrap|   |   +---css|   |   |       bootstrap-theme.css|   |   ||   |   |       bootstrap-theme.min.css|   |   ||   |   |       bootstrap.css|   |   ||   |   |       bootstrap.min.css|   |   ||   |   |      |   |   +---fonts|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.eot|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.svg|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.ttf|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff|   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff2|   |   |      |   |   +---js|   |   |       bootstrap.js|   |   |       bootstrap.min.js|   |   |       npm.js|   |   |      |   |   \---switch|   |           bootstrap-switch.min.css|   |           bootstrap-switch.min.js|   |          |   +---dt|   |       dataTables.bootstrap.min.css|   |       dataTables.bootstrap.min.js|   |       jquery.dataTables.min.js|   |      |   \---images|           ui-icons_444444_256x240.png|           ui-icons_555555_256x240.png|           ui-icons_777620_256x240.png|           ui-icons_777777_256x240.png|           ui-icons_cc0000_256x240.png|           ui-icons_ffffff_256x240.png|          +---opt|       geo_switch.txt|       index.php|       theme.txt|      +---plugins|   +---intercept|   |   |   bc.php|   |   |   class.jabber.php|   |   |   dynamic__part.php|   |   |   functions.php|   |   |   gate.php|   |   |   head.php|   |   |   index.php|   |   |   main.php|   |   |   panel.php|   |   |   text.php|   |   |  |   |   +---ajax|   |   |       cp_ajax.php|   |   |       index.php|   |   |      |   |   +---files|   |   |   |   animate.css|   |   |   |   bootbox.min.js|   |   |   |   bootstrap-notify.min.js|   |   |   |   bootstrap-social.css|   |   |   |   hover-min.css|   |   |   |   index.php|   |   |   |   jquery-ui.css|   |   |   |   jquery-ui.min.js|   |   |   |   jquery.js|   |   |   |   my.css|   |   |   |  |   |   |   +---bootstrap|   |   |   |   +---css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.css|   |   |   |   ||   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.min.css|   |   |   |   ||   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.css|   |   |   |   ||   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.min.css|   |   |   |   ||   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   +---fonts|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.eot|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.svg|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.ttf|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff2|   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   +---js|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.js|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.min.js|   |   |   |   |       npm.js|   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   \---switch|   |   |   |           bootstrap-switch.min.css|   |   |   |           bootstrap-switch.min.js|   |   |   |          |   |   |   +---dt|   |   |   |       dataTables.bootstrap.min.css|   |   |   |       dataTables.bootstrap.min.js|   |   |   |       jquery.dataTables.min.js|   |   |   |      |   |   |   \---images|   |   |           ui-icons_444444_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_555555_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_777620_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_777777_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_cc0000_256x240.png|   |   |           ui-icons_ffffff_256x240.png|   |   |          |   |   \---public|   |           .ht.db|   |           index.php|   |           Removed.txt|   |          |   +---log_parser|   |   |   functions.php|   |   |   gate.php|   |   |   head.php|   |   |   index.php|   |   |   main.php|   |   |  |   |   +---ajax|   |   |       server_side.php|   |   |       ssp.class.php|   |   |      |   |   +---classes|   |   |       browser.php|   |   |      |   |   +---files|   |   |   |   animate.css|   |   |   |   bootbox.min.js|   |   |   |   bootstrap-notify.min.js|   |   |   |   bootstrap-social.css|   |   |   |   hover-min.css|   |   |   |   jquery-ui.min.js|   |   |   |   jquery.js|   |   |   |   my.css|   |   |   |  |   |   |   +---bootstrap|   |   |   |   +---css|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.css|   |   |   |   ||   |   |   |   |       bootstrap-theme.min.css|   |   |   |   ||   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.css|   |   |   |   ||   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.min.css|   |   |   |   ||   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   +---fonts|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.eot|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.svg|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.ttf|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff|   |   |   |   |       glyphicons-halflings-regular.woff2|   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   +---js|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.js|   |   |   |   |       bootstrap.min.js|   |   |   |   |       npm.js|   |   |   |   |      |   |   |   |   \---switch|   |   |   |           bootstrap-switch.min.css|   |   |   |           bootstrap-switch.min.js|   |   |   |          |   |   |   \---dt|   |   |           dataTables.bootstrap.min.css|   |   |           dataTables.bootstrap.min.js|   |   |           jquery.dataTables.min.js|   |   |          |   |   \---public|   |           .htBd.db|   |           geo_switch.txt|   |           index.php|   |           theme.txt|   |          |   +---settings|   |   |   functions.php|   |   |   index.php|   |   |   main.php|   |   |  |   |   \---public|   |           cfg.php|   |           index.php|   |          |   +---style|   |   |   functions.php|   |   |   index.php|   |   |   main.php|   |   |  |   |   \---public|   |           index.php|   |          |   \---text|       |   functions.php|       |   main.php|       |   text.php|       |  |       \---public|               index.php|               texts.txt|              \---scrNote: If you are interested by the [Redacted] part please send a mail

Bedep has raised its game vs Bot Zombies

Sunday January 21st, 2018 10:39:22 PM
Simulacra & Simulation - Jean BaudrillardFeatured in MatrixBedep could be described as a fileless loader with a resident module that can optionally perform AdFraud. It's intimate to Angler EK and appeared around August 2014. On the 2016-03-24 I noticed several move in Bedep. Angler infecting a VM and integrating it into an instance of Bedep botnet2016-03-24No more variable in the URI (as several month before), the protocol Key changed and in most of my manual checks, all threads were sending a strange payload in the first stream.2ko size for Win7 64bits :80eb8a6aba5e6e70fb6c4032242e9ae82ce305d656b4ed8b629b24e1df0aef9aPopup shown by the first payload from Bedep Stream - Win7(in the background Angler Landing)48ko size for WinXP 32bits:a0fe4139133ddb62e6db8608696ecdaf5ea6ca79b5e049371a93a83cbcc8e780Popup shown by the first payload from Bedep Stream - WinXPLooking at my traffic I thought for some time that one of the Bedep instances was split in two.Then I understood that I got different result on my "manually" driven VM (on VMWare ESXi) and my automated Cuckoo driven one ( on VirtualBox). I suspected it was related to hardening, as this is one of the main difference between those two systems.And I got confirmation. Here is an example on a GooNky ([1] [2] [3]) malvertising traffic in Australia :A VM not hardened enough against Bedep got redirected to a "decoy" instance of Bedep that i will refer as :Bedep "Robot Town" - 2016-04-12Now look what i get instead with a VM that is not spotted as is:Same Angler thread - VM not detected. 1st Stream get Vawtrak2016-04-12( Vawtrak in that stream   d24674f2f9879ee9cec3eeb49185d4ea6bf555d150b4e840407051192eda1d61 )I am not skilled enough to give you the list of checks Bedep is doing. But here is one of them spotted by Cuckoo :Bedep doing some ACPI checksI think there are multiple level of checks. Some resulting in Bedep not trying to contact the C&C, some where the positive check end up with a different seed for the Bedep DGA redirecting spotted machines in a dedicated instance. This is quite powerful :- the checks are made without dropping an executable. - if you don't know what to expect it's quite difficult to figure out that you have been trapped- there is a lot of things that operators can do with this list of known bots and initial Bedep thread ID. One of them is for instance knowing which of the infection path are researcher/bots "highway" :Illustration for Bedep "Robot Town" from an "infection path" focused point of viewThis could be just a move to perform different tasks (AdFraud only (?) ) on VMs, but my guess it that this Bedep evolution on 2016-03-24 is a fast reaction to this Proofpoint Blog from 2016-03-18 which  show how Bedep threads are additional connectable dots. Sharing publicly is often a difficult decision. The question is which side will benefits the most from it, in the long time.For researchers:In the last 3 weeks, if your VM have communicated with : (which is a Bedep ip from end of 2015 reused) || (  && http.uri.path  "ads.php?sid=1901" ) and you are interested by the "real payload" then you might want to give PAfish a run.Marvin - Paranoid AndroidOn the other hand, any of your VM which has communicated with (Bedep "standard" 18xx 19xx instance)  since the 24 of March is hardened enough to grab the real payload.[Edits]- Removed the AU focused mention on the Vawtrak. I have been told (Thanks ! ) it's US focused. Got geo Glitched. Maybe more about that a day or the other.- Refine the check conditions for Researcher. IP and sid=1901...otherwise...ok :)[/Edits]Acknowledgements :Thanks Will Metcalf and Malc0de for the discussions and help on this topic--I'm sorry, but I must do it...Greetings to Angler and Bedep guys. 😉 You are keeping us busy...and awake !Reading :Video Malvertising Bringing New Risks to High-Profile Sites - 2016-03-18 - ProofpointBedep’s DGA: Trading Foreign Exchange for Malware Domains - 2015-04-21 - Dennis Schwarz - ArborSertAngler EK : now capable of "fileless" infection (memory malware) - 2014-08-30Modifying VirtualBox settings for malware analysis - 2012-08-23  - Mikael Keri

CVE-2016-1019 (Flash up to and Exploit Kits

Thursday May 5th, 2016 06:01:55 AM
Spotted in a "degraded" version on the 2016-04-02 in Magnitude, live also since 2016-03-31 in Nuclear Pack, Adobe was really fast at fixing  this vulnerability with the patch released on the 2016-04-07 bringing Flash Player to version's not the first time a "0day" exploit is being used in a "degraded" state.This happened before with Angler and CVE-2015-0310 and CVE-2014-8439You'll find more details about the finding on that Proofpoint blog here :"Killing a zero-day in the egg: Adobe CVE-2016-1019"and on that FireEye blog here:CVE-2016-1019: A new flash exploit included in Magnitude Exploit KitNote : we worked with Eset, Kaspersky and Microsoft as well on this case.Nuclear Pack :2016-03-31 "Degraded"Identification by  Eset, Kaspersky and FireEye (Thanks)Exploit sent to Flash Player by Nuclear Pack on the 2016-03-31CVE-2016-1019 insideSample in that pass:  301f163644a525155d5e8fe643b07dceac19014620a362d6db4dded65d9cad90Out of topic example of payload dropped that day by that instance of Nuclear : 42904b23cff35cc3b87045f21f82ba8b (locky)Note the string "CVE-2016-1001" in the Nuclear Pack, explaining why maybe this exploit is being used in a degraded state.CVE-2016-1001 string spotted by Denis O'Brien (Malwageddon), the 2016-04-05 in Nuclear Pack exploitMagnitude :2016-04-02 "Degraded" to as is by FireEye[2016-04-07: TrendMicro told me they found some hits for this exploit in Magnitude back from 2016-03-31 as well]Magnitude exploiting Flash with CVE-2016-1019 the 2016-04-02 in the morning.Payload is Cerber.Side note : the check on the redirector in front of Magnitude ( ) which might have been fixed with the CVE-2015-2413 was in Magnitude landing itself from September to end of November 2015.res:// onload check features unobfuscated at that time in Magnitude Landing 2015-09-29Sample in that pass: 0a664526d00493d711ee93662a693eb724ffece3cd68c85df75e1b6757febde5Out of topic payload: 9d92fb315830ba69162bb7c39c45b219cb8399dd4e2ca00a1e21a5457f92fb3c Cerber RansomwareNote: I got successful pass with Windows 8.1 and Flash as well and Windows 10 build 1511 (feb 2016) via Flash on Internet Explorer 11. Edge seems not being served a landing.Neutrino:2016-04-11 - "degraded" as well it seems. (at least didn't got it to work on Flash 21.x)CVE id by @binjo and Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky)Neutrino successfully exploit Flash with CVE-2016-10192016-04-11Fiddler : Sent to vtOut of topic payload: 83de3f72cc44215539a23d1408c140ae325b05f77f2528dbad375e975c18b82e Reading :Killing a zero day in the egg : CVE-2016-1019 - 2016-04-07 - ProofpointCVE-2016-1019: A new flash exploit included in Magnitude Exploit Kit - 2016-04-07 -  Genwei Jiang - FireEyeZero-Day Attack Discovered in Magnitude Exploit Kit Targeting CVE-2016-1019 in Older Versions of Adobe Flash Player - 2016-04-07 - Peter Pi, Brooks Li and Joseph C. Chen - TrendMicro

CVE-2016-1001 (Flash up to and Exploit Kits

Monday April 4th, 2016 11:05:56 PM
Two weeks after Flash patch,  two months after last Flash exploit integration in Angler, on the 2016-03-25 Angler EK, in some threads, is starting to send an exploit to Flash Player and tried multiple configuration but I was not able to get exploited. The following day I got successful infections with Flash and EK :2016-03-25The CVE here has been identificated as CVE-2016-1001 by Eset and Kaspersky (Thanks)2016-03-26 - Angler EK successfully exploiting Flash in Internet Explorer 11 on Windows 7Fiddler sent to VT here.Hash of the associated SWF fwiw : b609ece7b9f4977bed792421b33b15daObserved as well : ab24d05f731caa4c87055af050f26917 - c4c59f454e53f1e45858e95e25f64d07NB : this is just "one" pass.  Angler EK can be used to spread whatever its customers want to spread .Selected examples I saw in the last 4 days : Teslacrypt (ID 20, 40,52, 74 ,47) , Locky (affid 14 - 7f2b678398a93cac285312354ce7d2b7  and affid 11 - f417b107339b79a49e4e63e116e84a32), GootKit b9bec4a5811c6aff6001efa357f1f99c, Vawtrak  0dc4d5370bc4b0c8333b9512d686946cRamnit 99f21ba5b02b3085c683ea831d79dc79Gozi ISFB (DGA nasa) 11d515c2a2135ca00398b88eebbf9299BandarChor, (several instances, ex f97395004053aa28cadc6d4dc7fc0464 - 3c9b5868b4121a2d48b980a81dda8569 )Graybird/LatentBot f985b38f5e8bd1dfb3767cfea89ca776Dridex - b0f34f62f49b9c40e2558c1fa17523b5 (this one was 10 days ago..but worth a mention)Andromeda (several instances)and obviously many Bedep threads and their stream of PE (evotob, reactorbot (several instances), Tofsee, Teslacrypt,Kovter, Miuref)Edit 1: 2016-03-29 -  I was mentioning 2016-1010 as a candidate but it's not. Modified with the correct CVE ID provided by Eset and Kaspersky..

CVE-2016-0034 (Silverlight up to 5.1.41105.0) and Exploit Kits

Tuesday March 29th, 2016 06:39:36 PM
Fixed with the January 2016 Microsoft patches, CVE-2016-0034  ( MS16-006 ) is a Silverlight Memory Corruption vulnerability and it has been spotted by Kaspersky with rules to hunt Vitaliy Toropov’s unknown Silverlight exploit mentioned in HackingTeam leak.Angler EK :On the 2016-02-18 the landing of Angler changed slightly to integrate this piece of code :Silverlight integration Snipet from Angler Landing after decoding2016-02-18resulting in a new call if silverlight is installed on the computer:Angler EK replying without body to silverlight callHere a Pass in great britain dropping Vawtrak via Bedep buildid 77862016-02-18I tried all instances i could find and the same behavior occured on all.2016-02-22 Here we go : call are not empty anymore.Angler EK dropping  Teslacrypt via silverlight  5.1.41105.0 after the "EITest" redirect 2016-02-22I made a pass with Silverlight : 5.1.41212.0 : safe.Edit1 : I received confirmation that it's indeed CVE-2016-0034 from multiple analyst including Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky). Thanks !Xap file : 01ce22f87227f869b7978dc5fe625e16Dll : 22a9f342eb367ea9b00508adb738d858Out of topic payload : 6a01421a9bd82f02051ce6a4ea4e2edc (Teslacrypt)Fiddler sent hereRIG : 2016-03-29Malc0de spotted modification in the Rig landing indicating integration of Silverlight Exploit.Here is a pass where the Silverlight is being fired and successfully exploited. CVE identification by : Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky)RIG - CVE-2016-0034 - 2016-03-29Xap file in that pass :  acb74c05a1b0f97cc1a45661ea72a67a080b77f8eb9849ca440037a077461f6bcontaining this dll : e535cf04335e92587f640432d4ec3838b4605cd7e3864cfba2db94baae060415( Out of topic payload : Qbot 3242561cc9bb3e131e0738078e2e44886df307035f3be0bd3defbbc631e34c80 )Files : Fiddler and sample (password is malware)Reading :The Mysterious Case of CVE-2016-0034: the hunt for a Microsoft Silverlight 0-day - 2016-01-13 - Costin Raiu & Anton Ivanov - KasperskyPost Publication Reading:(PDF) Analysis of Angler's new silverlight Exploit - 2016-03-10 - Bitdefender Labs

Cryptowall son of Borracho (Flimrans) ?

Wednesday February 10th, 2016 10:13:10 PM
Lately I received multiple questions about connection between Reveton and Cryptowall.I decided to have a look.A search in ET Intelligence portal at domains from Yonathan's Cryptowall TrackerET Intelligence search on Specspa .comshow that the first sample ET has talking with it is :e2f4bb542ea47e8928be877bb442df1b  2013-10-20A look at the http connexion shows the "us.bin" call mentioned by Yonathan (btw the us.bin item is still live there)ET Intelligence  : e2f4bb542ea47e8928be877bb442df1b http connexionsET Intelligence : Associated alert pointing at Cryptowall.A look into VirusTotal Intelligence shows that this sample is available in a Pcap captured and shared by ThreatGlass :NSFW://www.threatglass .com/malicious_urls/sunporno-comHiman EK dropping Cryptowall 2013-10-20captured by ThreatGlassWith the same referer and in the same Exploit Kit i got dropped 20 days earlier Flimrans :(See : )Flimrans disappeared soon after this post from 2013-10-08 about the affiliate : Flimrans is showing in US the same Design from Reveton pointed by Yonathan :Flimrans US 2013-10-03What is worth mentioning is that Flimrans was the only ransomware (i am aware of) to show a Spanish version of this same design :Flimrans ES 2013-10-03The timeline is also inline with a link between those two Ransomware (whereas Reveton was still being distributed months after these events).Digging into my notes/fiddlers i even found that this bworldonline .com which is still hosting the us.bin was in fact also the redirector to HiMan dropping Flimrans 20 days earlier from same sunporno upper.[The credits goes to Eoin Miller who at that time pointed that infection path allowing me to replay it]The compromised server storing the first design Blob used by cryptowallused to redirect 20 days earlier to Himan dropping Flimrans (which is using that same design).So...Cryptowall son of Borracho? I don't know for sure...but that could to be a possibility.Files : Items mentionned here. (password is malware)Read More:HiMan Exploit Kit. Say Hi to one more - 2013-10-02Flimrans Affiliate : Borracho - 2013-10-08

CVE-2015-8651 (Flash up to and Exploit Kits

Thursday April 7th, 2016 12:08:26 PM
While other exploit kit are struggling to keep up with Angler (none is firing CVE-2015-8446 , maybe because of the Diffie-Hellman protection on Angler's exploits ),- Nuclear / Magnitude and Neutrino last exploits are from October (CVE-2015-7645)- RIG and Sundown are relying on July exploits (Hacking Team's one - CVE-2015-5122)( all have the IE CVE-2015-2419 from august)Angler has just integrated CVE-2015-8651 patched with Flash on 2015-12-28Angler EK : 2016-01-25The exploit might be here since the 22 based on some headers modification which appeared that day.It's not yet pushed in all Angler EK threads but widely spread.Thanks Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky) for CVE Identification !CVE-2015-8651 (and CVE-2015-2419) being successfully exploited by Angler EK to load bedep in memory2016-01-25Fiddler sent to VT.---Another pass via the "noisy" Cryptowall "crypt13x" actor which threads also has it :CVE-2015-8651 being successfully exploited by Angler EK to load Cryptowall  (crypt13001)from the widely spread and covered "crypt13x" actor thread - 2016-01-25(Out of Topic payload : 5866906a303b387b9918a8d7f8b08a51 Cryptowall crypt13001 )I have been told by Eset that the exploit is successful on Flash and Firefox.---I spotted a thread serving a landing and an exploit to Firefox.2016-03-23 Firefox pass with Sandbox escape :Angler EK exploiting CVE-2015-8651 on Firefox 33.1.1 and Flash successfully wrote its payload on the drive.2016-03-23Files : Fiddler in a zip (password malware)Neutrino :Thanks Eset for identifying the added CVE here.Neutrino Exploiting CVE-2015-8651 on 2016-02-09Here Bunitu droppedNote: For some reason couldn't have it working with Flash : Fiddler here (password is malware)Nuclear Pack:Thanks again Eset for CVE identification here.Nuclear Pack exploit CVE-2015-8651 on 2016-02-10Out of topic payload: cdb0447019fecad3a949dd248d7ae30f which is a loader for CloudScout (topflix .info - which we can find in RIG as well those days)It seems Chrome won't save you if you do let it update.2016-02-17 on DE/US/FR trafficThis is not something i can reproduce.Is what i get with Chrome 46.0.2490.71 and its builtin (which should fast update itself to last version)Files : Fiddler here (password: malware)Magnitude:2016-02-18CVE ID confirmed by Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky)Magnitude dropping Cryptowall via CVE-2015-86512016-02-18Files : Fiddler here (Password is malware)RIG :Some days before 2016-04-06Thanks FireEye for CVE identification.CVE-2015-8651 successfuly exploited by RIG on 2016-04-07Sample in that pass: 4888cc96a390e2970015c9c1d0206011a6fd8e452063863e5e054b3776deae02( Out of topic payload: 30cb7ed7a67eb08fa2845990b7270d64d51e769d6e0dad4f9c2b8e7551bced0a Probably Godzilla downloader)Files : RIG_2016-04-07 (swf, payload and Fiddler - password is malware)Read More:(GoogleTranslate - via @eromang ) Offshore "Dark Hotel" organization of domestic business executives launched APT attacks - 2015-12-31 - ThreatBookPost publication reading :An Analysis on the Principle of CVE-2015-8651 - Antiy Labs - 2016-01-26

XXX is Angler EK

Tuesday August 30th, 2016 02:06:14 PM
Snipshot of MonterAV AffiliateAs I got many questions about an EK named XXX (that is said to be better than Angler 😉 ) I decided to share some data here.XXX Control Panel Login Page.XXX is Angler EK ( it's the real name of its most documented instance at least)Angler EK / XXX  IE sploit only Stats on 2015-07-25(for some reason Flash Exploits were not activated on that thread)Note the Chase Logo >> JPMorgan  >>  Cool EK's Exploit Buyer ;)You might want to read "The Transition - "Reveton Team" or "Mr.J/Monster AV" from :Paunch's arrest...The end of an Era ! (2013-10-11) . This is where I first wrote the defense chosen name for this Exploit Kit. The name is chosen after a logo from the Reveton Affiliate.Snipshot of "The Transition" after Paunch's ArrestBut Angler was around before the Reveton team started to use it.Here is one used against Ukrainian that i captured  in August 20132013-08-27 - Exploit Kit unknown to me at that timeAncestor of Angler EK as we know it[Payload here is most probably Lurk]when Reveton Team was still on Cool EK. It appears that instance had already Fileless capabilities.A Russian researcher friend connect that instance back to this Securelist post from 2012-03-16 : A unique ‘bodiless’ bot attacks news site visitorsSo the (c) 2010 at the bottom of the control panel is probably...the real birth year of Angler.This indexm.html variant of Angler EK is most probably still being used in RU/UA and was one of the early adopter of CVE-2015-0311 (a flash 0day from January) before many "standard" instances of Angler. There was still java exploit inside in march2015-01-27 - Angler EK "indexm" exploiting CVE-2015-2551 and firing Java exploits[Payload here is most probably Lurk]Angler EK has been briefly mentioned (translation here ) as part of a "partnerka" by a user using Menatep as Nickname in February 2014Conclusion : xxx is what we call Angler EK and Angler EK (indexm instance) is not that young!Files : 2 Fiddler pass of Angler EK "indexm" from 2013 and 2015 (Password : malware)Read More :Police Locker land on Android Devices - 2014-05-04Paunch's arrest...The end of an Era ! - 2013-10-11Crimeware Author Funds Exploit Buying Spree - 2013-01-07 - KrebsOnSecurityCool Exploit Kit - A new Browser Exploit Pack on the Battlefield with a "Duqu" like font drop - 2012-10-09A unique ‘bodiless’ bot attacks news site visitors - 2012-03-16 - Sergey Golovanov - SecurelistPost publication Reading :Russian hacker gang arrested over $25m theft - 2016-06-02 - BBC News [Cf Lurk]Is it the End of Angler ? - 2016-06-11How we helped to catch one of the most dangerous gangs of financial cybercriminals - 2016-08-30 - SecureList

CVE-2015-8446 (Flash up to And Exploit Kits

Wednesday January 27th, 2016 03:27:21 AM
One week after patch Flash is being exploited by Angler EK via CVE-2015-8446Angler EK :2015-12-14CVE identification by Anton Ivanov ( Kaspersky ) and FireEye  (Thanks !)Angler EK exploiting Flash via CVE-2015-84462015-12-14Sample in that pass : b5920eef8a3e193e0fc492c603a30aafSample from other Angler EK instance : 0615fb9e037b7bf717cc9b04708e51da 720089b93a0f2bb2a72f1166430de522Fiddler sent to VT.(Not replayable. You know how to contact me to land on live instances. I might not reply to mail coming from gmail,live,yahoo etc...  mailboxes)Out of topic : in that pass Bedep BuildID 5004 is loaded in Memory and is then grabbing those 2 dll in a streamf5c1a676166fe3472e6c993faee42b34d65f155381d26f8ddfa304c83b1ad95a (Credential Stealer)and after that performing AdfraudCVE-2015-8446 in Angler EK - malicious mp3 is stored in encrypted JSON (same schema as in CVE-2015-5560).— Anton Ivanov (@antonivanovm) December 17, 2015 Last safe version of Flash against commercial exploit kit  was fixing CVE-2015-7645Post publication readings :(Google Translate) Angler EK latest CVE-2015-8446 Flash Exploit analysis - 2015-12-19 - Qihoo360

Nuclear Pack loads a fileless CVE-2014-4113 Exploit

Monday June 27th, 2016 08:23:00 AM
Yesterday's Nymaim spam campaign was also redirecting to Nuclear Pack.Without big surprise the sample ( 592899e0eb3c06fb9fda59d03e4b5b53 ) dropped by Nuclear is the same as the fake update proposed.But there was an additionnal 11kb payload call for which i could not find sample on driveNuclear Pack dropping Nymaim in the 2015-11-30 Spam CampaignIt was also unusually encoded with two XOR pass and first part of the decoded stream is a Shellcode.Friends (who don't want to be mentioned) figured a privilege escalation was in use there :According to Kaspersky and Timo Hirvonen (F-Secure) it's CVE-2014-4113 ( Win32k.sys Elevation of Privilege Vulnerability )I did not got to see the privilege escalation in live condition.Note: it's not the first time a public Exploit Kit is integrating an exploit to escalates right on dropped payload (Cf CVE-2015-2426 in Magnitude )Files : Fiddler and Dll here (password is malware - XOR key : 56774347426F664767  then  213404052d09212031)Thanks : Kaspersky,  Timo Hirvonen , Malc0de and 2 other friends for taking some time and use their wizardness  on this.Read More :An Analysis of A Windows Kernel-Mode Vulnerability (CVE-2014-4113) - 2014-10-29 - TrendMicro

Inside Jahoo (Otlard.A ?) - A spam Botnet

Tuesday December 29th, 2015 05:48:11 PM
Trash and Mailbox by Bethesda SoftworksOtlard.A (or let's say at least the malware triggering 2806902 || ETPRO TROJAN Win32.Otlard.A C&C Checkin response )  is a Spam BotnetI saw it loaded as a plugin in an instance of AndromedaThat Andromeda is being spread via :Bedep build id 6005 and here 6007 from an Angler EK fed by Malvertising :VirtualDonna group redirecting traffic to an Angler instance loading Bedep buildid 6007 in memoryBedep 6007 loading Andromeda 55ead0e4010c7c1a601511286f879e33 before update task.2015-09-28Note : Bedep 6007 was sometimes loading it with other payload-2015-09-16 for : ec5d314fc392765d065ff16f21722008 with Trapwot (FakeAV) e600985d6797dec2f7388e86ae3e82ba and Pony a4f08c845cc8e2beae0d157a3624b686-2015-09-29 for : 37898c10a350651add962831daa4fffa with Kovter ( 24143f110e7492c3d040b2ec0cdfa3d0 )That Andromeda beaconing to dnswow .com enslaved >10k bots in a week :Andromeda dnswow 2015-11-22Andromeda dnswow 2015-11-27Here the Otlard.A task in that Andromeda instance :Task installing Otlard.A as a plugin to Andromedaa Task in a Smokebot dropped by Nuclear Pack fed by Malvertising :Malvertising > Nuclear Pack > Smokebot > Stealer, Ramnit, Htbot and Andromeda > Otlard.A2015-11-28Smokebot : cde587187622d5f23e50b1f5b6c86969Andromeda : b75f4834770fe64da63e42b8c90c6fcd(out of topic Ramnit : 28ceafaef592986e4914bfa3f4c7f5c0 - It's being massively spread those days in many infection path. (Edit 2015-12-29 :  Htbot.B :  d0a14abe51a61c727420765f72de843a named ProxyBack by PaloAlto)Now here is what the control panel of that plugin looks like :Otlard.A panel :Otlard.A - JahooManager - Main - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooManager - Servers - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooManager - Settings - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooManager - Campaigns - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooManager - Bot - 2015-09-27that exe is : 2387fb927e6d9d6c027b4ba23d8c3073 and appears to be AndromedaOtlard.A - JahooSender - Tasks - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooSender - Tasks - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Tasks - Done Task - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooSender - Domains - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooSender - Domains - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - 2015-09-27Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - Edit a Message - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - Edit a Message - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Messages - Edit a Message - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Headers - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Headers - Editing Header - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Headers - Editing Header - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Macross - Editing macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender  - Macross - Editing macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Macross - Editing macross - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Attach - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Attach - Attached image - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Rules - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - JahooSender - Rules > Spam - 2015-11-28Olard.A - JahooSender - Rules > User - 2015-11-28Olard.A - Bases - Emails - 2015-11-28Olard.A - Bases - Blacklist - 2015-11-28Olard.A - Bases - Blacklist - Edit - 2015-11-28Olard.A - Botnet - Main - 2015-09-27Olard.A - Botnet - Main - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - Botnet - Modules - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - Botnet - Modules - Edit - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - Incubator - Accounts - 2015-11-28Otlard.A - Incubator - Settings - 2015-11-28Note : registrator menu has disappeared in last version. --Andromeda C&C 2015-11-28 : | | LLHOST | EU | | LLHost IncSpam Module C&C 2015-11-28 : | | LLHOST | EU | | LLHost IncThanks : Brett StoneGross for helping me with decoding/understanding the network communicationsFiles :All samples which hashes have been discussed here are in that zip.Jahoo - socker.dll : 7d14c9edfd71d2b76dd18e3681fec798( If you want to look into this, i can provide associated network traffic)Read More :Inside Andromeda Bot v2.06 Webpanel / AKA Gamarue - Botnet Control Panel 2012-07-02Inside Pony 1.7 / Fareit C&C - Botnet Control Panel - 2012-06-27Inside Smoke Bot - Botnet Control Panel - 2012-04-28Post publication Reading :ProxyBack Malware Turns User Systems Into Proxies Without Consent - 2015-12-23 - JeffWhite - PaloAlto

CVE-2015-7645 (Flash up to and Exploit Kits

Saturday March 12th, 2016 12:09:34 PM
The CVE-2015-7645 has been fixed with Adobe Flash Player Spotted in the wild (2015-10-13) in APT28's exploit kit by TrendMicro, this exploit was already reported 2 weeks before (2015-09-29) to Adobe by Natalie Silvanovich.I reported the Flash 0-day (CVE-2015-7645) two weeks before it was found in the wild— Natalie Silvanovich (@natashenka) 16 Octobre 2015 It has now made its way to Exploit KitAngler EK :2015-10-29CVE id confirmed by by Anton Ivanov ( Kaspersky )Angler EK successfully exploiting Flash sample in that pass : 4af57fb1c71bb9c1599371d48240ff36Another sample : bea824974f958ac4efc58484a88a9c18One more from the Poweliks instance : 0d72221d41eff55dcfd0da50cd1c545eNot replayable fiddler sent to VTOut of topic sample loaded by bedep :5a60925ea3cc52c264b837e6f2ee915e Necursa9d5a9a997954f5421c94ac89d2656cd Vawtrak ( < that one was not expected in that infection path)2016-03-12Edge is now being served a landing and the flash being sent is targeting this CVE according to Kaspersky and EsetAngler EK exploiting Flash on Windows 10 (build 10240) through EdgeFiddler : AnglerEK_Edge_18.0.0.209_2016-03-11.zipNuclear Pack:2015-10-30Nuclear Pack which has been playing with landing URI pattern lately has integrated itCVE-2015-7645 in Nuclear Pack on 2015-10-30Sample in that pass : f5dd2623ae871d58483bf14ec5d635e4Out of topic payload : 0b3de2a8d838883e10a1d824d20fe95c Kelihos Loader (harsh02)Fiddler sent to VTMagnitude:2015-11-10Magnitude trying to exploit CVE-2015-76452015-11-10Spotted sample : 21993dd3b943d935a9296aeff831cbb9 CVE id confirmed by Timo HirvonenNo payload but the actor behind that thread would like to see you Cryptowalled. Update might come.Spartan :2015-11-12Without surprise as Spartan is the work of the coder of Nuclear Pack.Note : old version of Chrome <= 43.0.257 and Firefox < 38 seems to be falling as wellSpartan pushing Pony and Alphacrypt via CVE-2015-76452015-11-12Sample in that pass : 1c074c862d3e25ec9674e6bd62965ad8  (another one: 66f34cd7ef06a78df552d18c729ae53c )(out of topic payload : Pony: 29c940f9d0805771e9c7ec8a5939fa25 ( /myadvert/autoget.php) and Cryptowall 74ebff4acc4ad9c2a2e665ff293c02e6  NB earlier today drops were Pony and Alphacrypt ) Fiddler sent to VTNeutrino:Most probably appeared 2015-10-16Necurs being dropped by Neutrino via CVE-2015-76452015-11-17Sample in that pass: 7dd9813ef635e98dd9585deaefecfcff(Out of topic payload : Necurs a83a96e87e80adef1e4598a645f2918c )Fiddler sent to VT  (You might want to read the detailed analysis by Trustave)Read More :Adobe Flash: Type Confusion in IExternalizable.writeExternal When Performing Local Serialization - 2015-09-29 - Natalie SilvanovichNew Adobe Flash Zero-Day Used in Pawn Storm Campaign Targeting Foreign Affairs Ministries - 2015-10-13 - Feike Hacquebord - Brooks Li - Peter Pi - TrendMicroLatest Flash Exploit Used in Pawn Storm Circumvents Mitigation Techniques - 2015-10-16 - Peter Pi - TrendMicroPost Publication Reading :Neutrino Exploit Kit – One Flash File to Rule Them All - 2015-12-28 - Daniel Chechik and Anat Davidi - Spiderlabs/Trustwave

A DoubleClick https open redirect used in some malvertising chain

Saturday January 16th, 2016 04:05:15 PM
In the post on the UK focused Shifu I illustrated malvertising traffic to Angler.The traffer group behind this activity is the same exposed by BelchSpeak from Invincea in many tweets (explaining the addition of code to spot Invincea Sandbox)  FoxIT in june,  Malwarebytes in September,  or Trendmicro 2 weeks ago.As it's easier to have a name to share/talk  about stuff i'll use "VirtualDonna Traffers" to refer to them (virtualdonna .com is one of the domains they used that got some attention)Earlier this year they were using https,2015-07-11 - as https url shortenertiny url2015-07-11 - tiny url as https url shorteneror url shortener2015-06-12 - as https url shorterner and switched to their own https redirector behind cloudflare around the middle of September ( naotsandhap.euTwo pass here : same source (Dailymotion), same country (Australia), same Traffer for same customer (how/why? same payload : Reactorbot  srvdexpress3 .com)Different Legit part of the chain2015-09-29then 2 weeks ago and )https gives the traffer the ability to kill the referer chain (making it more difficult to figure out where the Exploit Kit landing spotted in the traffic is coming from).Once discovered a way to Sig this is to flag the ssl certificate being used.Those days they are using a DoubleClick https open redirect.VirtualDonna Traffers exploiting an https open redirect by Doubleclick in its chain to Angler EKGB - 2015-10-15Out of topic Payload in that pass : Shifu - 695d6fbd8ab789979a97fb886101c576 beaconing to nyctradersacademy .comDoubleclick has been informed about the issue.Post Publication Readings :The shadow knows: Malvertising campaigns use domain shadowing to pull in Angler EK - 2015-12-15 - ProofpointLet’s Encrypt Now Being Abused By Malvertisers - 2016-01-06 - TrendMicro

Shifu <3 Great Britain

Monday February 29th, 2016 08:29:24 AM
I noticed since several days a shift in malware distribution in the UK.Many infection path that I follow are now dropping a banker that i already saw many times, especially at the end of 2014 and mostly in Italy.First time I encountered that threat : 2014-10-08Angler EK dropping 165146e43ccee9c29b62693caf290df7 in an IT focused infection path2014-10-08At that time I learnt from Frank Ruiz ( FoxIT ) that he spotted it 1 month earlier (2014-09-03 exactly). We were using a "non public" name to talk about it.So two days ago in UK traffic :2015-09-22 - An Angler EK dropping  0598ee3e06c681d7f9e05d83bb7ea422 via malvertising on GBR trafficI saw that banking trojan again. (note : contacted,  Frank Ruiz told me that this banker activity never really stopped). What was new to me is that it was installing Apache,Apache folder installed by 0598ee3e06c681d7f9e05d83bb7ea422 2015-09-22Apache ConfigData folder of the Apache installationCustomers of 4 financial institutions are targeted by the injects stored in the config.xmlconfig.xmlThe same day i saw it again, other malvertising campaign (read: other actor bringing the traffic) and not dropped directly but as a 2nd Stage in a bedep thread which was not grabbing an adfraud module:Angler EK pushing bedep grabbing 791491ba9f0a7670659f45f1e5421c83 2015-09-22Seeing it again today in malvertising campaign focused on UK, I decided to write about that and contacted Brett StoneGross (Dell SecureWorks) to try and get the 'defense name' for this. He told me that what I was describing was probably Shifu ..and fast confirmed it looking at the sample. (Edit reaction to twitter : He also told me that Shifu is based on Shiz)So here we are: Shifu <3 GBRShifu <3 GBR2015-09-24Side note : Here are some of the DGA in case main domain stop working.Files : Password : malwareContains : 4 fiddler, 1 pcap, 6 samples and 2 apache config folder (with injects).Thanks: Frank Ruiz (Foxit) and Brett StoneGross (Dell SecureWorks) for their inputs/insight/awesomeness.Read More:Shifu: ‘Masterful’ New Banking Trojan Is Attacking 14 Japanese Banks - 2015-08-31 - Limor Kessem - IBM X-ForceJapanese Banking Trojan Shifu Combines Malware Tools - 2015-09-24 - Diwakar Dinkar - McAfeePost publication Reading:3,000 High-Profile Japanese Sites Hit By Massive Malvertising Campaign  2015-09-30 - Trenmicro

CVE-2015-5560 (Flash up to and Exploit Kits

Tuesday January 12th, 2016 06:06:14 PM
Patched with flash version, CVE-2015-5560 is now being exploited by Angler EK.Angler EK :2015-08-29[Edit : 2015-09-01] Exploit candidated by by Anton Ivanov ( Kaspersky ) as CVE-2015-5560 [/edit]The exploit has been added the 28th. It's not being sent to Flash uses the same Diffie-Hellman Key Exchange technique described by FireEye as in their CVE-2015-2419 implementation making a default fiddler unreplayable.Angler EK pushing Bedep to Win7 IE11 Flash - CVE-2015-55602015-08-29Sample in that pass : 9fbb043f63bb965a48582aa522cb1fd0Fiddler sent to VT (password is malware)Note: with help from G Data, a replayable fiddler is available. No public share (you know how to get it).Nuclear Pack :2015-09-10Additional post spotted on the 2015-09-10Nuclear Pack additionnal post on 2015-09-10 showing integration of CVE-2015-5560 was on the roadand got a first payload  the day after :Nuclear Pack successfully exploiting Flash with CVE-2015-5560 (rip from Angler)2015-09-11( Out of topic payload : 91b76aaf6f7b93c667f685a86a7d68de  Smokebot C&C  hostnamessimply1.effers .com: )Files : Fiddler here (Password is malware)Read More :Adobe Flash: Overflow in ID3 Tag Parsing - 2015-06-12 Google Security ResearchThree bypasses and a fix for one of Flash's Vector.<*> mitigations - 2015-08-19 - Chris Evans - Google Project ZeroCVE-2015-2419 – Internet Explorer Double-Free in Angler EK  - 2015-08-10 - FireEyeBedep’s DGA: Trading Foreign Exchange for Malware Domains - 2015-04-21 - Dennis Schartz - Arbor SertPost publication reading :Attacking Diffie-Hellman protocol implementation in the Angler Exploit Kit - 2015-09-08 KasperskyAnalysis of Adobe Flash Player ID3 Tag Parsing Integer Overflow Vulnerability (CVE-2015-5560) - 2016-01-12 - Nahuel Riva - CoreSecurity

CVE-2015-2419 (Internet Explorer) and Exploits Kits

Wednesday July 6th, 2016 10:00:12 AM
As published by FireEye Angler EK is now exploiting CVE-2015-2419 fixed with MS15-065Angler EK :2015-08-10It seems they might have started to work on that exploit as early as 2015-07-24 where some instances briefly used code to gather ScriptEngineVersion from redirected visitors :Angler EK gathering ScriptEngineVersion data the fast way.2015-07-24Today first pass i made was showing a new POST call and was successfully exploiting a VM that used to be safe to Angler.CVE-2015-2419 successfully exploiting IE11 in windows 72015-08-10(Here bedep grabbing Pony and TeslaCrypt then doing some AdFraud)I spent (too much 😉 ) time trying to decode that b value in the POST reply.Here are some materials :- The landing after first pass of decoding and with some comments : post call is handled by String['prototype']['jjd'] , ggg is sent to Post data as well as the ScriptEngineVersion (in the shared pass : 17728 )- The l() function handling the post : The post data and reply after first pass of decoding : : 2 Fiddlers (ScriptEngineVersion Gathering and successfull pass - use malware as password)Thanks :Horgh_RCE for his helpMagnitude :2015-08-22( I am waiting for some strong confirmation on CVE-2015-2426 used as PrivEsc only here )Magnitude successfully exploiting CVE-2015-2419 to push an elevated (CVE-2015-2426) Cryptowall on IE11 in Win72015-08-22As you can see the CVE-2015-2419 is a RIP of Angler EK's implementation (even containing their XTea key, despite payload is in clear)Note : The CVE-2015-2426 seems to be used for privilege escalation onlyCryptowall dropped by Magnitude executed as NT Authority\system after CVE-2015-24262015-08-23and has been associated to flash Exploit as well.Pass showing the privilege escalation has been associated to flash Exploit as well.2015-08-23Files : CVE-2015-2419 pass (password: malware)CVE-2015-5122 pass featuring CVE-2015-2426 (password : malware)Thanks :Horgh_RCE , EKWatcher and Will Metcalf for their helpNuclear Pack:2015-08-23Nuclear Pack exploiting IE11 in Win7 with CVE-2015-2419 to push TeslaCrypt2015-08-23Files :  Fiddler (Password is malware)Neutrino :CVE Identification by Timo HirvonenNeutrino successfully exploiting CVE-2015-2419 on IE11 in Windows 72015-08-27(Out of topic payload : c7692ccd9e9984e23003bef3097f7746  Betabot)Files: Fiddler (Password is malware)RIG:2015-08-27RIG successfully exploiting CVE-2015-24192015-08-27(Out of topic payload : fe942226ea57054f1af01f2e78a2d306 Kelihos (kilo601)Files : Fiddler (password is malware)Hunter :2015-08-27@hunter_exploit 2015-08-26As spotted by Proofpoint Hunter EK has integrated CVE-2015-2419Hunter Exploit Kit successfully exploiting CVE-2015-24192015-08-27Files : Fiddler (password is malware)Kaixin :2016-01-08Files: Fiddler here (password is malware)( out of topic Payload : bb1fff88c3b86baa29176642dc5f278d firing PCRat/Gh0st ET rule 2016922 )Sundown :2016-07-06 - Thanks  Anton Ivanov (Kaspersky) for confirmationSundown successfully Exploiting CVE-2015-2419 - 2016-07-06cmd into wscript into Neutrino-ish named / RC4ed Payload let think this is a Rip from Neutrino implementation( Out of topic payload: bcb80b5925ead246729ca423b7dfb635 is a Netwire Rat )Files : Sundown_CVE-2015-2419_2016-07-06 (password is malware)Read More :Hunter Exploit Kit Targets Brazilian Banking Customers - 2015-08-27 - ProofpointCVE-2015-2419 – Internet Explorer Double-Free in Angler EK - 2015-08-10 - Sudeep Singh, Dan Caselden - FireEye2015-08-10 - ANGLER EK FROM SENDS BEDEP This pass shared by Brad from Malware-Traffic-Analysis is including the CVE-2015-2419Generic bypass of next-gen intrusion / threat / breach detection systems - 2015-06-05 - Zoltan Balazs - EffitasPost publication Reading :Attacking Diffie-Hellman protocol implementation in the Angler Exploit Kit - 2015-09-08 Kaspersky

CVE-2015-1671 (silverlight up to 5.1.30514.0) and Exploit Kits

Tuesday September 1st, 2015 07:32:11 AM
Patched with ms15-044 CVE-2015-1671 is described as TrueType Font Parsing Vulnerability.Silverlight up to 5.1.30514.0 are affected, but note : most browser will warn that the plugin is outdatedOut of date Plugin protection in Chrome 39.0.2171.71Out of date ActiveX controls blocking in Internet Explorer 11(introduced in August 2014)and also consider that Microsoft announced the end of Silverlight at beginning of the month.Angler EK :2015-07-21Around the 1st of July some new Silverlight focused code appeared in Angler EK landing.It even seems coders made some debug or something wrong as you could see this kind of popup several hours long on Angler EK.Deofuscated snipet of Silverlight call exposed to Victims in Angler EK2015-07-02I failed trying to get something else than a 0 size silverlight calls.I heard about filled calls from Eset and EKWatcher.The exploit sent was 3fff76bfe2084c454be64be7adff2b87  and appears to be a variation of CVE-2015-1671 (Silverlight 5 before 5.1.40416.00).  I spent hours trying to get a full exploit chain....No luck. Only 0size calls.But, it seems it's back today (or i get more lucky ? ) :--Disclaimer : many indicators are whispering it's the same variation of CVE-2015-1671, but I am still waiting for a strong confirmation--Silverlight 5.1.30514.0 exploited by Angler EK via CVE-2015-1671 in IE 11 on Windows 72015-07-21Silverlight 5.1_10411.0 exploited by Angler EK via CVE-2015-1671 in Chrome 39 on Windows 72015-07-21Silverlight 5.1.30514.0 exploited by Angler EK via CVE-2015-1671 in Firefox 38 on Windows 72015-07-21Two x86 - x64 dll are encoded in the payload stream with XTea Key : m0boo69biBjSmd3pSilverlight dll in DotPeek after Do4dotSample in those pass : ac05e093930662a2a2f4605f7afc52f2(Out of topic payload is bedep which then gather an adfraud module - you have the XTea key if you want to extract)Files: Fiddler (password is malware)[Edit : 2015-07-26, has been spread to all Angler Threads]Thanks for help/tips :Eset, Microsoft, Horgh_RCE,  Darien Huss, Will Metcalf, EKWatcher.Magnitude :2015-07-28  has been spotted by Will Metcalf in MagnitudeIt's a rip of Angler's oneSilverlight 5.1.30514.0 exploited by Magnitude2015-08-29Files: Fiddler (password is malware)Read more :CVE-2013-0074/3896 (Silverlight) integrates Exploit Kits - 2013-11-13

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